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Sookshma – Vyavaayi – Vikasi
w.s.r to
Sharangdhara Samhita and
Bhavaprakasha Samhita
PRESENTED BY
DR. MADHUBALA P GOPINATH
1ST YEAR PG SCHOLAR
DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA
GAVC, TRIVANDRUM
GUIDED BY
DR. DEEPA M.S
PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA
GAVC, TRIVANDRUM
2021
02-12-2022 1
Index
I. Sookshma
II. Vyavaayi
III. Vikasi
02-12-2022 2
Contents
S.NO CONTENTS
1 Introduction – Karma
2 Karmas acc to Sharangadhara
3 Gunas acc to Bhavapraksha
4 Sookshma – Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Applied aspects, Recent researches
5 Vyavayi – Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Examples
6 Vikashi - Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Examples
7 Applied aspects of Sookshma- Vyavaayi-Vikasi
8 Conclusion
02-12-2022 3
Introduction
KARMA
क्रियते इक्रत कर्म ।
The word karma here refers to the action.
Karma is that entity in the dravya which is responsible for samyoga
and vibhaga.
It is in samavayi relation with the dravya.
02-12-2022 4
Introduction - References
 Sookshma, Vyavayi and Vikasi are mentioned along with other
karmas in the ‘Deepanapaachanaadi adhyaya’ by
Sharangadhara (शा.सं/प्र.ख/4)
 All the three are stated under the heading of guna in the
‘Mishraka prakarana adhyaya’ of Bhavaprakasha (भा.प्र/पू.ख/प्र/6).
 Acharya Susruta in “Annapana vidhi adhyaya” (सु.सू/46/523)
and Vaghbata in “Ayushkaameeya adhyaya”(A.S) (अ.सं/सू/1)
mentions all these to be gunas.
02-12-2022 5
They are included in the dasa guna of visha and madya by the
Bruhatrayi.
Sookshma - Ability of a drug to penetrate into minute pores
Vyavayi- Ability to spread all over body before attaining paka
Vikashi – Ability to cause laxity and separates ojas from dhatus
02-12-2022 6
Karma according to Sharangadhara
1 Deepana 9 Samshodana 17 Sookshma
2 Pachana 10 Chedana 18 Vyavaayi
3 Shamana 11 Lekhana 19 Vikashi
4 Anulomana 12 Grahi 20 Madakari
5 Sramsana 13 Stambhana 21 Pramathi
6 Bhedana 14 Rasayana 22 Abhishyandi
7 Rechana 15 Vaajeekara
8 Vamana 16 Shukrala
 Under Shukrala, he has mentioned the different karmas related to shukra – shukra janaka, shukra
pravartaka, shukra rechaka, shukra stambhaka , shukra shoshaka
 Acharya has also enumerated visha gunas under the chapter.
02-12-2022 7
Guna according to Bhavaprakasha
1 Deepana 9 Samshodana 17 Vyavaayi
2 Pachana 10 Grahi 18 Vikashi
3 Shamana 11 Stambhana 19 Madakaari
4 Anulomana 12 Chedana 20 Pramathi
5 Sramsana 13 Lekhana 21 Abhishyandi
6 Bhedana 14 Vaajeekara 22 Vidaahi
7 Rechana 15 Shukrala 23 Yogavaahi
8 Vamaka 16 Rasayana
 Acharya has also enumerated visha gunas under the enumeration of gunas in the chapter.
 Sookshma is mentioned under the vimshati gunas discussed before explaining deepana
paachanaadi gunas.
02-12-2022 8
SOOKSHMA
02-12-2022 9
NIRUKTI
सूच पैशुन्ये + "सूचेेः स्मन्“ (श.क.द्रु)
Sookshma is the Sanskrit word for dormant or subtle or minute.
The word may mean to expand/ open/ unfold/ express.
Sookshma is considered as a guna among the 20 gurvaadi gunas in
Ayurveda.
As a karma, it also indicates permeability, i.e the ability to pass
through minute pores and channels. Hence minuteness is more a
pharmacological consideration than physical consideration.
02-12-2022 10
DEFINITION - Sharangadhara
देहस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु क्रिशेद्यत्सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते।
तद्यथा सैन्धिं क्षौद्रं क्रनम्बतैलं रुबूद्भिर््।। (शा.पू/4/18)
Drugs which enter the minute channels of the body are known to be
poosessing sookshma karma. Though it is mentioned under karma, it is
considered as a trait (guna) while considering the qualities of dravya.
Eg: * Saindhava
* Kshaudra
* Nimba taila
* Eranda taila
02-12-2022 11
EXAMPLES
SAINDHAVA KSHAUDRA NIMBA TAILA ERANDA TAILA
RASA Samadhuram Kashaya Madhura Tikta Kashaya Madhura Tikta Katu
GUNA Laghu, Snigdha Laghu, Rooksha Laghu Guru, Sara
VEERYA Sheeta Sheeta Na atyushnam Ushna
VIPAKA Madhura -- Katu Madhura
PRABHAVA -- -- -- --
KARMA Deepana, Rochana Lekhana,
Pramehahara
Agni vata krut,
Krimikushta kapha
pranut
Gulmahara,
Anilapittahara,
Udaranaashaka
02-12-2022 12
Commentary on definition
यत्द्द्रव्यं
देहस्य शरीरस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु रोर्क
ू प प्रभृक्रतषु क्रिशेत् प्रिेशं करोक्रत
तत् सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते।
सूक्ष्मो गुणक्रिशेषेः, स्रोतो अनुसरणशीलत्वात् ।
It can be considered as the ability of the dravya to pass through very small pores
of bio-membranes.
Thus sookshmatwa is an allowing factor and sthoolatwa becomes a limiting
factor.
02-12-2022 13
DEFINITION - Bhavaprakasha
देहस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु क्रिशेद्यत्सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते। (भा.प्र/पू.ख/प्र/6/210)
Bhavaprakasha mentions the same definition given by Sharangdhara
Samhita. The context of reference is in the description of gunas under
dravyagata padarthas.
02-12-2022 14
यस्य द्रव्यस्य क्रििरणे शक्तेः स सूक्ष्मेः। (हे. on अ.हृ/सू/1/18)
Hemadri considers the ability of the substances to open up/ pass through
penetrate/ pervade through minute channels as sookshma.
सूक्ष्मस्तु सौक्ष्म्यात् सूक्ष्मेषु स्रोतसु अनुसरेः स्मृतेः। (सु.सू.46/)
Minute substances, because of its sookshma guna follows sookshma srotas
(very small channels).
Pharmacologically, minute substances spread all over the body quickly as
they can pass through bio barriers very easily. They are likely to increase vata
as vata also posess sookshma guna.
02-12-2022 15
BHUTA PREDOMINANCE
Akasha
Vayu
Agni
02-12-2022 16
Recent researches on Sookshma
There are recent studies which explains that the particle size has strong impact on the drug
dissolution and drug absorption.
Smaller
particle size
Increases external
surface area
Good wetting of
particle surface
Adequate
particle
dispersion
Improved
bioavailability
02-12-2022 17
Nanomedicine- Research field on Sookshmatva
DRUG DELIVERY NANOPARTICLES
Nanoparticles used for drug delivery is an important research field combining
the life sciences with nanotechnology. While the strict definition of nanoparticle
is between 1 – 100 nm, we can extend the upper size range in the context of this
application up to approximately 500 nm.
The size of the nano-particles are responsible for its fast and targeted action.
These nano-particles are proposed to be delivered to the target through rapid
cellular internalization. Subsequent actions upon DNA/RNA molecule and
protein synthesis within the cell are further hypothesized as possible
mechanisms for rapid onset of therapeutic actions.
02-12-2022 18
VYAVAAYI
02-12-2022 19
NIRUKTI OF VYAVAAYI
क्रि +अि +ईण +घञ् (Vachaspati)
That which dissolutes.
Vyavaayi means fast pervading or diffusing.
02-12-2022 20
DEFINITION OF VYAVAAYI
पूिं व्याप्याक्खलं कायं ततेः पाक
ं च गच्छक्रत ।
व्यिाक्रय तद्यथा भङ्गा फ
े नं चाक्रह सर्ुद्भिं ॥ (Sharangdhara Samhita/4/19)
पूिं व्याप्याक्खलं कायं ततेः पाक
ं च गच्छक्रत ।
व्यिाक्रय तद्यथा भङ्गा फ
े नं चाक्रह सर्ुद्भिं ॥ (Bhavaprakasha Samhita/6/230)
The drug is called vyavaayi when the drug is diffusely spread throughout
the whole body, and then gets subjected to the process of paka
(metabolism).
Examples : * Bhanga (Cannabis indica)
* Ahiphena (Papaver somniferum)
02-12-2022 21
Commentary on definition
व्यिायीक्रत। व्यिायीक्रत गुणक्रिशेषेः। अपक्वर्ेिाक्खलं देहं व्याप्नोक्रत
पश्चान्मद्यक्रिषित् पाक
ं याक्रत।
Adhamalla, in his commentary Deepika, states “vyavaayi” is a guna
vishesha, a special or peculiar action that is performed because of a
specific character.
This special trait or attribute contributes to that particular action of
the drug to produce its effect before it undergoes ‘paka’ just like
madya.
(दीक्रपका शा.प्र.ख./4/19)
02-12-2022 22
DEFINITION OF VYAVAAYI (2)
व्यिाक्रय अक्खल देह व्याक्िपूिमक पाकगाक्रर्।
(Chakrapani commentary on charaka/sootra/13/98)
That which pervades the entire body without undergoing digestion is
called Vyavaayi
व्यिाक्रय अपररणतर्ेि व्याप्य देहं पच्यते।
(Dalhana commentary on susrutha sootra 46/112)
Vyavaayi means that which spreads throughout the body without
undergoing any transformation or digestion.
02-12-2022 23
According to A.S and Susrutha, Vyavayi is considered as guna.
 Hemadri consider vyavayi as a part of drava guna.
व्यिाय्याक्रदलक्षणं च द्रिाक्रिष्वेि सम्भिक्रत। (आ.र on अ.हृ/1/18)
 Adamalla says that vyavayi is a guna visesha special property.
व्यिाक्रयक्रत गुणक्रिशेषेः। (दी. on शा.सं/पू/4)
 According to some authors vyavayi is considered as sara prakarsha
(Hemadri on A.hru/ soo/1/18 )
OTHER COMMENTS ON VYAVAYI
02-12-2022 24
BHUTA PREDOMINANCE
 Akasha
Vayu
02-12-2022 25
Cannabis Poppy fruit
02-12-2022 26
BHANGA AHIPHENA
Botanical name Cannabis sativa Linn. Papaver somniferum
Family name Cannabinaceae Papaveracaea
Rasa Tikta Kashaya, Tikta
Guna Laghu, Teekshna, Ruksha Laghu, Ruksha
Veerya Ushna Sheeta
Vipaka Katu Katu
Prabhava Madaka Madaka
Karma Pachani, Madakari, Vedanahara,
Mohakara, Mandavak, Vanhivardhini
Pachani, Madakari, Vedanahara,
Shoshanam, Grahi
02-12-2022 27
EXAMPLES OF VYAVAAYI KARMA
1) Visha (Poison)
When consumed, poisons have the ability to pervade the entire body even
before getting digested. Within a few minutes of snake bite, symptoms like
sweating, breathlessness appear. (Charaka/Chikitsa stana/23)
लघु रूक्षर्ाशु क्रिशदं व्यवायि तीक्ष्म्णं यवकायि िूक्ष्मं च। उष्णर्क्रनदेश्यरसं दशगुणर्ुतं
क्रिषं तज्ज्ैेः॥
2) Vida Lavana (Salts)
Salts possess fast pervading quality. (Charaka/Chikitsa stana/27)
तैक्ष्म्यात् औष्ण्यात् व्यवायित्वात् दीपनं शूलनाशनं। ऊर्ध्मश्च अधश्च िातानार्नुलोयकरं
क्रिडर््॥
02-12-2022 28
EXAMPLES OF VYAVAAYI KARMA
3) Madya (Alcohol)
Madya pervades very soon and hence shows a quick effect. (charaka/ chi/24)
लघूष्णतीक्ष्म्णिूक्ष्माम्लव्यवाय्याशुगर्ेि च। रूक्षं यवकायि क्रिशदं र्द्यं दशगुणं स्मुतं॥
4) Taila (Oil)
It is quickly absorbed into the tissues when applied externally or internally.
कषायानुरसं स्वादु िूक्ष्मर्ुष्णं व्यवायि च। क्रपत्तलं बद्धक्रिण्मूत्रं न च श्लेश्माक्रभिधमनर््॥... तैलं
संयोगसंस्कारात् सिमरोगापहं र्तं॥
02-12-2022 29
Possible mode of action
Pharmacokinetics is concerned with the following factors:
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism State of paka
Excretion
Anything that has lesser time for absorption and distribution and gets completely distributed before the
metabolism is commenced can be termed as Vyavaayi.
Factors that affect the time duration to attain the state of paka
• Lesser/ no time for digestion ( fat and water solubility)
• Lesser time for absorption and distribution (presence of receptors
throughout the body
• Delayed metabolism
02-12-2022 30
Possible mode of action
Another possible mode of action is that anything that can cross:
BBB (Blood brain barrier)
Placenta (enters into fetal circulation)
can be considered as vyavayi, as it gets absorbed and distributed throughout and later undergoes
the process of paka.
02-12-2022 31
VIKAASI
02-12-2022 32
NIRUKTI OF VIKAASI
यवकायित्वं यवकिन िीलत्वं िरत्वयियत िावत् ॥ (Chakrapani 20/30)
That which is having spreading nature.
Quality which after getting dispersed all through the body cause
destruction of ojas and causes laxity of the body tissues and joints is
called vikaasi.
02-12-2022 33
DEFINITION OF VIKASI
सक्न्धबन्धास्तुं क्रशक्रथलाक्रन यत् करोक्रत क्रिकक्रश तत्
क्रिश्लेष्य ऒजश्च धातुभ्यो यथा िर्ुक कोद्रिाेः ॥ (Sarangdhara samhita 4/20)
सक्न्धबन्धास्तुं क्रशक्रथलाक्रन यत् करोक्रत क्रिकक्रश तत्
क्रिशोष्य ऒजश्च धातुभ्यो यथा िर्ुक कोद्रिाेः ॥ (Bhavaprakasha Samhita/ 6/231)
The dravya which loosens the sandhi bandha and causes the disunion of ojas from
the dhatu .
 Example: * Kramuka
* Kodrava
Sharagdhara uses the word Vishlesha (to loosen up the oja from dhatu) and
Bhavaprakasha states Vishoshya (dries up oja from the dhatus).
02-12-2022 34
सक्न्धबन्धाक्रनक्रत। यत् द्रव्यं सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रशक्रथलीभूतान् करोक्रत तद् क्रिकाक्रश बोद्धव्यं,
क्रिकाक्रश इत्यक्रप गुणक्रिशेषेः, न क
े िलं सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रशक्रथलान् करोक्रत क्रकन्तु धातुभ्य् ओजो
बलं क्रिश्लेष्य क्रिभज्य पाक
ं गच्छक्रत इत्यध्याहारेः। धातुशैक्रथल्यर्क्रप करोक्रत इत्यक्रभप्रायेः।
िर्ुक
ं पूगफलर््, कोद्रि्ं क
ु धान्य क्रिशेषेः।
धातुशैक्रथल्यात् ओजो बलक्रर्क्रत|
सुश्रुतेन तदुतर्् - "रसादीनां शुिान्तानां धातूनां यत्परं तेजस्तत् खल्वोजस्तदेि
बलक्रर्त्युच्यते" यतेः -
"देहेः साियिस्तेन व्यािो भिक्रत देक्रहनार््" इक्रत। सक्न्धप्रभृतीनां क्रशक्रथलत्वेन श्रर्ाणां
चोत्पद्यते तेन ओजेः क्षयो भितीत्यक्रभप्रायेः। अत एिाह कक्रश्चत् - "अक्रभघातात् क्षयात्
कोपाद्यानाच्छोकाच्छ
र र्ात् क्षुधेः। ओजेः संक्षीयते ह्येभ्यो धातुग्रहणक्रनेःसृतर््" इक्रत।
अन्ये तु सरक्रिशेषो व्यिायी तीक्ष्म्णक्रिशेषो क्रिकाशीक्रत ब्रुिते, तन्न सिमर्तर््॥
(दी/िा.प्र.4/20) Hemadri on A.H/1/18
02-12-2022 35
Possible mode of action a/c Adhamalla
SANDHI
SHITHILATA
SHRAMA
OJA
KSHAYA
02-12-2022 36
Commentry on vyavaayi and vikashi
व्यिाय्याक्रदलक्षणं च द्रिाक्रदष्वेि सम्भिक्रत| यदाह सुश्रुतेः (सू.अ. ४६/५२१)
"व्यिायी देहर्क्खलं व्याप्य पाकाय कल्पते| क्रिकाशी क्रिकषन् धातून् सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रिर्ुञ्चक्रत||
यत्तु व्यिाक्रयक्रिकाक्रशनौ प्रस्तुत्योतं सङ्ग् ग्रहे (सू.अ. १)-
"सरतीक्ष्म्णप्रकषौ तु क
ै क्रश्चत्तौ पररकक्ल्पतौ" इक्रत| तदेकीयर्तत्वादनादरणीय| तदादर
णे यत्तैले व्यिाक्रयबद्धक्रिट्कयोरक्रभधानं तक्रिरुद्धं स्यात्|
यच्च र्द्ये तीक्ष्म्णक्रिकाक्रशनोस्तत्पुनरुतं स्यात्| यत्तु क्रपत्ते तीक्ष्म्णक्रिस्रयोरक्रभधानं, तक्रद
क्ियोिेजकत्वे सत्यक्रप घ्राणेक्ियस्योिेजनाक्रतशयाथमर््| सङ्ग् ग्रहे तु (सू.अ. १)-
"इक्ियाथाम व्यिायी च क्रिकाशी चापरे गुणाेः|
HEMADRI/ A.H./ 1/18
02-12-2022 37
Commentry on Bhavaprakasha
धातुभ्येः सकलशरीरस्थेभ्यो िीयेभ्येः।
ऒजेः उपधातुक्रिशेषं क्रिशोष्य | (Vidhyotini teeka/B.P/6)
Dhatu means tissues throughout the body
Oja means upadhatu of all dhatus.
02-12-2022 38
BHUTA PREDOMINANCE
Vayu
02-12-2022 39
Arecanut Kodo Millet
02-12-2022 40
KRAMUKA KODRAVA
Botanical name Areca catechu Linn. Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.
Family name Palmae Poaceae
Rasa Kashaya Madhura Kashaya Madhura Tikta
Guna Guru, Ruksha Laghu, Ruksha
Veerya Sheeta Sheeta
Vipaka Katu Madhura
Prabhava -- --
Karma Mohana, Deepana, Ruchya,
Asyavairasyanaashana,
Kaphapittahara
Vatakaaraka, Grahi,
Madhumehahara
02-12-2022 41
 According to Dalhana, these dravyas also spread throughout (vikasan
prasarpan)the body before digestion and exerts its effects. It is considered as
guna.
 According to AS, vikashi is considered as guna which causes destruction to
dhatus and loosens sandhi bandha.
 Hemadri says vikashi as a part of khara guna. (vikashi khare antarbhootaha)
 According to some acharyas vikashi is considered as teekshna prakarsha.
 Adhamalla says vikashi causes sandhi saithilya, dhatu saithilya and
ojokshaya.
OTHER COMMENTS ON VIKASI
02-12-2022 42
Applied aspects of Sookshma guna
֎ Sookshma guna allows the drugs to traverse even through the minutest
channels or rather may be considered as the one which increases the bio-
permeability. Hence sookshma churnas and bhasmas (having sookshma
guna), are considered as important forms of formulation which are prepared
to increase the surface area helping in quick extraction of their active
principles.
֎Sookshma can be analysed in the nidana as well as chikitsa aspect.
For eg: the sookshma guna of madya makes it a causative factor as well as
preventive factor of coronary artery disease. We get the evidences of mixed
effect of alcohol having a positive impact on HDL-C (increases the transport
rate of apolipoproteins) and fibrinolysis but at the same time increasing TG.
02-12-2022 43
Applied aspects of Vyavaayi – Vikashi karma
֎Drugs that perform Vamana and Virechana karma are Vyavayi and
Vikashi in nature
֎ Madya kalpana is an important class of formulations in Ayurveda,
administered in the form of Madya, Arishta and Asava. Ayurveda
describes samyak upayoga of madya is hita for nashta nidra and
atinidra, Krisha sthula hitam, Sukshmam and Srotovishodhanam and
is Vata sleshma hara. Asamyak upayoga causes the effect same as
visha.
֎ Visha as tadarthakari chikitsa: Sannipatha udara (srotoshodhana),
Sthavara visha in jangama vishaartha and vice versa.
02-12-2022 44
CONCLUSION
Sookshma guna enables a dravya to enter the minute channels.
Vyavayi karma spreads throughout the body and later undergoes digestion.
Vikashi karma causes sandhi and dhatu shaithilya in turn causing
separation/drying up of oja from dhatus.
These gunas can be utilised during drug development to incorporate the
attributes of bio-permeability, quick absorption and easy dispersion.
We can conclude that sookshma- vyavaayi- vikashi gunas are factors that govern
the pharmacokinetics – especially in the level of drug absorption and metabolism
 These are karmas as well as gunas.
02-12-2022 45
Thank you!!!
02-12-2022 46

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Sookshma Vyavayi Vikasi Karma acc Sharangadhara.pptx

  • 1. Sookshma – Vyavaayi – Vikasi w.s.r to Sharangdhara Samhita and Bhavaprakasha Samhita PRESENTED BY DR. MADHUBALA P GOPINATH 1ST YEAR PG SCHOLAR DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA GAVC, TRIVANDRUM GUIDED BY DR. DEEPA M.S PROFESSOR DEPT. OF DRAVYAGUNA VIJNANA GAVC, TRIVANDRUM 2021 02-12-2022 1
  • 3. Contents S.NO CONTENTS 1 Introduction – Karma 2 Karmas acc to Sharangadhara 3 Gunas acc to Bhavapraksha 4 Sookshma – Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Applied aspects, Recent researches 5 Vyavayi – Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Examples 6 Vikashi - Etymology, Definition, Bhoota predominance, Examples 7 Applied aspects of Sookshma- Vyavaayi-Vikasi 8 Conclusion 02-12-2022 3
  • 4. Introduction KARMA क्रियते इक्रत कर्म । The word karma here refers to the action. Karma is that entity in the dravya which is responsible for samyoga and vibhaga. It is in samavayi relation with the dravya. 02-12-2022 4
  • 5. Introduction - References  Sookshma, Vyavayi and Vikasi are mentioned along with other karmas in the ‘Deepanapaachanaadi adhyaya’ by Sharangadhara (शा.सं/प्र.ख/4)  All the three are stated under the heading of guna in the ‘Mishraka prakarana adhyaya’ of Bhavaprakasha (भा.प्र/पू.ख/प्र/6).  Acharya Susruta in “Annapana vidhi adhyaya” (सु.सू/46/523) and Vaghbata in “Ayushkaameeya adhyaya”(A.S) (अ.सं/सू/1) mentions all these to be gunas. 02-12-2022 5
  • 6. They are included in the dasa guna of visha and madya by the Bruhatrayi. Sookshma - Ability of a drug to penetrate into minute pores Vyavayi- Ability to spread all over body before attaining paka Vikashi – Ability to cause laxity and separates ojas from dhatus 02-12-2022 6
  • 7. Karma according to Sharangadhara 1 Deepana 9 Samshodana 17 Sookshma 2 Pachana 10 Chedana 18 Vyavaayi 3 Shamana 11 Lekhana 19 Vikashi 4 Anulomana 12 Grahi 20 Madakari 5 Sramsana 13 Stambhana 21 Pramathi 6 Bhedana 14 Rasayana 22 Abhishyandi 7 Rechana 15 Vaajeekara 8 Vamana 16 Shukrala  Under Shukrala, he has mentioned the different karmas related to shukra – shukra janaka, shukra pravartaka, shukra rechaka, shukra stambhaka , shukra shoshaka  Acharya has also enumerated visha gunas under the chapter. 02-12-2022 7
  • 8. Guna according to Bhavaprakasha 1 Deepana 9 Samshodana 17 Vyavaayi 2 Pachana 10 Grahi 18 Vikashi 3 Shamana 11 Stambhana 19 Madakaari 4 Anulomana 12 Chedana 20 Pramathi 5 Sramsana 13 Lekhana 21 Abhishyandi 6 Bhedana 14 Vaajeekara 22 Vidaahi 7 Rechana 15 Shukrala 23 Yogavaahi 8 Vamaka 16 Rasayana  Acharya has also enumerated visha gunas under the enumeration of gunas in the chapter.  Sookshma is mentioned under the vimshati gunas discussed before explaining deepana paachanaadi gunas. 02-12-2022 8
  • 10. NIRUKTI सूच पैशुन्ये + "सूचेेः स्मन्“ (श.क.द्रु) Sookshma is the Sanskrit word for dormant or subtle or minute. The word may mean to expand/ open/ unfold/ express. Sookshma is considered as a guna among the 20 gurvaadi gunas in Ayurveda. As a karma, it also indicates permeability, i.e the ability to pass through minute pores and channels. Hence minuteness is more a pharmacological consideration than physical consideration. 02-12-2022 10
  • 11. DEFINITION - Sharangadhara देहस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु क्रिशेद्यत्सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते। तद्यथा सैन्धिं क्षौद्रं क्रनम्बतैलं रुबूद्भिर््।। (शा.पू/4/18) Drugs which enter the minute channels of the body are known to be poosessing sookshma karma. Though it is mentioned under karma, it is considered as a trait (guna) while considering the qualities of dravya. Eg: * Saindhava * Kshaudra * Nimba taila * Eranda taila 02-12-2022 11
  • 12. EXAMPLES SAINDHAVA KSHAUDRA NIMBA TAILA ERANDA TAILA RASA Samadhuram Kashaya Madhura Tikta Kashaya Madhura Tikta Katu GUNA Laghu, Snigdha Laghu, Rooksha Laghu Guru, Sara VEERYA Sheeta Sheeta Na atyushnam Ushna VIPAKA Madhura -- Katu Madhura PRABHAVA -- -- -- -- KARMA Deepana, Rochana Lekhana, Pramehahara Agni vata krut, Krimikushta kapha pranut Gulmahara, Anilapittahara, Udaranaashaka 02-12-2022 12
  • 13. Commentary on definition यत्द्द्रव्यं देहस्य शरीरस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु रोर्क ू प प्रभृक्रतषु क्रिशेत् प्रिेशं करोक्रत तत् सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते। सूक्ष्मो गुणक्रिशेषेः, स्रोतो अनुसरणशीलत्वात् । It can be considered as the ability of the dravya to pass through very small pores of bio-membranes. Thus sookshmatwa is an allowing factor and sthoolatwa becomes a limiting factor. 02-12-2022 13
  • 14. DEFINITION - Bhavaprakasha देहस्य सूक्ष्मक्रिद्रेषु क्रिशेद्यत्सूक्ष्मर्ुच्यते। (भा.प्र/पू.ख/प्र/6/210) Bhavaprakasha mentions the same definition given by Sharangdhara Samhita. The context of reference is in the description of gunas under dravyagata padarthas. 02-12-2022 14
  • 15. यस्य द्रव्यस्य क्रििरणे शक्तेः स सूक्ष्मेः। (हे. on अ.हृ/सू/1/18) Hemadri considers the ability of the substances to open up/ pass through penetrate/ pervade through minute channels as sookshma. सूक्ष्मस्तु सौक्ष्म्यात् सूक्ष्मेषु स्रोतसु अनुसरेः स्मृतेः। (सु.सू.46/) Minute substances, because of its sookshma guna follows sookshma srotas (very small channels). Pharmacologically, minute substances spread all over the body quickly as they can pass through bio barriers very easily. They are likely to increase vata as vata also posess sookshma guna. 02-12-2022 15
  • 17. Recent researches on Sookshma There are recent studies which explains that the particle size has strong impact on the drug dissolution and drug absorption. Smaller particle size Increases external surface area Good wetting of particle surface Adequate particle dispersion Improved bioavailability 02-12-2022 17
  • 18. Nanomedicine- Research field on Sookshmatva DRUG DELIVERY NANOPARTICLES Nanoparticles used for drug delivery is an important research field combining the life sciences with nanotechnology. While the strict definition of nanoparticle is between 1 – 100 nm, we can extend the upper size range in the context of this application up to approximately 500 nm. The size of the nano-particles are responsible for its fast and targeted action. These nano-particles are proposed to be delivered to the target through rapid cellular internalization. Subsequent actions upon DNA/RNA molecule and protein synthesis within the cell are further hypothesized as possible mechanisms for rapid onset of therapeutic actions. 02-12-2022 18
  • 20. NIRUKTI OF VYAVAAYI क्रि +अि +ईण +घञ् (Vachaspati) That which dissolutes. Vyavaayi means fast pervading or diffusing. 02-12-2022 20
  • 21. DEFINITION OF VYAVAAYI पूिं व्याप्याक्खलं कायं ततेः पाक ं च गच्छक्रत । व्यिाक्रय तद्यथा भङ्गा फ े नं चाक्रह सर्ुद्भिं ॥ (Sharangdhara Samhita/4/19) पूिं व्याप्याक्खलं कायं ततेः पाक ं च गच्छक्रत । व्यिाक्रय तद्यथा भङ्गा फ े नं चाक्रह सर्ुद्भिं ॥ (Bhavaprakasha Samhita/6/230) The drug is called vyavaayi when the drug is diffusely spread throughout the whole body, and then gets subjected to the process of paka (metabolism). Examples : * Bhanga (Cannabis indica) * Ahiphena (Papaver somniferum) 02-12-2022 21
  • 22. Commentary on definition व्यिायीक्रत। व्यिायीक्रत गुणक्रिशेषेः। अपक्वर्ेिाक्खलं देहं व्याप्नोक्रत पश्चान्मद्यक्रिषित् पाक ं याक्रत। Adhamalla, in his commentary Deepika, states “vyavaayi” is a guna vishesha, a special or peculiar action that is performed because of a specific character. This special trait or attribute contributes to that particular action of the drug to produce its effect before it undergoes ‘paka’ just like madya. (दीक्रपका शा.प्र.ख./4/19) 02-12-2022 22
  • 23. DEFINITION OF VYAVAAYI (2) व्यिाक्रय अक्खल देह व्याक्िपूिमक पाकगाक्रर्। (Chakrapani commentary on charaka/sootra/13/98) That which pervades the entire body without undergoing digestion is called Vyavaayi व्यिाक्रय अपररणतर्ेि व्याप्य देहं पच्यते। (Dalhana commentary on susrutha sootra 46/112) Vyavaayi means that which spreads throughout the body without undergoing any transformation or digestion. 02-12-2022 23
  • 24. According to A.S and Susrutha, Vyavayi is considered as guna.  Hemadri consider vyavayi as a part of drava guna. व्यिाय्याक्रदलक्षणं च द्रिाक्रिष्वेि सम्भिक्रत। (आ.र on अ.हृ/1/18)  Adamalla says that vyavayi is a guna visesha special property. व्यिाक्रयक्रत गुणक्रिशेषेः। (दी. on शा.सं/पू/4)  According to some authors vyavayi is considered as sara prakarsha (Hemadri on A.hru/ soo/1/18 ) OTHER COMMENTS ON VYAVAYI 02-12-2022 24
  • 27. BHANGA AHIPHENA Botanical name Cannabis sativa Linn. Papaver somniferum Family name Cannabinaceae Papaveracaea Rasa Tikta Kashaya, Tikta Guna Laghu, Teekshna, Ruksha Laghu, Ruksha Veerya Ushna Sheeta Vipaka Katu Katu Prabhava Madaka Madaka Karma Pachani, Madakari, Vedanahara, Mohakara, Mandavak, Vanhivardhini Pachani, Madakari, Vedanahara, Shoshanam, Grahi 02-12-2022 27
  • 28. EXAMPLES OF VYAVAAYI KARMA 1) Visha (Poison) When consumed, poisons have the ability to pervade the entire body even before getting digested. Within a few minutes of snake bite, symptoms like sweating, breathlessness appear. (Charaka/Chikitsa stana/23) लघु रूक्षर्ाशु क्रिशदं व्यवायि तीक्ष्म्णं यवकायि िूक्ष्मं च। उष्णर्क्रनदेश्यरसं दशगुणर्ुतं क्रिषं तज्ज्ैेः॥ 2) Vida Lavana (Salts) Salts possess fast pervading quality. (Charaka/Chikitsa stana/27) तैक्ष्म्यात् औष्ण्यात् व्यवायित्वात् दीपनं शूलनाशनं। ऊर्ध्मश्च अधश्च िातानार्नुलोयकरं क्रिडर््॥ 02-12-2022 28
  • 29. EXAMPLES OF VYAVAAYI KARMA 3) Madya (Alcohol) Madya pervades very soon and hence shows a quick effect. (charaka/ chi/24) लघूष्णतीक्ष्म्णिूक्ष्माम्लव्यवाय्याशुगर्ेि च। रूक्षं यवकायि क्रिशदं र्द्यं दशगुणं स्मुतं॥ 4) Taila (Oil) It is quickly absorbed into the tissues when applied externally or internally. कषायानुरसं स्वादु िूक्ष्मर्ुष्णं व्यवायि च। क्रपत्तलं बद्धक्रिण्मूत्रं न च श्लेश्माक्रभिधमनर््॥... तैलं संयोगसंस्कारात् सिमरोगापहं र्तं॥ 02-12-2022 29
  • 30. Possible mode of action Pharmacokinetics is concerned with the following factors: Absorption Distribution Metabolism State of paka Excretion Anything that has lesser time for absorption and distribution and gets completely distributed before the metabolism is commenced can be termed as Vyavaayi. Factors that affect the time duration to attain the state of paka • Lesser/ no time for digestion ( fat and water solubility) • Lesser time for absorption and distribution (presence of receptors throughout the body • Delayed metabolism 02-12-2022 30
  • 31. Possible mode of action Another possible mode of action is that anything that can cross: BBB (Blood brain barrier) Placenta (enters into fetal circulation) can be considered as vyavayi, as it gets absorbed and distributed throughout and later undergoes the process of paka. 02-12-2022 31
  • 33. NIRUKTI OF VIKAASI यवकायित्वं यवकिन िीलत्वं िरत्वयियत िावत् ॥ (Chakrapani 20/30) That which is having spreading nature. Quality which after getting dispersed all through the body cause destruction of ojas and causes laxity of the body tissues and joints is called vikaasi. 02-12-2022 33
  • 34. DEFINITION OF VIKASI सक्न्धबन्धास्तुं क्रशक्रथलाक्रन यत् करोक्रत क्रिकक्रश तत् क्रिश्लेष्य ऒजश्च धातुभ्यो यथा िर्ुक कोद्रिाेः ॥ (Sarangdhara samhita 4/20) सक्न्धबन्धास्तुं क्रशक्रथलाक्रन यत् करोक्रत क्रिकक्रश तत् क्रिशोष्य ऒजश्च धातुभ्यो यथा िर्ुक कोद्रिाेः ॥ (Bhavaprakasha Samhita/ 6/231) The dravya which loosens the sandhi bandha and causes the disunion of ojas from the dhatu .  Example: * Kramuka * Kodrava Sharagdhara uses the word Vishlesha (to loosen up the oja from dhatu) and Bhavaprakasha states Vishoshya (dries up oja from the dhatus). 02-12-2022 34
  • 35. सक्न्धबन्धाक्रनक्रत। यत् द्रव्यं सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रशक्रथलीभूतान् करोक्रत तद् क्रिकाक्रश बोद्धव्यं, क्रिकाक्रश इत्यक्रप गुणक्रिशेषेः, न क े िलं सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रशक्रथलान् करोक्रत क्रकन्तु धातुभ्य् ओजो बलं क्रिश्लेष्य क्रिभज्य पाक ं गच्छक्रत इत्यध्याहारेः। धातुशैक्रथल्यर्क्रप करोक्रत इत्यक्रभप्रायेः। िर्ुक ं पूगफलर््, कोद्रि्ं क ु धान्य क्रिशेषेः। धातुशैक्रथल्यात् ओजो बलक्रर्क्रत| सुश्रुतेन तदुतर्् - "रसादीनां शुिान्तानां धातूनां यत्परं तेजस्तत् खल्वोजस्तदेि बलक्रर्त्युच्यते" यतेः - "देहेः साियिस्तेन व्यािो भिक्रत देक्रहनार््" इक्रत। सक्न्धप्रभृतीनां क्रशक्रथलत्वेन श्रर्ाणां चोत्पद्यते तेन ओजेः क्षयो भितीत्यक्रभप्रायेः। अत एिाह कक्रश्चत् - "अक्रभघातात् क्षयात् कोपाद्यानाच्छोकाच्छ र र्ात् क्षुधेः। ओजेः संक्षीयते ह्येभ्यो धातुग्रहणक्रनेःसृतर््" इक्रत। अन्ये तु सरक्रिशेषो व्यिायी तीक्ष्म्णक्रिशेषो क्रिकाशीक्रत ब्रुिते, तन्न सिमर्तर््॥ (दी/िा.प्र.4/20) Hemadri on A.H/1/18 02-12-2022 35
  • 36. Possible mode of action a/c Adhamalla SANDHI SHITHILATA SHRAMA OJA KSHAYA 02-12-2022 36
  • 37. Commentry on vyavaayi and vikashi व्यिाय्याक्रदलक्षणं च द्रिाक्रदष्वेि सम्भिक्रत| यदाह सुश्रुतेः (सू.अ. ४६/५२१) "व्यिायी देहर्क्खलं व्याप्य पाकाय कल्पते| क्रिकाशी क्रिकषन् धातून् सक्न्धबन्धान् क्रिर्ुञ्चक्रत|| यत्तु व्यिाक्रयक्रिकाक्रशनौ प्रस्तुत्योतं सङ्ग् ग्रहे (सू.अ. १)- "सरतीक्ष्म्णप्रकषौ तु क ै क्रश्चत्तौ पररकक्ल्पतौ" इक्रत| तदेकीयर्तत्वादनादरणीय| तदादर णे यत्तैले व्यिाक्रयबद्धक्रिट्कयोरक्रभधानं तक्रिरुद्धं स्यात्| यच्च र्द्ये तीक्ष्म्णक्रिकाक्रशनोस्तत्पुनरुतं स्यात्| यत्तु क्रपत्ते तीक्ष्म्णक्रिस्रयोरक्रभधानं, तक्रद क्ियोिेजकत्वे सत्यक्रप घ्राणेक्ियस्योिेजनाक्रतशयाथमर््| सङ्ग् ग्रहे तु (सू.अ. १)- "इक्ियाथाम व्यिायी च क्रिकाशी चापरे गुणाेः| HEMADRI/ A.H./ 1/18 02-12-2022 37
  • 38. Commentry on Bhavaprakasha धातुभ्येः सकलशरीरस्थेभ्यो िीयेभ्येः। ऒजेः उपधातुक्रिशेषं क्रिशोष्य | (Vidhyotini teeka/B.P/6) Dhatu means tissues throughout the body Oja means upadhatu of all dhatus. 02-12-2022 38
  • 41. KRAMUKA KODRAVA Botanical name Areca catechu Linn. Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. Family name Palmae Poaceae Rasa Kashaya Madhura Kashaya Madhura Tikta Guna Guru, Ruksha Laghu, Ruksha Veerya Sheeta Sheeta Vipaka Katu Madhura Prabhava -- -- Karma Mohana, Deepana, Ruchya, Asyavairasyanaashana, Kaphapittahara Vatakaaraka, Grahi, Madhumehahara 02-12-2022 41
  • 42.  According to Dalhana, these dravyas also spread throughout (vikasan prasarpan)the body before digestion and exerts its effects. It is considered as guna.  According to AS, vikashi is considered as guna which causes destruction to dhatus and loosens sandhi bandha.  Hemadri says vikashi as a part of khara guna. (vikashi khare antarbhootaha)  According to some acharyas vikashi is considered as teekshna prakarsha.  Adhamalla says vikashi causes sandhi saithilya, dhatu saithilya and ojokshaya. OTHER COMMENTS ON VIKASI 02-12-2022 42
  • 43. Applied aspects of Sookshma guna ֎ Sookshma guna allows the drugs to traverse even through the minutest channels or rather may be considered as the one which increases the bio- permeability. Hence sookshma churnas and bhasmas (having sookshma guna), are considered as important forms of formulation which are prepared to increase the surface area helping in quick extraction of their active principles. ֎Sookshma can be analysed in the nidana as well as chikitsa aspect. For eg: the sookshma guna of madya makes it a causative factor as well as preventive factor of coronary artery disease. We get the evidences of mixed effect of alcohol having a positive impact on HDL-C (increases the transport rate of apolipoproteins) and fibrinolysis but at the same time increasing TG. 02-12-2022 43
  • 44. Applied aspects of Vyavaayi – Vikashi karma ֎Drugs that perform Vamana and Virechana karma are Vyavayi and Vikashi in nature ֎ Madya kalpana is an important class of formulations in Ayurveda, administered in the form of Madya, Arishta and Asava. Ayurveda describes samyak upayoga of madya is hita for nashta nidra and atinidra, Krisha sthula hitam, Sukshmam and Srotovishodhanam and is Vata sleshma hara. Asamyak upayoga causes the effect same as visha. ֎ Visha as tadarthakari chikitsa: Sannipatha udara (srotoshodhana), Sthavara visha in jangama vishaartha and vice versa. 02-12-2022 44
  • 45. CONCLUSION Sookshma guna enables a dravya to enter the minute channels. Vyavayi karma spreads throughout the body and later undergoes digestion. Vikashi karma causes sandhi and dhatu shaithilya in turn causing separation/drying up of oja from dhatus. These gunas can be utilised during drug development to incorporate the attributes of bio-permeability, quick absorption and easy dispersion. We can conclude that sookshma- vyavaayi- vikashi gunas are factors that govern the pharmacokinetics – especially in the level of drug absorption and metabolism  These are karmas as well as gunas. 02-12-2022 45

Editor's Notes

  1. Drugs which have acute effect on the body – Vyavayi.
  2. Dravyagata padarthas – Dravye raso guno veeryam vipaka: shaktireva cha, padaarthaa: pancha tishtanti swam swam kurvanti karma cha.
  3. Here vata means movement
  4. Good wetting by liquid around the surface Hence drugs with sookshma guna are said to have fast actions.
  5. The general notion is that anything on entering the body is subjected for transformation in gut, absorbed and later put into circulation, so that it is made available for all body tissues. Average circulation time of blood is 1 min.
  6. Adhamalla – Deepika Kashirama – Goodartha Deepika
  7. Drugs penetrate to different tissues at different speeds depending upon the abilility to cross membranes. A fat soluble – easily enters brain and cross cell membranes, but water soluble may take more time. Some drugs leave the bloodstream very slowly as they bind tightly to the protein circulating in blood. Less tightly bound can quickly leave bloodstream and enter tissues. Accumulation in certain tissues – may affect overall distribution.
  8. Ojas is the essence of all tissues and is formed as an end product of tissue metabolism
  9. Author of Deepika commentary - Adhamalla
  10. dhatubhyaH – 5 vibhakti/ bahuvachanam –comes from dhatus/ located in dhatus./ from dhatus – from veerya of sakalashareera.
  11. Kodo millet Shoshano rookshaH a/c hemadri and goes with B.P quotation.
  12. Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids to form lipoproteins to transport lipids into blood, csf and lymph.