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Genetic variations in plants that have
been produced by plant tissue culture
and can be detected as genetic or
phenotypic traits.
Variations in number and structure of chromosomes are
commonly observed.
Regenerated plants with altered chromosomal changes often
show changes in leaf shape and colour, growth rate and
habit, and sexual fertility.
It is generally heritable mutations and persist in plant
population even after plantation into the field.
Basic Features of Somaclonal Variations
Mechanism of Somaclonal Variations
1. Genetic (Heritable Variations)
• Pre-existing variations in the somatic cells of
explant
• Caused by mutations and other DNA changes
• Occur at high frequency
2. Epigenetic (Non-heritable Variations)
• Variations generated during tissue culture
• Caused by temporary phenotypic changes
• Occur at low frequency
Callus Tissue
Organogenesis
Regenerated plants Hardening and Selfing
Somaclonal Variants
Steps involved in induction and selection of Somaclonal
Variations
Causes of Somaclonal
Variations
Physiological
Cause
Genetic Cause
Biochemical
Cause
Exposure of culture to plant growth
regulators.
Culture conditions
Physiological Cause
1. Change in chromosome number
aneuploidy – gain or loss of 1 or more chromosomes
polyploidy – gain or loss of an entire genome
translocation – arms of chromosomes switched
inversion – piece of chromosome inverted
2. Change in chromosome structure
Deletion
Inversion
Duplication
Translocation
Genetic Cause
3. Gene Mutation
Transition
Transversion
Insertion
Deletion
4. Plasmagene Mutation
5. Transposable element activation
Genetic Cause
6. DNA sequence
 Change in DNA
 Detection of altered fragment size by using
Restriction enzyme
 Change in Protein
 Loss or gain in protein band
 Alteration in level of specific protein
 Methylation of DNA
 Methylation inactivates transcription process.
Genetic Cause
Lack of photosynthetic ability due to alteration
in carbon metabolism
Biosynthesis of starch via carotenoid pathway
Nitrogen metabolism
Antibiotic resistance.
Biochemical Cause
1. Analysis of morphological characters
Qualitative characters: Plant height, maturity date, flowering
date and leaf size
Quantitative characters: yield of flower, seeds and wax contents
in different plant parts
2. Variant detection by cytological Studies
Staining of meristematic tissues like root tip, leaf tip with feulgen
and acetocarmine provide the number and morphology of
chromosomes.
3. Variant detection by DNA contents
Cytophotometer detection of feulgen stained nuclei can be used
to measure the DNA contents
Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal
Variants
4. Variant detection by gel electrophoresis
Change in concentration of enzymes, proteins and hemical products
like pigments, alkaloids and amino acids can be detected by their
electrophoretic pattern
5. Detection of disease resistance variant
Pathogen or toxin responsible for disease resistance can be used as
selection agent during culture.
6. Detection of herbicide resistance variant
Plantlets generated by the addition of herbicide to the cell culture
system can be used as herbicide resistance plant.
Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal
Variants
7. Detection of environmental stress tolerant variant
Selection of high salt tolerant cell lines in tobacco
Selection of water-logging and drought resistance cell lines in
tomato
Selection of temperature stress tolerant in cell lines in pear.
Selection of mineral toxicities tolerant in sorghum plant (mainly for
aluminium toxicity)
Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal
Variants
Help in crop improvement
Creation of additional genetic varitions
Increased and improved production of secondary
metabolites
Selection of plants resistant to various
toxins, herbicides, high salt concentration and
mineral toxicity
Suitable for breeding of tree species
Advantages of Somaclonal Variations
Improvement of existing clonal cultures
sugarcane – selections for higher yield & disease
resistance
potatoes – yield & disease resistance
improved geraniums (esp. scented varieties)
woody ornamentals (e.g., Paulownia – selection
for leaf variegation
Applications to crop improvement
A serious disadvantage occurs in operations which require
clonal uniformity, as in the horticulture and forestry
industries where tissue culture is employed for rapid
propagation of elite genotypes
Sometime leads to undesirable results
Selected variants are random and genetically unstable
Require extensive and extended field trials
Not suitable for complex agronomic traits like yield, quality
etc.
May develop variants with pleiotropic effects which are not
true.
Disadvantages of Somaclonal Variations
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somaclonalvariation-130925081312-phpapp02.pdf

  • 1.
  • 2. Genetic variations in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture and can be detected as genetic or phenotypic traits.
  • 3. Variations in number and structure of chromosomes are commonly observed. Regenerated plants with altered chromosomal changes often show changes in leaf shape and colour, growth rate and habit, and sexual fertility. It is generally heritable mutations and persist in plant population even after plantation into the field. Basic Features of Somaclonal Variations
  • 4. Mechanism of Somaclonal Variations 1. Genetic (Heritable Variations) • Pre-existing variations in the somatic cells of explant • Caused by mutations and other DNA changes • Occur at high frequency 2. Epigenetic (Non-heritable Variations) • Variations generated during tissue culture • Caused by temporary phenotypic changes • Occur at low frequency
  • 5. Callus Tissue Organogenesis Regenerated plants Hardening and Selfing Somaclonal Variants Steps involved in induction and selection of Somaclonal Variations
  • 7. Exposure of culture to plant growth regulators. Culture conditions Physiological Cause
  • 8. 1. Change in chromosome number aneuploidy – gain or loss of 1 or more chromosomes polyploidy – gain or loss of an entire genome translocation – arms of chromosomes switched inversion – piece of chromosome inverted 2. Change in chromosome structure Deletion Inversion Duplication Translocation Genetic Cause
  • 9. 3. Gene Mutation Transition Transversion Insertion Deletion 4. Plasmagene Mutation 5. Transposable element activation Genetic Cause
  • 10. 6. DNA sequence  Change in DNA  Detection of altered fragment size by using Restriction enzyme  Change in Protein  Loss or gain in protein band  Alteration in level of specific protein  Methylation of DNA  Methylation inactivates transcription process. Genetic Cause
  • 11. Lack of photosynthetic ability due to alteration in carbon metabolism Biosynthesis of starch via carotenoid pathway Nitrogen metabolism Antibiotic resistance. Biochemical Cause
  • 12. 1. Analysis of morphological characters Qualitative characters: Plant height, maturity date, flowering date and leaf size Quantitative characters: yield of flower, seeds and wax contents in different plant parts 2. Variant detection by cytological Studies Staining of meristematic tissues like root tip, leaf tip with feulgen and acetocarmine provide the number and morphology of chromosomes. 3. Variant detection by DNA contents Cytophotometer detection of feulgen stained nuclei can be used to measure the DNA contents Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal Variants
  • 13. 4. Variant detection by gel electrophoresis Change in concentration of enzymes, proteins and hemical products like pigments, alkaloids and amino acids can be detected by their electrophoretic pattern 5. Detection of disease resistance variant Pathogen or toxin responsible for disease resistance can be used as selection agent during culture. 6. Detection of herbicide resistance variant Plantlets generated by the addition of herbicide to the cell culture system can be used as herbicide resistance plant. Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal Variants
  • 14. 7. Detection of environmental stress tolerant variant Selection of high salt tolerant cell lines in tobacco Selection of water-logging and drought resistance cell lines in tomato Selection of temperature stress tolerant in cell lines in pear. Selection of mineral toxicities tolerant in sorghum plant (mainly for aluminium toxicity) Detection and Isolation of Somaclonal Variants
  • 15. Help in crop improvement Creation of additional genetic varitions Increased and improved production of secondary metabolites Selection of plants resistant to various toxins, herbicides, high salt concentration and mineral toxicity Suitable for breeding of tree species Advantages of Somaclonal Variations
  • 16. Improvement of existing clonal cultures sugarcane – selections for higher yield & disease resistance potatoes – yield & disease resistance improved geraniums (esp. scented varieties) woody ornamentals (e.g., Paulownia – selection for leaf variegation Applications to crop improvement
  • 17. A serious disadvantage occurs in operations which require clonal uniformity, as in the horticulture and forestry industries where tissue culture is employed for rapid propagation of elite genotypes Sometime leads to undesirable results Selected variants are random and genetically unstable Require extensive and extended field trials Not suitable for complex agronomic traits like yield, quality etc. May develop variants with pleiotropic effects which are not true. Disadvantages of Somaclonal Variations