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SONEUK Conference on Infrastructure Development in Nepal, London, 18th Feb 2017
Innovative technologies and sustainable practices in
energy sector to overcome energy crisis of Nepal
Ramhari Poudyal, MSME MSEEE MIET
Dr. Pavel Loskot
Swansea University
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
SONEUK Conference on the Innovative Technologies and Practices for the
development of Nepal 21st April 2018
 The world is facing an enormous challenge to provide sufficient
quantity of clean energy
 Over 1.1 billion people lack access to electricity according to IEA,
2017
2.8 billion people still cook with solid fuel IEA, 2017
More than 70% of global energy is consumed by a few developed nations and
accounts for approximately 80% of greenhouse gas emissions
Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and double the
share of renewable energy in energy in the global energy mix by 2030. UN
Secretary General’s initiation
by 2030, grid extension will be 30% and 70 % will be
mini grids or off grid system.
Introduction
 Nepal has been suffering from the chaotic energy crisis for
about a decade.
 Hydropower projects have been delayed and cost / time overrun ½ year -
12 years
 About 6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity
 However Nepal has huge potential for generating
• 45,000 MW of hydro-electricity
• 2,100 MW of solar power and
• 3,000 MW of wind power
Introduction
The electricity scenario of Nepal 2011-2017
Description FY 2011/12 FY 2012/13 FY 2013/14 FY 2014/15 FY 2015/16 FY 2015/16* FY 2016/17
Production (MW) 705.57 746 746 829.2 855.9 829.2 961.2
Transmission line
(KM)
1,987.4 1,987.4 1,987.4 2,848.9 3,006 2,848.9 3,204
Customer numbers 2,053,259 2,599,152 2,713,804 2,872,015 2,969,576 2,922,041 3,121,902
Distribution line
(KM)
958,156 114,160.4 116,066.6 123,827.8 124,115 123,827.8 124,976
Available energy
(GWh)
3,858.4 4,260.5 3,092.5 4,966.7 5,077.2 4,966.7 3,964.2
Peak demand in
(MW)
1,026 1,094 1,201 1,291.1 1,385 1,291.1 1,444.1
Demand supply
Gap (MW)
320.4 348 455 461.9 529.1 461.9 482.9
India imports (GWh) 746.07 790.14 1,318.75 1,369.89 1,782.86 1,777.68 2,177.24
Source: Government of Nepal Ministry of Finance Nepal, Economic Survey, 2017.
The average daily and monthly imports of petroleum
products, 2016)
Energy sources FY 2014 – 2015 FY 2015 – 2016
Product (KL) Daily Avg. Monthly Avg. Daily Avg. Monthly Avg.
Petrol 794.09 23,822.22 410.08 12,302.50
Diesel 2,553.00 76,590.08 1,270.80 38,124.00
Kerosene 55.01 1,650.42 23.75 712.58
Aviation fuel 394.82 11,644.67 131.94 3,958.17
Total excl. LPG 3,796.92 113,708.00 1,836.57 55,097.25
LPG MT 717.42 21,522.63 365.63 10,960.58
Source: Government of Nepal, Nepal Portfolio Performance Review (NPPR) 2015.
 According to NOC, last FY Import of Petroleum Product costs NPRs 150
billion , 20 billion in LPG, and 28 billion in Electricity
Trade deficit with India was 491 billion NPR in 2016
Energy overview & Electricity Consumption
Source: Government of Nepal Economic Survey 2015
The electricity consumption in
different sectors
Energy overview
Communication Spectrum of Nepal
Source: Nepal Telecom 2015
Energy Crisis
“An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the
supply of energy resources to an economy.”
Wastage of
energy
Over
Consumption
Lack of proper
storage system
Major accidents
& Natural
calamities
Poor
distribution
system
Delay in
commissioning
power plants
Political barrier
obstruction on
supply
Poor
Infrastructure
Over
Population
Causes of
Energy Crisis
Energy policy and its
robust
implementation
Green initiative & tax
credit
Improve energy
infrastructure
10%
Off–grid power
generation locally to
save T&D loss
Conservation of
energy
5%
Energy Audit
5%
Adaptation of
Renewable Energy
Technology
15%
Energy Efficiency
Measures
10%
Solutions of energy
crisis
Electricity Generation mix in the World 2017
38%
25%
23%
4%
10%
Electricity Generation mix in the World 2017
Coal
Renewable
Gas
Oil
Nuclear
Source: IEA, 2017
Energy Pyramid
Essential Technologies of Smart Cities
Essential
Technologi
es of Smart
Cities
Smart
Energy
Smart
Transport
ation
Smart
Infrastructur
e
Smart
Mobility
Smart
IOT
Device
Smart
Data
 Rapid urbanization is leading to smarter cities that improve the lives of citizens
through technology.
 Both residential and commercial buildings in smart cities are more efficient,
using less energy
 Smart grids are part of the development of a smart city
 Smart streetlights are an easy entry point for many cities
 LED lights save money and pay for themselves within a few years,
 Smart energy response and Demand Side Management(DSM) and potential
reduction opportunities
A smart meter is a new kind of
electricity meter that can
automatically send meter readings to
the power supplier for billing and
help consumers better understand
their energy usage.
Smart meter
 prosumers i.e. the consumers who also produce and share surplus energy with
grid and other users. Prosumers are not only an important stakeholder of the
future smart grids but also have a vital role in peak demand management.
 According to the WEC, all energy providers should ensure a balance is achieved
between the ‘Energy Trilemma’, including energy security, environmental
sustainability and energy equity
- Weather monitoring using a weather station for transmission
line in Malaysia.
- Laser distance measurement sensor installation
Sustainability - New Market Territories
South Asia has among the highest economic growth rates in the
world and represents a little over 7 percent of global carbon dioxide
emissions.
Six countries in the region -- Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives,
Nepal and Sri Lanka -- have enormous untapped opportunities in
climate-smart investing in sectors including renewable energy,
transport, green buildings, urban wastewater, climate-smart
agriculture, and municipal solid waste management.
 electronic thermostats with programmable settings
that control home temperature.
 Smart washing machines can sense the type and
size of laundry load and adjust cycle time, water
quantity and temperature accordingly.
 A home energy management system (HEMS)
controls and records energy use through the
gateway with user input via an app.
 In-home displays (IHDs) provide real-time
household energy use data to consumers via an
app or standalone display.
 Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
(SCADA) allowed the centralized monitoring and
control of far-off generation and transmission
systems.
Conclusion
 Priority on Innovate technology
 Emphasis on Energy Mix
 Increase Digital Connectivity (telecom, Broadband)
 Enhance Digital Platforms and solutions (e-government services, Cloud)
 More sustainable vision and appropriate action plans
 More focus on research and development (R&D)
 Smart meter and modern infrastructure
 Load Management for peak electricity demand savings due to load-shifting
Ramhari Poudyal
847043@Swansea.ac.uk
rhpoudyal@gmail.com
Thank you!

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SONEUK Conference on the Innovative Technologies and Practices for the development of Nepal 21st April 2018

  • 1. SONEUK Conference on Infrastructure Development in Nepal, London, 18th Feb 2017 Innovative technologies and sustainable practices in energy sector to overcome energy crisis of Nepal Ramhari Poudyal, MSME MSEEE MIET Dr. Pavel Loskot Swansea University Electrical and Electronic Engineering SONEUK Conference on the Innovative Technologies and Practices for the development of Nepal 21st April 2018
  • 2.  The world is facing an enormous challenge to provide sufficient quantity of clean energy  Over 1.1 billion people lack access to electricity according to IEA, 2017 2.8 billion people still cook with solid fuel IEA, 2017 More than 70% of global energy is consumed by a few developed nations and accounts for approximately 80% of greenhouse gas emissions Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and double the share of renewable energy in energy in the global energy mix by 2030. UN Secretary General’s initiation by 2030, grid extension will be 30% and 70 % will be mini grids or off grid system. Introduction
  • 3.  Nepal has been suffering from the chaotic energy crisis for about a decade.  Hydropower projects have been delayed and cost / time overrun ½ year - 12 years  About 6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity  However Nepal has huge potential for generating • 45,000 MW of hydro-electricity • 2,100 MW of solar power and • 3,000 MW of wind power Introduction
  • 4. The electricity scenario of Nepal 2011-2017 Description FY 2011/12 FY 2012/13 FY 2013/14 FY 2014/15 FY 2015/16 FY 2015/16* FY 2016/17 Production (MW) 705.57 746 746 829.2 855.9 829.2 961.2 Transmission line (KM) 1,987.4 1,987.4 1,987.4 2,848.9 3,006 2,848.9 3,204 Customer numbers 2,053,259 2,599,152 2,713,804 2,872,015 2,969,576 2,922,041 3,121,902 Distribution line (KM) 958,156 114,160.4 116,066.6 123,827.8 124,115 123,827.8 124,976 Available energy (GWh) 3,858.4 4,260.5 3,092.5 4,966.7 5,077.2 4,966.7 3,964.2 Peak demand in (MW) 1,026 1,094 1,201 1,291.1 1,385 1,291.1 1,444.1 Demand supply Gap (MW) 320.4 348 455 461.9 529.1 461.9 482.9 India imports (GWh) 746.07 790.14 1,318.75 1,369.89 1,782.86 1,777.68 2,177.24 Source: Government of Nepal Ministry of Finance Nepal, Economic Survey, 2017.
  • 5. The average daily and monthly imports of petroleum products, 2016) Energy sources FY 2014 – 2015 FY 2015 – 2016 Product (KL) Daily Avg. Monthly Avg. Daily Avg. Monthly Avg. Petrol 794.09 23,822.22 410.08 12,302.50 Diesel 2,553.00 76,590.08 1,270.80 38,124.00 Kerosene 55.01 1,650.42 23.75 712.58 Aviation fuel 394.82 11,644.67 131.94 3,958.17 Total excl. LPG 3,796.92 113,708.00 1,836.57 55,097.25 LPG MT 717.42 21,522.63 365.63 10,960.58 Source: Government of Nepal, Nepal Portfolio Performance Review (NPPR) 2015.  According to NOC, last FY Import of Petroleum Product costs NPRs 150 billion , 20 billion in LPG, and 28 billion in Electricity Trade deficit with India was 491 billion NPR in 2016
  • 6. Energy overview & Electricity Consumption Source: Government of Nepal Economic Survey 2015 The electricity consumption in different sectors Energy overview
  • 7. Communication Spectrum of Nepal Source: Nepal Telecom 2015
  • 8. Energy Crisis “An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy.” Wastage of energy Over Consumption Lack of proper storage system Major accidents & Natural calamities Poor distribution system Delay in commissioning power plants Political barrier obstruction on supply Poor Infrastructure Over Population Causes of Energy Crisis Energy policy and its robust implementation Green initiative & tax credit Improve energy infrastructure 10% Off–grid power generation locally to save T&D loss Conservation of energy 5% Energy Audit 5% Adaptation of Renewable Energy Technology 15% Energy Efficiency Measures 10% Solutions of energy crisis
  • 9. Electricity Generation mix in the World 2017 38% 25% 23% 4% 10% Electricity Generation mix in the World 2017 Coal Renewable Gas Oil Nuclear Source: IEA, 2017
  • 10.
  • 12. Essential Technologies of Smart Cities Essential Technologi es of Smart Cities Smart Energy Smart Transport ation Smart Infrastructur e Smart Mobility Smart IOT Device Smart Data  Rapid urbanization is leading to smarter cities that improve the lives of citizens through technology.  Both residential and commercial buildings in smart cities are more efficient, using less energy  Smart grids are part of the development of a smart city  Smart streetlights are an easy entry point for many cities  LED lights save money and pay for themselves within a few years,  Smart energy response and Demand Side Management(DSM) and potential reduction opportunities
  • 13. A smart meter is a new kind of electricity meter that can automatically send meter readings to the power supplier for billing and help consumers better understand their energy usage. Smart meter
  • 14.  prosumers i.e. the consumers who also produce and share surplus energy with grid and other users. Prosumers are not only an important stakeholder of the future smart grids but also have a vital role in peak demand management.  According to the WEC, all energy providers should ensure a balance is achieved between the ‘Energy Trilemma’, including energy security, environmental sustainability and energy equity
  • 15.
  • 16. - Weather monitoring using a weather station for transmission line in Malaysia. - Laser distance measurement sensor installation
  • 17. Sustainability - New Market Territories
  • 18. South Asia has among the highest economic growth rates in the world and represents a little over 7 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions. Six countries in the region -- Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- have enormous untapped opportunities in climate-smart investing in sectors including renewable energy, transport, green buildings, urban wastewater, climate-smart agriculture, and municipal solid waste management.
  • 19.  electronic thermostats with programmable settings that control home temperature.  Smart washing machines can sense the type and size of laundry load and adjust cycle time, water quantity and temperature accordingly.  A home energy management system (HEMS) controls and records energy use through the gateway with user input via an app.  In-home displays (IHDs) provide real-time household energy use data to consumers via an app or standalone display.  Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) allowed the centralized monitoring and control of far-off generation and transmission systems.
  • 20. Conclusion  Priority on Innovate technology  Emphasis on Energy Mix  Increase Digital Connectivity (telecom, Broadband)  Enhance Digital Platforms and solutions (e-government services, Cloud)  More sustainable vision and appropriate action plans  More focus on research and development (R&D)  Smart meter and modern infrastructure  Load Management for peak electricity demand savings due to load-shifting

Editor's Notes

  1. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  2. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit ) 18 – 20 % every year LPG gas demand according to Nepal Oil Corporation 30,000 Metric ton / month LPG Gas Demand in Nepal
  3. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  4. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2016/08/south-africa-eyes-diversified-energy-mix/ (Picture credit )
  5. Before going to the methodology, we need to understand why do we need the process? There are no cities with exactly the same context conditions.
  6. The outcome of this process is the successful implementation Reading’s traveller info apps – utilising the data in open data server