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SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
PRESENTATION BY ARSHITA BANSAL
SOIL
SOIL
Soil is the upper layer of the Earth's surface made up of minerals,
organic matter, water, and air. It's where plants grow, and it's
essential for agriculture and ecosystems. Soil is renewable
because, although it can be depleted or degraded, it can be
restored through natural processes and human interventions like
sustainable farming practices.
Importance of Soil
1. Supports Plant Growth: Soil provides essential nutrients, water,
and support for plant roots, allowing them to grow and thrive.
2. Agriculture: Soil is the foundation of agriculture, providing the
medium for crop production and supporting food security.
3. Water Regulation: Soil acts as a reservoir for water, storing and
releasing it gradually, which helps regulate water flow and prevent
floods and droughts.
4. Carbon Storage: Soil stores a significant amount of carbon, playing
a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and climate regulation.
SOIL
FORMATION
1. Weathering: Weathering is the first step in soil formation. It's when rocks are
broken down into smaller pieces by physical, chemical, and biological processes.
1. Addition of Organic Matter: As plants, animals, and microorganisms live and
die on the surface of the Earth, they contribute organic matter to the soil. This
organic matter comes from dead leaves, roots, animal droppings, and other
decaying organic material. As it decomposes, organic matter releases nutrients
into the soil and helps bind soil particles together, improving soil structure.
3. Translocation: Translocation is the movement of minerals, organic
matter, and water within the soil. This movement can happen vertically, as
water carries dissolved minerals downward through the soil profile in a
process called leaching. It can also happen horizontally, as water and roots
move nutrients and organic matter from one part of the soil to another.
4. Soil Horizon Formation: Over time, distinct layers called soil horizons
begin to develop in the soil profile. These horizons are defined by
differences in color, texture, structure, and composition. The topsoil, or A
horizon, is usually the richest in organic matter and nutrients, while the
subsoil, or B horizon, may contain more clay and mineral deposits. Below
the subsoil is the C horizon, which consists of weathered parent material.
LAYERS OF SOIL
5. Soil Profile Development: As soil formation continues, these soil
horizons become more defined, creating a mature soil profile with
distinct layers. Each layer has its own characteristics and properties,
which influence things like water retention, nutrient availability, and
root penetration. A mature soil profile supports various ecological
functions and provides a habitat for plants, animals, and
microorganisms.
TYPES OF
SOIL
Alluvial Soil:
● Location: Alluvial soil is found in areas near rivers and streams, where
water has deposited sediments over time.
Black Soil (also known as Regur Soil):
● Location: Black soil is commonly found in the Deccan Plateau
region of India and other similar regions around the world.
Forest and Mountain Soil:
● Location: Forest and mountain soils are found in hilly and
mountainous regions, often covered by dense forests.
Red and Yellow Sand:
● Location: Red and yellow sands are often found in arid and semi-arid
regions, especially in desert areas.
Laterite Soil:
● Location:Laterite soil is typically found in tropical regions with high
temperatures and heavy rainfall, such as parts of India, Africa,
Southeast Asia, and Australia
Arid and desert soil:
● Location:Arid and desert soils, on the other hand, are found in arid and semi-arid
regions characterized by low rainfall and high evaporation rates.Arid and desert
soils can be found in places like the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Arabian Desert in
the Middle East, the Great Basin Desert in the United States, and the Thar Desert
in India
Video explaining soil formation
Recapitulation
Q1 What are the processes responsible for formation of soil?
Q2 Why is soil considered a vital natural resource?
Q3 What are the different types of soil?
Q4 Where are different types of soil found?
Q5 Tell about different layers of soil.
Homework
1. Locate on the map all the locations of different types of soil in India
2. Read more about layers of soil

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SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx

  • 1. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION PRESENTATION BY ARSHITA BANSAL
  • 3. SOIL Soil is the upper layer of the Earth's surface made up of minerals, organic matter, water, and air. It's where plants grow, and it's essential for agriculture and ecosystems. Soil is renewable because, although it can be depleted or degraded, it can be restored through natural processes and human interventions like sustainable farming practices.
  • 4. Importance of Soil 1. Supports Plant Growth: Soil provides essential nutrients, water, and support for plant roots, allowing them to grow and thrive. 2. Agriculture: Soil is the foundation of agriculture, providing the medium for crop production and supporting food security. 3. Water Regulation: Soil acts as a reservoir for water, storing and releasing it gradually, which helps regulate water flow and prevent floods and droughts. 4. Carbon Storage: Soil stores a significant amount of carbon, playing a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and climate regulation.
  • 5. SOIL FORMATION 1. Weathering: Weathering is the first step in soil formation. It's when rocks are broken down into smaller pieces by physical, chemical, and biological processes. 1. Addition of Organic Matter: As plants, animals, and microorganisms live and die on the surface of the Earth, they contribute organic matter to the soil. This organic matter comes from dead leaves, roots, animal droppings, and other decaying organic material. As it decomposes, organic matter releases nutrients into the soil and helps bind soil particles together, improving soil structure.
  • 6. 3. Translocation: Translocation is the movement of minerals, organic matter, and water within the soil. This movement can happen vertically, as water carries dissolved minerals downward through the soil profile in a process called leaching. It can also happen horizontally, as water and roots move nutrients and organic matter from one part of the soil to another. 4. Soil Horizon Formation: Over time, distinct layers called soil horizons begin to develop in the soil profile. These horizons are defined by differences in color, texture, structure, and composition. The topsoil, or A horizon, is usually the richest in organic matter and nutrients, while the subsoil, or B horizon, may contain more clay and mineral deposits. Below the subsoil is the C horizon, which consists of weathered parent material.
  • 8. 5. Soil Profile Development: As soil formation continues, these soil horizons become more defined, creating a mature soil profile with distinct layers. Each layer has its own characteristics and properties, which influence things like water retention, nutrient availability, and root penetration. A mature soil profile supports various ecological functions and provides a habitat for plants, animals, and microorganisms.
  • 9. TYPES OF SOIL Alluvial Soil: ● Location: Alluvial soil is found in areas near rivers and streams, where water has deposited sediments over time.
  • 10. Black Soil (also known as Regur Soil): ● Location: Black soil is commonly found in the Deccan Plateau region of India and other similar regions around the world.
  • 11. Forest and Mountain Soil: ● Location: Forest and mountain soils are found in hilly and mountainous regions, often covered by dense forests.
  • 12. Red and Yellow Sand: ● Location: Red and yellow sands are often found in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in desert areas.
  • 13. Laterite Soil: ● Location:Laterite soil is typically found in tropical regions with high temperatures and heavy rainfall, such as parts of India, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Australia
  • 14. Arid and desert soil: ● Location:Arid and desert soils, on the other hand, are found in arid and semi-arid regions characterized by low rainfall and high evaporation rates.Arid and desert soils can be found in places like the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Arabian Desert in the Middle East, the Great Basin Desert in the United States, and the Thar Desert in India
  • 16. Recapitulation Q1 What are the processes responsible for formation of soil? Q2 Why is soil considered a vital natural resource? Q3 What are the different types of soil? Q4 Where are different types of soil found? Q5 Tell about different layers of soil.
  • 17. Homework 1. Locate on the map all the locations of different types of soil in India 2. Read more about layers of soil