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FOUNDRY
ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT
A K S H A N S H M I S H R A
R e g . N u m b e r : 1 0 2 1 3 1 0 3 3 4
C o l l e g e : S R M U n i v e r s i t y
a k s h a n s h m i s h r a 1 1 @ g m a i l . c o m
SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR
FOUNDRY USE
In recent years, key developments have taken place in
computer- aided design, casting design, simulation, rapid
tooling, intelligent advisory systems and Internet based
engineering and most foundries are presently caught
between change and survival. This is especially true in
case of the foundries operating in the developing
countries.
1
SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR FOUNDRY USE
In recent years, key developments have taken place in computer- aided design,
casting design, simulation, rapid tooling, intelligent advisory systems and Internet
based engineering and most foundries are presently caught between change and
survival. This is especially true in case of the foundries operating in the developing
countries.
However, they have to keep pace with the changing technological trends, if they
have to survive in the global market. If properly adopted, these can lead to both
immediate tangible benefits in terms of shorter lead time, higher productivity and
lower rejections, and long term intangible benefits, in terms of better company
image, higher confidence, stronger partnerships and improved marketing. Some of
the factors hindering the foundries in their full adaptation are price competition,
manpower availability and high cost of trained technical manpower, lack of
technical support and perception.
Various software packages are used in foundry are following:-
1) Magmasoft
2) CastCAE
3) AFS Solid 2000
4) ProCAST
5) MeshCAST
6) AutoCAST
In this report I will discuss about ProCAST Software package.
2
ProCAST Software Package
ProCAST is an advanced and complete tool which is the result of more than 20
years of collaboration with major industrial partners and academic institutions all
over the world.
ProCAST offers an extensive suite of modules and foundry tools to meet your
most challenging industrial requirements. The software, based on powerful Finite
Element Technology, is well suited to also predict distortions and residual stresses
and can address more specific processes like semi-solid, core blowing, centrifugal,
lost foam and continuous casting.
ProCAST software was developed by UES Software, Inc., Ohio using finite element
technique. Foundries have used the software for improving the method and
simulating the solidification process for producing radiographic quality castings,
the very first time. ProCAST empowers foundries to address the most technically
demanding tasks in casting, while reducing lead time, increasing productivity and
controlling cost. This release offers best-in-class casting simulation in a single,
integrated and customizable environment.
ProCAST suite consists of one base module and seven optional modules. The Base
module comes with thermal/solidification solver along with pre and post
processors. The additional modules are Meshing, Fluid, Stress, Radiation,
Microstructure, Electromagnetic and Inverse.
3
Suggested proCAST modules for different casting processes are following:-
MODULE SAND
CASTING
DIE CASTING PERMANENT
MOLD
CASTING
INVESTMENT
CASTING
Meshing Suggested Suggested Suggested Required
Fluid Suggested Required Required Required
Thermal Required Required Required Required
Stress Suggested Suggested Suggested Optional
Radiation Optional Optional Optional Required
Inverse Optional Optional Optional Optional
Micromodel Optional Optional Optional Optional
Key Features:
ProCAST modules are ideal for all types of heat transfer transient, non-linear 3-D
heat conduction, heat convection and radiation, phase changes using enthalpy
formulation, porosity predictions, fast mesh generation, cyclic analysis for die
casting and permanent mould casting, virtual mould for sand casting, heat transfer
between coincident or non-coincident meshes and dynamic memory allocation
description. The Heat Simulation Module includes the heat transfer analysis and is
the base module of ProCAST System. The pre and post processors for the system
are included with this base module, comprising a complete stand-alone package
for performing solidification analyses.
ProCAST can simulate all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction,
convection, and radiation. Additionally, phase change and internal heat generation
or dissipation are accounted for. At the microscopic level, the thermal analysis
uses an enthalpy formulation. This formulation offers several advantages including
the removal of any discontinuity associated with sharp phase transformation and a
more accurate conservation of energy formulation than in the equivalent specific
heat method.
4
Fig 1.2 The picture shows that some of the metal has lost its superheat and is approaching the liquidus temperature
of 616 degrees
ProCAST allows the input of thermal, fluid, mechanical and electromagnetic
properties of material as constants or as functions of temperature. Once a
material has been defined, it is then stored into a database for use in other
simulations without having to re-enter property values.
This database functionality is also used in all other areas of condition assignment.
It can automatically generate a material’s thermodynamic properties based on the
composition of that material. Developed by AEA technology and Thermo Tech Ltd.,
the integration of this material property generator allows the users to generate
temperature dependent enthalpy and fraction solid data, as well as the fraction of
phases at each temperature for use in simulations. Thus, the effects of
composition changes I an alloy on the solidification behaviour of a casting can be
examined.
ProCAST suite has two micro- modelling modules to offer. They are based on two
different methods and each has their advantages depending on the process and
material it is applied on. The modules are following:-
1) Deterministic Modeling
2) CAFÉ 3D (Cellular Automation – Finite Element)
5
1) Deterministic Modelling :
This modelling can be applied for
 Equiaxed Dendritic (DAS)
 Coupled Eutectic
 Ductile Iron Eutectic (SGI)
 Grey/White Iron Eutectic
 Ductile Iron Eutectoid
 Grey Iron Eutectoid
 Peritectic Transformation
 Scheil Model
 Iron/Carbon Solid State Transformation.
The ProCAST Micro – modelling Module performs deterministic modelling,
which couples the thermal history at any location in a casting with the
nucleation and growth of microstructures. The results of this type of simulation
are as follows:
 Determination of microstructure size, distribution and characterization
 Prediction of mechanical properties
 Nodule count and graphite radius prediction for ductile Iron
 Prediction of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing
 Micro – segregation calculation
The key features of this package are following:
 Prediction of both columnar and equiaxed dendritic grain structures
 Columnar to equiaxed transition
 Grain selection in the columnar zone
 Prediction of stray crystals in single crystal parts
 Evolution of the crystallographic texture
 Stereological information
 Direct visualization of grain structure
6
Fig. 1.3 Prediction of both columnar and equiaxed dendritic grain structures
2) CAFÉ Modelling:
Calcom and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland
have developed a new module of ProCAST for the modelling of grain structures
in castings. This module is based upon a coupling between 382 principles of
Foundry Technology stochastic methods and Finite Elements. Solidification
grain structure can be analysed using this modelling concept. Applications of
this technology have shown that many features of dendritic grain structures
can be reproduced for several solidification processes and cooling
configurations. Stochastic modelling have been successfully applied and
experimentally validated to the prediction of grain structures in Investment
casting processes for the production of turbine blades (Ni-base alloys).
7
The CAFÉ model combines the traditional approach of microstructure
modelling with random aspects such as the location and crystallographic
orientation of the nuclei. It also takes into account the preferential growth
directions of dendrite trunks and arms. The pre- processing module enables a
quick and easy definition of the parameters for the CAFÉ calculation. A specific
post – processing module has been designed to visualize the results such as
grain structure at the skin of the casting, grain structure in cross sections,
growth interface, nucleation centres, grain texture, poles figures, grain size
distribution and histogram.
Fig 1.3 Grain structure in a blade
8
The key features of this package are following:
 Simulates all casting process
 High pressure die casting
 Low pressure die casting
 Permanent Mould casting
 Investment casting
 Sand casting
 Continuous casting
 Solves Full 3- D Navier-stokes fluid flow equations
 Coordinates rotate for tilt pouring
 Gas modelling for simulating trapped gas and venting
 Non – Newtonian flow modelling
 Filter modelling
 Compressible flow modelling
 Lost foam modelling
 Particle tracking

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Software packages for foundry use

  • 1. FOUNDRY ENGINEERING ASSIGNMENT A K S H A N S H M I S H R A R e g . N u m b e r : 1 0 2 1 3 1 0 3 3 4 C o l l e g e : S R M U n i v e r s i t y a k s h a n s h m i s h r a 1 1 @ g m a i l . c o m SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR FOUNDRY USE In recent years, key developments have taken place in computer- aided design, casting design, simulation, rapid tooling, intelligent advisory systems and Internet based engineering and most foundries are presently caught between change and survival. This is especially true in case of the foundries operating in the developing countries.
  • 2. 1 SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR FOUNDRY USE In recent years, key developments have taken place in computer- aided design, casting design, simulation, rapid tooling, intelligent advisory systems and Internet based engineering and most foundries are presently caught between change and survival. This is especially true in case of the foundries operating in the developing countries. However, they have to keep pace with the changing technological trends, if they have to survive in the global market. If properly adopted, these can lead to both immediate tangible benefits in terms of shorter lead time, higher productivity and lower rejections, and long term intangible benefits, in terms of better company image, higher confidence, stronger partnerships and improved marketing. Some of the factors hindering the foundries in their full adaptation are price competition, manpower availability and high cost of trained technical manpower, lack of technical support and perception. Various software packages are used in foundry are following:- 1) Magmasoft 2) CastCAE 3) AFS Solid 2000 4) ProCAST 5) MeshCAST 6) AutoCAST In this report I will discuss about ProCAST Software package.
  • 3. 2 ProCAST Software Package ProCAST is an advanced and complete tool which is the result of more than 20 years of collaboration with major industrial partners and academic institutions all over the world. ProCAST offers an extensive suite of modules and foundry tools to meet your most challenging industrial requirements. The software, based on powerful Finite Element Technology, is well suited to also predict distortions and residual stresses and can address more specific processes like semi-solid, core blowing, centrifugal, lost foam and continuous casting. ProCAST software was developed by UES Software, Inc., Ohio using finite element technique. Foundries have used the software for improving the method and simulating the solidification process for producing radiographic quality castings, the very first time. ProCAST empowers foundries to address the most technically demanding tasks in casting, while reducing lead time, increasing productivity and controlling cost. This release offers best-in-class casting simulation in a single, integrated and customizable environment. ProCAST suite consists of one base module and seven optional modules. The Base module comes with thermal/solidification solver along with pre and post processors. The additional modules are Meshing, Fluid, Stress, Radiation, Microstructure, Electromagnetic and Inverse.
  • 4. 3 Suggested proCAST modules for different casting processes are following:- MODULE SAND CASTING DIE CASTING PERMANENT MOLD CASTING INVESTMENT CASTING Meshing Suggested Suggested Suggested Required Fluid Suggested Required Required Required Thermal Required Required Required Required Stress Suggested Suggested Suggested Optional Radiation Optional Optional Optional Required Inverse Optional Optional Optional Optional Micromodel Optional Optional Optional Optional Key Features: ProCAST modules are ideal for all types of heat transfer transient, non-linear 3-D heat conduction, heat convection and radiation, phase changes using enthalpy formulation, porosity predictions, fast mesh generation, cyclic analysis for die casting and permanent mould casting, virtual mould for sand casting, heat transfer between coincident or non-coincident meshes and dynamic memory allocation description. The Heat Simulation Module includes the heat transfer analysis and is the base module of ProCAST System. The pre and post processors for the system are included with this base module, comprising a complete stand-alone package for performing solidification analyses. ProCAST can simulate all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Additionally, phase change and internal heat generation or dissipation are accounted for. At the microscopic level, the thermal analysis uses an enthalpy formulation. This formulation offers several advantages including the removal of any discontinuity associated with sharp phase transformation and a more accurate conservation of energy formulation than in the equivalent specific heat method.
  • 5. 4 Fig 1.2 The picture shows that some of the metal has lost its superheat and is approaching the liquidus temperature of 616 degrees ProCAST allows the input of thermal, fluid, mechanical and electromagnetic properties of material as constants or as functions of temperature. Once a material has been defined, it is then stored into a database for use in other simulations without having to re-enter property values. This database functionality is also used in all other areas of condition assignment. It can automatically generate a material’s thermodynamic properties based on the composition of that material. Developed by AEA technology and Thermo Tech Ltd., the integration of this material property generator allows the users to generate temperature dependent enthalpy and fraction solid data, as well as the fraction of phases at each temperature for use in simulations. Thus, the effects of composition changes I an alloy on the solidification behaviour of a casting can be examined. ProCAST suite has two micro- modelling modules to offer. They are based on two different methods and each has their advantages depending on the process and material it is applied on. The modules are following:- 1) Deterministic Modeling 2) CAFÉ 3D (Cellular Automation – Finite Element)
  • 6. 5 1) Deterministic Modelling : This modelling can be applied for  Equiaxed Dendritic (DAS)  Coupled Eutectic  Ductile Iron Eutectic (SGI)  Grey/White Iron Eutectic  Ductile Iron Eutectoid  Grey Iron Eutectoid  Peritectic Transformation  Scheil Model  Iron/Carbon Solid State Transformation. The ProCAST Micro – modelling Module performs deterministic modelling, which couples the thermal history at any location in a casting with the nucleation and growth of microstructures. The results of this type of simulation are as follows:  Determination of microstructure size, distribution and characterization  Prediction of mechanical properties  Nodule count and graphite radius prediction for ductile Iron  Prediction of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing  Micro – segregation calculation The key features of this package are following:  Prediction of both columnar and equiaxed dendritic grain structures  Columnar to equiaxed transition  Grain selection in the columnar zone  Prediction of stray crystals in single crystal parts  Evolution of the crystallographic texture  Stereological information  Direct visualization of grain structure
  • 7. 6 Fig. 1.3 Prediction of both columnar and equiaxed dendritic grain structures 2) CAFÉ Modelling: Calcom and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland have developed a new module of ProCAST for the modelling of grain structures in castings. This module is based upon a coupling between 382 principles of Foundry Technology stochastic methods and Finite Elements. Solidification grain structure can be analysed using this modelling concept. Applications of this technology have shown that many features of dendritic grain structures can be reproduced for several solidification processes and cooling configurations. Stochastic modelling have been successfully applied and experimentally validated to the prediction of grain structures in Investment casting processes for the production of turbine blades (Ni-base alloys).
  • 8. 7 The CAFÉ model combines the traditional approach of microstructure modelling with random aspects such as the location and crystallographic orientation of the nuclei. It also takes into account the preferential growth directions of dendrite trunks and arms. The pre- processing module enables a quick and easy definition of the parameters for the CAFÉ calculation. A specific post – processing module has been designed to visualize the results such as grain structure at the skin of the casting, grain structure in cross sections, growth interface, nucleation centres, grain texture, poles figures, grain size distribution and histogram. Fig 1.3 Grain structure in a blade
  • 9. 8 The key features of this package are following:  Simulates all casting process  High pressure die casting  Low pressure die casting  Permanent Mould casting  Investment casting  Sand casting  Continuous casting  Solves Full 3- D Navier-stokes fluid flow equations  Coordinates rotate for tilt pouring  Gas modelling for simulating trapped gas and venting  Non – Newtonian flow modelling  Filter modelling  Compressible flow modelling  Lost foam modelling  Particle tracking