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An evaluation of the effects of Llei de Barris
on the health and wellbeing of neighbours
in Barcelona
Roshanak Mehdipanah
Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
The Llei de Barris (Neighbourhood Law)
Goal: to improve the physical, economic and social status of deprived
neighbourhoods.
• The initiative consists of partial funding
(approximately 50%) from the regional
government to selected municipal
governments with urban renewal proposals.
• 148 neighbourhoods across Catalonia
have participated in the initiative with
approximately 2billion euros invested.
City of Barcelona:
• 12 of 73 neighbourhoods have
participated.
• 10% of Barcelona’s population
(1.6million) directly affected.
EQUIPMENT
INSTALLATION
PUBLIC SPACES
REGENERATION
SOCIAL PROGRAMS
SOCIAL
INTEGRATION
POPULATION TURNOVER
- Gentrification
- Segregation
HEALTHY
RESIDENTS
&
HEALTHY
NEIGHBOURHOOD
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: HEALTH EFFECTS OF “LLEI DE BARRIS”
L
A
W
O
F
N
E
I
G
H
B
O
U
R
H
O
O
D
S
NEW TECHNOLOGY
GREEN
SUSTAINABILITY
GENDER EQUALITY
EMPLOYMENT IN
NEIGHBOURHOODS
HEALTH IN
NEIGHBOURHOODS
ECONOMIC
GROWTH
PHYSICAL
INFRASTRUCTURAL
IMPROVEMENTS
SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
LIVEABILITY
- Traffic Safety
- Walkability
- Physical activity opportunities
- Accessibility
- Safety/Security perception
- Improved job skills
- Education advancement
- Gender equality
- Social cohesion
Part 1
• Using concept mapping we worked with neighbours in 3 intervened neighbourhoods in
Barcelona (Roquetes and Santa Caterina) to uncover some of the changes that had occured in
recent years throughout the neighbourhood that had affected their well-being.
Part 2
• Using the Barcelona Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011), we studied the possible effects of
the Llei de Barris on self-rated health and mental health status of neighbours living in five
intervened neighbourhoods while comparing the results to neighbours living in eigh non-
intervenened neighbourhoods with similar socio-economic status.
Part 3
• Using all of our findings, we will propose a knowledge development evaluation paper to discuss
further the different possible mechanisms of how the intervention affected health outcomes for
specific populations.
Study Overview
Part 1
• Using concept mapping we worked with neighbours in 3 intervened neighbourhoods in
Barcelona (Roquetes and Santa Caterina) to uncover some of the changes that had occured in
recent years throughout the neighbourhood that had affected their well-being.
Part 2
• Using the Barcelona Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011), we studied the possible effects of
the Llei de Barris on self-rated health and mental health status of neighbours living in five
intervened neighbourhoods while comparing the results to neighbours living in eigh non-
intervenened neighbourhoods with similar socio-economic status.
Results presented
Mehdipanah, R., Malmusi, D., Muntaner, C., and Borrell, C. (2013) An evaluation of an
urban renewal program and its effects on neighborhood residents' overall wellbeing using
concept mapping. Health & Place. In press.
Mehdipanah, R., Rodríguez-Sanz, M., Malmusi, D., Muntaner, C., Palència, L., Bartoll, X.
and Borrell, C. (2013) Evaluación cuasi-experimental de los efectos de la Ley de Barrios
sobre la salud percibida y mental en barrios desfavorecidos de Barcelona. Communication
to the Latin-American Congress of Epidemiology and Public Health.
Part 1. Concept Mapping
• Concept Mapping is a non-traditional qualitative approach developed in the
late 80s by William M. K. Trochim as a management tool in organization and
later adapted for public health.
• The method provides a conceptual framework that depicts how a group or a
population perceives a particular situation.
• Neighbours were asked a focus question to generate statements that were
later structured and rated in order to create the cluster maps.
Focus question:
• “One change that has occurred in my neighbourhood that has affected
mine and my family’s well-being is…”
Rating questions:
• “Please rate each change in function of its importance for you and
your family”
• “Please state whether the effect of this change has been positive or
negative on your overall well-being.”
Concept Mapping: Participants
Santa Caterina Roquetes
Senior Centre Group
(n=12)
Youth Centre Group
(n=19)
Community Centre Group
(n=14)
GENDER
Female 50.0% 26.3% 85.7%
Male 50.0% 73.7% 14.3%
AGE
18-34 - 100% -
35-49 - - 28.6%
50-64 41.7% - 42.8%
65+ 58.3% - 28.6%
EMPLOYMENT
STATUS
Employed 8.3% 36.8% 35.7%
Unemployed 8.3% 15.8% 7.1%
House-worker 16.7% - 42.9%
Student - 36.8% -
Retired 66.7% - 14.3%
SOCIAL POSITION
Manual 8.3% 52.6% 57.1%
Non-manual 66.7% - 7.1%
RECOGNITION OF
LLEI DE BARRIS
Yes 50.0% 42.1% 64.3%
No 50.0% 57.9% 35.7%
Inclusion criteria: Neighbours who have lived within the neighbourhood for more than 5 years
(18 years or older).
Three groups were recruited via established networks within 2 neighbourhoods with
completed interventions prior to 2011 (Santa Caterina and Roquetes) (Total N=45)
Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps
Cluster Layer
Layer Value
1 2.99 to 3.22
2 3.22 to 3.44
3 3.44 to 3.67
4 3.67 to 3.89
5 3.89 to 4.12
Decrease of economic activity
Abandoned areas
Sense of insecurity
Accessibility by car
Cleaning and repair of streets
Neighbourhood
relations
Reform of buildings
and plazas
Public events and spaces
Community and senior centers
POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE
URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by
participants in the Santa Caterina senior group
We were able to divide our maps in two sections, clusters that dealt with population
and social change and clusters that were related to urban renewal projects. The red and
orange represent >80% and >60% of participants respectively that indicated the
statements within the cluster as negative. On the other hand, the dark and light green
represent >80% and >60% of participants indicating a positive effect respectively. The
thickness of the cluster indicates the importance as stated in the legend.
Reform of buildings
and plazas
Cluster: Reform of buildings and plazas
Mean
importance
% Positive
The installation of elevators in some residential buildings. 4.29 100%
The replacement of sheds for new apartments. 4 79%
The improved liveability throughout the neighbourhood. 3.86 67%
The reform of the Community Center – Sant Agustí 3.71 100%
The repair of some building facades. 3.71 100%
The reurbanization of sidewalks and streets. 3.71 88%
The reform and re-opening of the Santa Caterina market. 3.57 96%
The reform of plazas throughout the neighbourhood. 3.29 100%
The reform of the central plaza, Pou de la Figuera. 2.71 63%
The replacement of old benches with new single-person benches. 2.29 50%
AVERAGE 3.51
MEDIAN 3.71
Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps
(Highlighted statements are those that formed part of the Neighbourhood Law projects).
Table. Statements within the cluster “reform of buildings and plazas” with corresponding importance values
Cluster Layer
Layer Value
1 2.90 to 3.10
2 3.10 to 3.30
3 3.30 to 3.50
4 3.50 to 3.70
5 3.70 to 3.90
Neighbourhood image
Sense of
insecurity
Immigrants
Neighbourhood
relations
Police relations
Resources, activities
and courses
Public space
POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE
URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by
participants in the Santa Caterina youth group
Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps
Both of the Santa Caterina groups had similar clusters across the maps, however some of
the effects of the changes were rated differently by the youth. An example was the
increased police surveillance, which the senior group perceived as positive while the
majority of the youth group considered it as negative for their well-being.
Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by
participants in the Roquetes community group
Cluster Layer
Layer Value
1 3.15 to 3.42
2 3.42 to 3.69
3 3.69 to 3.96
4 3.96 to 4.23
5 4.23 to 4.50
Renewal of public
and private spaces Construction of public spaces
Repair of
public spaces
Activities and events
Employment
activities
Decrease in economic activity
Transportation
Planted trees
Vandalism and sense of insecurity
Community Center Group – Roquetes
POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE
URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps
In the Roquetes group, the yellow describes a neutral effect where the cluster contains
both positive statements like the arrival of the metro and negative statements like the
traffic in the main street.
Conclusions from Concept Mapping
• The majority of projects within the Neighbourhood Law were perceived as having
both positive and important effects on the well-being of participants.
• The division in the map indicating urban renewal changes and those of population
and social change correspond with the proposed conceptual framework.
• The study also highlights the importance of incorporating participants with different
characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic positions, etc.) in order to better
understand the effects of the intervention on different populations.
Part 2. Quasi-experimental Study
Preliminary results
 Pre (2001 & 2006) post (2011) using the Barcelona Health Survey
 2001 N total = 8842 (N intervened: 998 & N control: 1881)
 2006 N total = 2657 (N intervened: 274 & N control: 504)
 2011 N total = 4137 (N intervened: 398 & N control: 824)
 Dependent variables:
 “Poor” Self-rated health (fair or poor)
 “At risk” Mental health (GHQ-12 > 2)
The dependent variables were chosen based on various factors including their
availability in all the surveys and the short time period post intervention to
see the effects.
II
I
CC
C
C C
C
C
C
Control
Intervened
Map of Control and Intervened Neighbourhoods
I
I
Control neighbourhoods were selected based
on indicators from the 2001 Census.
“Poor” Self-rated Health
In women we see a significant drop in “poor”
self-rated health within intervened
neighbourhoods while no significant changes
are observed in the control neighbourhoods.
*
*
In men we see a significant drop in “poor” self-
rated health within intervened neighbourhoods
while no significant changes are observed in the
control neighbourhoods.
“At risk” Mental Health
*
*
In women we see a significant drop in “at risk”
mental health within intervened neighbourhoods
while no significant changes are observed in the
control neighbourhoods.
In men we see a significant rise in “at risk” mental
health within control neighbourhoods while no
significant changes are observed in the intervened
neighbourhoods.
“Poor” Self-rated health and Social Class
“Poor” Self-rated health in women by social class (2006 used as reference)
*
* *
Within the intervened groups, from 2001
to 2006 “poor” self rated health amongst
the manual class got worst before getting
better significantly post-intervention
(2006 to 2011). While no significant
changes occurred within the no manual
class or the control group in this post
period.
Conclusions from quantitative analysis
We present some of our preliminary findings:
• In both females and males, self-rated health improved significantly from 2006 to 2011
within the intervened group while no significant changes were observed in the control
groups.
• Within females, during the 2006 to 2011 a significant decrease of “at risk” mental
health was observed in the intervened group, while a significant increase of “at-risk”
mental health occurred within males in the control group.
• When stratified by social class position, “poor” self-rated health decreased
significantly only within women from manual class in the intervened neighbourhoods.
• These findings are aligned with our hypothesis that the Neighbourhood Law did
improve self-rated and mental health outcomes.
• Results from this analysis will be used to support potential theories of how urban
renewal programs affect the health and wellbeing of neighbours.
If you have any questions please
contact:
rmehdipa@aspb.cat

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Sophie project case study of evaluation of "Llei de barris"

  • 1. An evaluation of the effects of Llei de Barris on the health and wellbeing of neighbours in Barcelona Roshanak Mehdipanah Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
  • 2. The Llei de Barris (Neighbourhood Law) Goal: to improve the physical, economic and social status of deprived neighbourhoods. • The initiative consists of partial funding (approximately 50%) from the regional government to selected municipal governments with urban renewal proposals. • 148 neighbourhoods across Catalonia have participated in the initiative with approximately 2billion euros invested. City of Barcelona: • 12 of 73 neighbourhoods have participated. • 10% of Barcelona’s population (1.6million) directly affected.
  • 3. EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION PUBLIC SPACES REGENERATION SOCIAL PROGRAMS SOCIAL INTEGRATION POPULATION TURNOVER - Gentrification - Segregation HEALTHY RESIDENTS & HEALTHY NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: HEALTH EFFECTS OF “LLEI DE BARRIS” L A W O F N E I G H B O U R H O O D S NEW TECHNOLOGY GREEN SUSTAINABILITY GENDER EQUALITY EMPLOYMENT IN NEIGHBOURHOODS HEALTH IN NEIGHBOURHOODS ECONOMIC GROWTH PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENTS SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH LIVEABILITY - Traffic Safety - Walkability - Physical activity opportunities - Accessibility - Safety/Security perception - Improved job skills - Education advancement - Gender equality - Social cohesion
  • 4. Part 1 • Using concept mapping we worked with neighbours in 3 intervened neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Roquetes and Santa Caterina) to uncover some of the changes that had occured in recent years throughout the neighbourhood that had affected their well-being. Part 2 • Using the Barcelona Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011), we studied the possible effects of the Llei de Barris on self-rated health and mental health status of neighbours living in five intervened neighbourhoods while comparing the results to neighbours living in eigh non- intervenened neighbourhoods with similar socio-economic status. Part 3 • Using all of our findings, we will propose a knowledge development evaluation paper to discuss further the different possible mechanisms of how the intervention affected health outcomes for specific populations. Study Overview
  • 5. Part 1 • Using concept mapping we worked with neighbours in 3 intervened neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Roquetes and Santa Caterina) to uncover some of the changes that had occured in recent years throughout the neighbourhood that had affected their well-being. Part 2 • Using the Barcelona Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011), we studied the possible effects of the Llei de Barris on self-rated health and mental health status of neighbours living in five intervened neighbourhoods while comparing the results to neighbours living in eigh non- intervenened neighbourhoods with similar socio-economic status. Results presented Mehdipanah, R., Malmusi, D., Muntaner, C., and Borrell, C. (2013) An evaluation of an urban renewal program and its effects on neighborhood residents' overall wellbeing using concept mapping. Health & Place. In press. Mehdipanah, R., Rodríguez-Sanz, M., Malmusi, D., Muntaner, C., Palència, L., Bartoll, X. and Borrell, C. (2013) Evaluación cuasi-experimental de los efectos de la Ley de Barrios sobre la salud percibida y mental en barrios desfavorecidos de Barcelona. Communication to the Latin-American Congress of Epidemiology and Public Health.
  • 6. Part 1. Concept Mapping • Concept Mapping is a non-traditional qualitative approach developed in the late 80s by William M. K. Trochim as a management tool in organization and later adapted for public health. • The method provides a conceptual framework that depicts how a group or a population perceives a particular situation. • Neighbours were asked a focus question to generate statements that were later structured and rated in order to create the cluster maps. Focus question: • “One change that has occurred in my neighbourhood that has affected mine and my family’s well-being is…” Rating questions: • “Please rate each change in function of its importance for you and your family” • “Please state whether the effect of this change has been positive or negative on your overall well-being.”
  • 7. Concept Mapping: Participants Santa Caterina Roquetes Senior Centre Group (n=12) Youth Centre Group (n=19) Community Centre Group (n=14) GENDER Female 50.0% 26.3% 85.7% Male 50.0% 73.7% 14.3% AGE 18-34 - 100% - 35-49 - - 28.6% 50-64 41.7% - 42.8% 65+ 58.3% - 28.6% EMPLOYMENT STATUS Employed 8.3% 36.8% 35.7% Unemployed 8.3% 15.8% 7.1% House-worker 16.7% - 42.9% Student - 36.8% - Retired 66.7% - 14.3% SOCIAL POSITION Manual 8.3% 52.6% 57.1% Non-manual 66.7% - 7.1% RECOGNITION OF LLEI DE BARRIS Yes 50.0% 42.1% 64.3% No 50.0% 57.9% 35.7% Inclusion criteria: Neighbours who have lived within the neighbourhood for more than 5 years (18 years or older). Three groups were recruited via established networks within 2 neighbourhoods with completed interventions prior to 2011 (Santa Caterina and Roquetes) (Total N=45)
  • 8. Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps Cluster Layer Layer Value 1 2.99 to 3.22 2 3.22 to 3.44 3 3.44 to 3.67 4 3.67 to 3.89 5 3.89 to 4.12 Decrease of economic activity Abandoned areas Sense of insecurity Accessibility by car Cleaning and repair of streets Neighbourhood relations Reform of buildings and plazas Public events and spaces Community and senior centers POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by participants in the Santa Caterina senior group We were able to divide our maps in two sections, clusters that dealt with population and social change and clusters that were related to urban renewal projects. The red and orange represent >80% and >60% of participants respectively that indicated the statements within the cluster as negative. On the other hand, the dark and light green represent >80% and >60% of participants indicating a positive effect respectively. The thickness of the cluster indicates the importance as stated in the legend.
  • 9. Reform of buildings and plazas Cluster: Reform of buildings and plazas Mean importance % Positive The installation of elevators in some residential buildings. 4.29 100% The replacement of sheds for new apartments. 4 79% The improved liveability throughout the neighbourhood. 3.86 67% The reform of the Community Center – Sant Agustí 3.71 100% The repair of some building facades. 3.71 100% The reurbanization of sidewalks and streets. 3.71 88% The reform and re-opening of the Santa Caterina market. 3.57 96% The reform of plazas throughout the neighbourhood. 3.29 100% The reform of the central plaza, Pou de la Figuera. 2.71 63% The replacement of old benches with new single-person benches. 2.29 50% AVERAGE 3.51 MEDIAN 3.71 Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps (Highlighted statements are those that formed part of the Neighbourhood Law projects). Table. Statements within the cluster “reform of buildings and plazas” with corresponding importance values
  • 10. Cluster Layer Layer Value 1 2.90 to 3.10 2 3.10 to 3.30 3 3.30 to 3.50 4 3.50 to 3.70 5 3.70 to 3.90 Neighbourhood image Sense of insecurity Immigrants Neighbourhood relations Police relations Resources, activities and courses Public space POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by participants in the Santa Caterina youth group Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps Both of the Santa Caterina groups had similar clusters across the maps, however some of the effects of the changes were rated differently by the youth. An example was the increased police surveillance, which the senior group perceived as positive while the majority of the youth group considered it as negative for their well-being.
  • 11. Fig 1. Average cluster rating map of the importance of each change as perceived by participants in the Roquetes community group Cluster Layer Layer Value 1 3.15 to 3.42 2 3.42 to 3.69 3 3.69 to 3.96 4 3.96 to 4.23 5 4.23 to 4.50 Renewal of public and private spaces Construction of public spaces Repair of public spaces Activities and events Employment activities Decrease in economic activity Transportation Planted trees Vandalism and sense of insecurity Community Center Group – Roquetes POPULATION & SOCIAL CHANGE URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS Concept Mapping: Cluster Rating Maps In the Roquetes group, the yellow describes a neutral effect where the cluster contains both positive statements like the arrival of the metro and negative statements like the traffic in the main street.
  • 12. Conclusions from Concept Mapping • The majority of projects within the Neighbourhood Law were perceived as having both positive and important effects on the well-being of participants. • The division in the map indicating urban renewal changes and those of population and social change correspond with the proposed conceptual framework. • The study also highlights the importance of incorporating participants with different characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic positions, etc.) in order to better understand the effects of the intervention on different populations.
  • 13. Part 2. Quasi-experimental Study Preliminary results  Pre (2001 & 2006) post (2011) using the Barcelona Health Survey  2001 N total = 8842 (N intervened: 998 & N control: 1881)  2006 N total = 2657 (N intervened: 274 & N control: 504)  2011 N total = 4137 (N intervened: 398 & N control: 824)  Dependent variables:  “Poor” Self-rated health (fair or poor)  “At risk” Mental health (GHQ-12 > 2) The dependent variables were chosen based on various factors including their availability in all the surveys and the short time period post intervention to see the effects.
  • 14. II I CC C C C C C C Control Intervened Map of Control and Intervened Neighbourhoods I I Control neighbourhoods were selected based on indicators from the 2001 Census.
  • 15. “Poor” Self-rated Health In women we see a significant drop in “poor” self-rated health within intervened neighbourhoods while no significant changes are observed in the control neighbourhoods. * * In men we see a significant drop in “poor” self- rated health within intervened neighbourhoods while no significant changes are observed in the control neighbourhoods.
  • 16. “At risk” Mental Health * * In women we see a significant drop in “at risk” mental health within intervened neighbourhoods while no significant changes are observed in the control neighbourhoods. In men we see a significant rise in “at risk” mental health within control neighbourhoods while no significant changes are observed in the intervened neighbourhoods.
  • 17. “Poor” Self-rated health and Social Class “Poor” Self-rated health in women by social class (2006 used as reference) * * * Within the intervened groups, from 2001 to 2006 “poor” self rated health amongst the manual class got worst before getting better significantly post-intervention (2006 to 2011). While no significant changes occurred within the no manual class or the control group in this post period.
  • 18. Conclusions from quantitative analysis We present some of our preliminary findings: • In both females and males, self-rated health improved significantly from 2006 to 2011 within the intervened group while no significant changes were observed in the control groups. • Within females, during the 2006 to 2011 a significant decrease of “at risk” mental health was observed in the intervened group, while a significant increase of “at-risk” mental health occurred within males in the control group. • When stratified by social class position, “poor” self-rated health decreased significantly only within women from manual class in the intervened neighbourhoods. • These findings are aligned with our hypothesis that the Neighbourhood Law did improve self-rated and mental health outcomes. • Results from this analysis will be used to support potential theories of how urban renewal programs affect the health and wellbeing of neighbours.
  • 19. If you have any questions please contact: rmehdipa@aspb.cat

Editor's Notes

  1. Working conceptual framework