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NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD

FOR RELEASE DECEMBER 30, 2013

Maeve Duggan, Research Assistant
Aaron Smith, Senior Researcher
202.419.4500
www.pewresearch.org

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Maeve Duggan and Aaron Smith, Pew Research Center, January 2014, “Social Media Update 2013”
Available at: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Social-Media-Update.aspx
1
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Main Findings
Some 73% of online adults now use a social networking site of some kind.1 Facebook is the
dominant social networking platform in the number of users, but a striking number of users are
now diversifying onto other platforms. Some 42% of online adults now use multiple social
networking sites. In addition, Instagram users are nearly as likely as Facebook users to check in to
the site on a daily basis. These are among the key findings on social networking site usage and
adoption from a new survey from the Pew Research Center’s Internet Project.
Despite recent growth by services such as Pinterest and Instagram, Facebook
remains the dominant social networking platform
As in previous Pew Research surveys of social networking usage, Facebook remains the dominant
player in the social networking space. Some 71% of online adults are now Facebook users, a slight
increase from the 67% of
online adults who used
Social media sites, 2012-2013
Facebook as of late 2012.
% of online adults who use the following social media websites, by year
While Facebook is popular
across a diverse mix of
demographic groups, other
sites have developed their
own unique demographic
user profiles. For example,
Pinterest holds particular
appeal to female users
(women are four times as
likely as men to be Pinterest
users), and LinkedIn is
especially popular among
college graduates and
internet users in higher
income households. Twitter
and Instagram have

2012

67

2013

71

20

Facebook

22

LinkedIn

21
15

Pinterest

16

18

Twitter

13

17

Instagram

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project Tracking Surveys, 2012 -2013. 2013 data collected
August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were
conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for
results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points.
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

This figure is based on a general social media usage question from a separate survey, conducted July 18September 30, 2013 among 6,010 adults in the U.S. For more information on general social networking site
usage and demographics, see http://pewinternet.org/Commentary/2012/March/Pew-Internet-SocialNetworking-full-detail.aspx
1

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

particular appeal to younger adults, urban dwellers, and non-whites. And there is substantial
overlap between Twitter and Instagram user bases.
Facebook and Instagram exhibit especially high levels of user engagement: A
majority of users on these sites check in to them on a daily basis
In addition to being the most commonly used social networking platform of the five we measured,
Facebook also has high levels of engagement among its users: 63% of Facebook users visit the site
at least once a day, with 40% doing so multiple times throughout the day. Instagram and Twitter
have a significantly smaller number of users than Facebook does, but users of these sites also tend
to visit them frequently. Some 57% of Instagram users visit the site at least once a day (with 35%
doing so multiple times per day), and 46% of Twitter users are daily visitors (with 29% visiting
multiple times per day).
42% of online adults use multiple social networking platforms. For those who use
only one social networking site, Facebook is typically—though not always—the
platform of choice.
Overall, 42% of online adults use two or more of these social networks, while 36% use only one
(the remaining 22% did not use any of the five specific sites we asked about). Among those who
only use one major social networking platform, 84% say that Facebook is the single site that they
frequent. However, other “single platform” social networking site users have adopted a site other
than Facebook as their platform of choice. Among those who use just one social networking site,
8% use LinkedIn, 4% use Pinterest, and 2% each say that Instagram or Twitter is their sole social
networking site.
A note on the social networking platforms measured in this survey
In this survey, we only asked about a subset of the social networking sites that people use. The Pew
Research Center’s Journalism Project has collected recent data on the use of other social
networking platforms – especially in the context of getting news. To read their material about
other sites such as YouTube, Google+, Tumblr, Reddit, and Vine, please go to
http://www.journalism.org/2013/11/14/news-use-across-social-media-platforms/.
About this survey
The results in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton
Survey Research Associates International from August 7 to September 16, 2013, among a sample

www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

of 1,801 adults, age 18 and older. Telephone interviews were conducted in English and Spanish by
landline (901) and cell phone (900, including 482 without a landline phone). For results based on
the total sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling is plus or
minus 2.6 percentage points. For results based on Internet users (n=1,445), the margin of
sampling error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points.

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Fully 71% of online adults now use Facebook, and usage among seniors has increased significantly
in the last year. Some 45% of internet users age 65 or older now use Facebook, up from 35% who
did so in late 2012. Women are also particularly likely to use Facebook compared with men.

Facebook users
Among online adults, the % who use Facebook

Use Facebook
All internet users (n= 1,445)

71%

a Men (n= 734)

66

b Women (n= 711)

76a

a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025)

71

b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138)

76

c Hispanic (n= 169)

73

a 18-29 (n= 267)

84cd

b 30-49 (n= 473)

79cd

c 50-64 (n= 401)

60d

d 65+ (n= 278)

45

a High school grad or less (n= 385)

71

b Some college (n= 433)

75c

c College+ (n= 619)

68

a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328)

76d

b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259)

76

c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187)

68

d $75,000+ (n= 486)

69

a Urban (n= 479)

75

b Suburban (n= 700)

69

c Rural (n= 266)

71

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish
and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is
+/- 2.9 percentage points.
Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant
difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among
categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Some 18% of online adults currently use Twitter, statistically similar to the 16% who did so in
2012. As was the case in our previous surveys on Twitter use, adoption levels are particularly high
among younger adults and African-Americans.

Twitter users
Among online adults, the % who use Twitter

Use Twitter
All internet users (n= 1,445)

18%

a Men (n= 734)

17

b Women (n= 711)

18

a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025)
b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138)
c Hispanic (n= 169)

16
29ac
16

a 18-29 (n= 267)

31bcd

b 30-49 (n= 473)

19cd

c 50-64 (n= 401)

9

d 65+ (n= 278)

5

a High school grad or less (n= 385)

17

b Some college (n= 433)

18

c College+ (n= 619)

18

a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328)

17

b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259)

18

c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187)

15

d $75,000+ (n= 486)

19

a Urban (n= 479)

18c

b Suburban (n= 700)

19c

c Rural (n= 266)

11

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish
and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is
+/- 2.9 percentage points.
Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant
difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among
categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Some 17% of online adults use Instagram, up from 13% in late 2012. Two groups in particular have
experienced a notable increase in Instagram usage in the last year. Instagram adoption by internet
users ages 18-29 has increased from 28% in late 2012 to 37% in 2013, and adoption by African
American internet users has increased from 23% to 34% over the same time period. Instagram was
acquired by Facebook in April 2013.

Instagram users
Among online adults, the % who use Instagram

Use Instagram
All internet users(n= 1,445)

17%

a Men (n= 734)

15

b Women (n= 711)

20a

a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025)

12

b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138)

34ac

c Hispanic (n= 169)

23a

a 18-29 (n= 267)

37bcd

b 30-49 (n= 473)

18cd

c 50-64 (n= 401)

6d

d 65+ (n= 278)

1

a High school grad or less (n= 385)

16

b Some college (n= 433)

21c

c College+ (n= 619)

15

a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328)

18

b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259)

20

c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187)

15

d $75,000+ (n= 486)

16

a Urban (n= 479)

22c

b Suburban (n= 700)

18c

c Rural (n= 266)

6

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish
and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is
+/- 2.9 percentage points.
Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant
difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among
categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Some 21% of online adults use Pinterest, up from the 15% who did so in December 2012. Women
continue to dominate the site: fully 33% of online women are Pinterest users, compared to just 8%
of men. Pinterest users also skew slightly towards the affluent side – those in the highest income
bracket are more likely than those in the lowest to use the site, as are those with a college degree or
higher compared to those who have not attended college.

Pinterest users
Among online adults, the % who use Pinterest

Use Pinterest
All internet users(n= 1,445)
a Men (n= 734)

21%
8

b Women (n= 711)

33a

a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025)

21

b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138)

20

c Hispanic (n= 169)

18

a 18-29 (n= 267)

27cd

b 30-49 (n= 473)

24cd

c 50-64 (n= 401)

14

d 65+ (n= 278)

9

a High school grad or less (n= 385)

17

b Some college (n= 433)

20

c College+ (n= 619)

25a

a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328)

15

b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259)

21

c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187)

21

d $75,000+ (n= 486)

27a

a Urban (n= 479)

19

b Suburban (n= 700)

23c

c Rural (n= 266)

17

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish
and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is
+/- 2.9 percentage points.
Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant
difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among
categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Some 22% of online adults are LinkedIn users. As a platform geared towards professional
networking, its user demographics are unique from the other sites discussed above. Specifically,
LinkedIn usage is especially high among people with a college degree or higher, and among those
with an annual household income of $75,000 or more. It is also the only social networking site we
measured for which usage among 50-64 year olds is higher than usage among those ages 18-29.

LinkedIn users
Among online adults, the % who use LinkedIn

Use LinkedIn
All internet users(n= 1,445)

22%

a Men (n= 734)

24b

b Women (n= 711)

19

a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025)

22c

b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138)

30c

c Hispanic (n= 169)

13

a 18-29 (n= 267)

15

b 30-49 (n= 473)

27ad

c 50-64 (n= 401)

24ad

d 65+ (n= 278)

13

a High school grad or less (n= 385)

12

b Some college (n= 433)

16
38ab

c College+ (n= 619)
a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328)

12

b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259)

13

c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187)

22ab

d $75,000+ (n= 486)

38abc

a Employed (n= 912)

27b

b Not employed (n= 524)

12

a Urban (n= 479)

23c

b Suburban (n= 700)

26c

c Rural (n= 266)

8

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish
and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is
+/- 2.9 percentage points.
Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant
difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among
categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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When asked how often they visit the social networking sites they use, Facebook, Instagram, and
Twitter users stand out as having the highest rates of engagement.
Fully 63% of Facebook users report going on
the site at least daily (with 40% logging on
multiple times per day), giving it not only the
highest overall percentage of users, but also
the most engaged. Just 14% of Facebook users
say that they visit the site less than once a
week.
Instagram users visit the site nearly as
frequently as Facebook users. More than half
of Instagram users (57%) use the app on a
daily basis, with 35% doing so several times
per day. Twitter users are also frequent
visitors to the site. Some 46% use Twitter
daily, with 29% checking in several times per
day. However, 32% of Twitter users say that
they check in less than once per week.
Pinterest and LinkedIn users tend to have
more intermittent patterns of usage. Just 23%
of Pinterest users and 13% of LinkedIn users
visit the sites daily, and around half say they
use the sites less than once per week.

Frequency of social media site use
% of social media site users who use a particular site
with the following frequencies (% is reported among
each specific site’s user groups, e.g., 63% of Facebook
users use the site on a daily basis)

Daily

Weekly

Less often

63

Facebook

22
14
57

Instagram

20
22
46

Twitter

21
32
23

Pinterest

30
45
13

LinkedIn

34
52

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey,
August 07 –September 16, 2013. Interviews were conducted in
English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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Some 36% of internet users say that they use just one of the five social media sites specified in this
report (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn), while 42% use two or more of
these sites. The remaining 22% of
internet users have not adopted any of
Number of social media sites used
the five major platforms we asked about
% of internet users who use the following number of
social networking sites (sites measured include:
in our survey.
Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn)

Among those internet users who only use
one of these five major social networking
platforms, 8% use LinkedIn, 4% use
Pinterest, and 2% each say that
Instagram or Twitter is their sole social
networking site. The remaining 84% say
that Facebook is the one social
networking site they use.

36

22

23

12
5

2

No sites One site Two sites Three
Four Five sites
Facebook is by far the most commonlysites
sites
used social networking platform, and as a
Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey,
result, a significant majority of Twitter,
August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages
Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn users
18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on
landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all
also use Facebook. At the low end, 83% of
internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points.
LinkedIn users also use Facebook. At the
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
high end, 93% of Instagram users also use
Facebook (Instagram’s parent company).
About a quarter of Facebook users use each of the other sites.

Turning to sites other than Facebook, a significant level of overlap exists between Instagram and
Twitter users – 53% of Twitter users also use Instagram, and 53% of Instagram users also use
Twitter. Among non-Facebook sites, this is the highest rate of “reciprocity” between user groups
we measured.

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Social media matrix
% of users of each particular site who use another particular site (e.g., 29% of
Pinterest users also use Twitter)
Use
Twitter
% of Twitter
users who…
% of Instagram
users who…
% of Pinterest
users who…
% of LinkedIn
users who…
% of Facebook
users who…

Use
Instagram

Use
Pinterest

Use
LinkedIn

Use
Facebook

N/A

53

34

39

90

53

N/A

37

30

93

29

31

N/A

29

87

31

24

28

N/A

83

22

23

25

25

N/A

Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16,
2013. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones.
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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Survey Questions
August Tracking 2013 / Facebook Survey

Final Topline

9/18/2013

Data for August 7-September 16, 2013
Princeton Survey Research Associates International for
the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project
Sample: n=1,801 national adults, age 18 and older, including 900 cell phone interviews
Interviewing dates: 08.07.2013 – 09.16.2013
Margin of error is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points for results based on Total [n=1,801]
Margin of error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points for results based on all internet users [n=1,445]

WEB1-A Next...

Please tell me if you ever use the internet to do any of the following things. Do you
ever use the internet to...[INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE; ALWAYS ASK ABOUT FACEBOOK
LAST]?2
Based on all internet users [N=1,445]
TOTAL HAVE
EVER DONE
THIS

---------DID
YEST ERDAY

HAVE NOT
DONE T HIS

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

18
18
16
16
15
12
13
10
12
8

n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
8
5
4
n/a
n/a
2

82
82
84
84
85
88
87
90
88
92

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
0

0
*
*
0
0
0
0
*
0
*

21
15
12

n/a
n/a
n/a

77
83
87

2
2
1

*
0
*

Use Twitter
Current
May 2013
December 2012
August 2012
February 2012
August 2011
May 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010

Use Pinterest
Current
December 2012
August 2-5, 2012

WEB1-A continued...

Prior to January 2005, question wording was “Please tell me if you ever do any of the following when you
go online. Do you ever...[ITEM]?” Unless otherwise noted, trends are based on all internet users for that
survey.
2

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

TOTAL HAVE
EVER DONE
THIS

---------DID
YEST ERDAY

HAVE NOT
DONE T HIS

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

22

n/a

77

1

*

71
67

n/a
n/a

29
33

0
0

0
*

Use LinkedIn
Current

Use Facebook3
Current
December 13-16, 2012i

SNS2

Thinking about the social networking sites you use... About how often do you visit or use
[INSERT ITEMS; RANDOMIZE]? Several times a day, about once a day, 3-5 days a week,
1-2 days a week, every few weeks or less often?
SEVERAL
TIMES A
DAY

Item A: Based on
Twitter users [N=223]
a. Twitter
Item B: Based on
Instagram users
[N=196]
b. Instagram
Item C: Based on
Pinterest users [N=272]
c. Pinterest
Item D: Based on
LinkedIn users [N=341]
d. LinkedIn
Item E: Based on
Facebook users
[N=960]
e. Facebook

ABOUT
ONCE A
DAY

3-5 DAYS A
WEEK

1-2 DAYS A
WEEK

EVERY FEW
WEEKS

LESS
OFTEN

DON’T
KNOW

REFUSED

29

17

10

11

12

20

1

0

35

22

11

10

6

15

1

0

11

13

10

20

21

24

1

1

5

8

15

19

27

25

*

*

40

24

10

13

6

8

*

0

December 13-16, 2012 trend was asked of all internet users as a standalone question: "Do you ever use
Facebook?"
3

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Methods
This report is based on the findings of a survey on Americans' use of the Internet. The results in
this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research
Associates International from August 7 to September 16, 2013, among a sample of 1,801 adults,
age 18 and older. Telephone interviews were conducted in English and Spanish by landline (901)
and cell phone (900, including 482 without a landline phone). For results based on the total
sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling is plus or minus
2.6 percentage points. For results based on Internet users4 (n=1,445), the margin of sampling
error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points. In addition to sampling error, question wording and
practical difficulties in conducting telephone surveys may introduce some error or bias into the
findings of opinion polls.
A combination of landline and cellular random digit dial (RDD) samples was used to represent all
adults in the United States who have access to either a landline or cellular telephone. Both samples
were provided by Survey Sampling International, LLC (SSI) according to PSRAI specifications.
Numbers for the landline sample were drawn with equal probabilities from active blocks (area
code + exchange + two-digit block number) that contained three or more residential directory
listings. The cellular sample was not list-assisted, but was drawn through a systematic sampling
from dedicated wireless 100-blocks and shared service 100-blocks with no directory-listed landline
numbers.
New sample was released daily and was kept in the field for at least seven days. The sample was
released in replicates, which are representative subsamples of the larger population. This ensures
that complete call procedures were followed for the entire sample. At least 7 attempts were made
to complete an interview at a sampled telephone number. The calls were staggered over times of
day and days of the week to maximize the chances of making contact with a potential respondent.
Each number received at least one daytime call in an attempt to find someone available. For the
landline sample, interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult male or female currently at
home based on a random rotation. If no male/female was available, interviewers asked to speak
with the youngest adult of the other gender. For the cellular sample, interviews were conducted
with the person who answered the phone. Interviewers verified that the person was an adult and in
a safe place before administering the survey. Cellular sample respondents were offered a post-paid
cash incentive for their participation. All interviews completed on any given day were considered
to be the final sample for that day.

Internet user definition includes those who use the internet or email at least occasionally or access the
internet on a mobile handheld device at least occasionally.
4

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Weighting is generally used in survey analysis to compensate for sample designs and patterns of
non-response that might bias results. A two-stage weighting procedure was used to weight this
dual-frame sample. The first-stage corrected for different probabilities of selection associated with
the number of adults in each household and each respondent’s telephone usage patterns.5 This
weighting also adjusts for the overlapping landline and cell sample frames and the relative sizes of
each frame and each sample.
The second stage of weighting balances sample demographics to population parameters. The
sample is balanced to match national population parameters for sex, age, education, race,
Hispanic origin, region (U.S. Census definitions), population density, and telephone usage. The
Hispanic origin was split out based on nativity; U.S born and non-U.S. born. The White, nonHispanic subgroup was also balanced on age, education and region. The basic weighting
parameters came from the US Census Bureau’s 2011 American Community Survey data.6 The
population density parameter was derived from Census 2010 data. The telephone usage parameter
came from an analysis of the July-December 2012 National Health Interview Survey.7 Following is
the full disposition of all sampled telephone numbers:

5

i.e., whether respondents have only a landline telephone, only a cell phone, or both kinds of telephone.

ACS analysis was based on all adults excluding those living in institutional group quarters (GCs).
SJ, Luke JV. Wireless substitution: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview
Survey, July-December, 2012. National Center for Health Statistics. June 2013.
6

7Blumberg

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Sample Disposition
Landline
Cell
40,985
27,000

Total Numbers Dialed

1,669
1,458
15
24,589
1,994
11,260
27.5%

346
94
---10,375
427
15,758
58.4%

Non-residential
Computer/Fax
Cell phone
Other not working
Additional projected not working
Working numbers
Working Rate

665
3,332
27
7,236
64.3%

142
5,501
16
10,099
64.1%

No Answer / Busy
Voice Mail
Other Non-Contact
Contacted numbers
Contact Rate

328
5,898
1,010
14.0%

1,793
6,776
1,530
15.2%

Callback
Refusal
Cooperating numbers
Cooperation Rate

53
---957
94.8%
56
901
94.1%
8.4%

67
540
923
60.3%
22
901
97.6%
9.5%

Language Barrier
Child's cell phone
Eligible numbers
Eligibility Rate
Break-off
Completes
Completion Rate
Response Rate

The disposition reports all of the sampled telephone numbers ever dialed from the original
telephone number samples. The response rate estimates the fraction of all eligible respondents in
the sample that were ultimately interviewed. At PSRAI it is calculated by taking the product of
three component rates:
o
o
o

Contact rate – the proportion of working numbers where a request for interview was made
Cooperation rate – the proportion of contacted numbers where a consent for interview was
at least initially obtained, versus those refused
Completion rate – the proportion of initially cooperating and eligible interviews that were
completed

Thus the response rate for the landline sample was 8 percent. The response rate for the cellular
sample was 10 percent.

www.pewresearch.org
17
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

i

December 13-16, 2012 trends based on an omnibus survey conducted December 13-16, 2012 [N=1,006, including 405 cell
phone interviews]. Omnibus survey not conducted as a tracking survey.

www.pewresearch.org

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Social networking 2013

  • 1. NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE DECEMBER 30, 2013 Maeve Duggan, Research Assistant Aaron Smith, Senior Researcher 202.419.4500 www.pewresearch.org RECOMMENDED CITATION: Maeve Duggan and Aaron Smith, Pew Research Center, January 2014, “Social Media Update 2013” Available at: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Social-Media-Update.aspx
  • 2. 1 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Main Findings Some 73% of online adults now use a social networking site of some kind.1 Facebook is the dominant social networking platform in the number of users, but a striking number of users are now diversifying onto other platforms. Some 42% of online adults now use multiple social networking sites. In addition, Instagram users are nearly as likely as Facebook users to check in to the site on a daily basis. These are among the key findings on social networking site usage and adoption from a new survey from the Pew Research Center’s Internet Project. Despite recent growth by services such as Pinterest and Instagram, Facebook remains the dominant social networking platform As in previous Pew Research surveys of social networking usage, Facebook remains the dominant player in the social networking space. Some 71% of online adults are now Facebook users, a slight increase from the 67% of online adults who used Social media sites, 2012-2013 Facebook as of late 2012. % of online adults who use the following social media websites, by year While Facebook is popular across a diverse mix of demographic groups, other sites have developed their own unique demographic user profiles. For example, Pinterest holds particular appeal to female users (women are four times as likely as men to be Pinterest users), and LinkedIn is especially popular among college graduates and internet users in higher income households. Twitter and Instagram have 2012 67 2013 71 20 Facebook 22 LinkedIn 21 15 Pinterest 16 18 Twitter 13 17 Instagram Pew Research Center’s Internet Project Tracking Surveys, 2012 -2013. 2013 data collected August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. PEW RESEARCH CENTER This figure is based on a general social media usage question from a separate survey, conducted July 18September 30, 2013 among 6,010 adults in the U.S. For more information on general social networking site usage and demographics, see http://pewinternet.org/Commentary/2012/March/Pew-Internet-SocialNetworking-full-detail.aspx 1 www.pewresearch.org
  • 3. 2 PEW RESEARCH CENTER particular appeal to younger adults, urban dwellers, and non-whites. And there is substantial overlap between Twitter and Instagram user bases. Facebook and Instagram exhibit especially high levels of user engagement: A majority of users on these sites check in to them on a daily basis In addition to being the most commonly used social networking platform of the five we measured, Facebook also has high levels of engagement among its users: 63% of Facebook users visit the site at least once a day, with 40% doing so multiple times throughout the day. Instagram and Twitter have a significantly smaller number of users than Facebook does, but users of these sites also tend to visit them frequently. Some 57% of Instagram users visit the site at least once a day (with 35% doing so multiple times per day), and 46% of Twitter users are daily visitors (with 29% visiting multiple times per day). 42% of online adults use multiple social networking platforms. For those who use only one social networking site, Facebook is typically—though not always—the platform of choice. Overall, 42% of online adults use two or more of these social networks, while 36% use only one (the remaining 22% did not use any of the five specific sites we asked about). Among those who only use one major social networking platform, 84% say that Facebook is the single site that they frequent. However, other “single platform” social networking site users have adopted a site other than Facebook as their platform of choice. Among those who use just one social networking site, 8% use LinkedIn, 4% use Pinterest, and 2% each say that Instagram or Twitter is their sole social networking site. A note on the social networking platforms measured in this survey In this survey, we only asked about a subset of the social networking sites that people use. The Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project has collected recent data on the use of other social networking platforms – especially in the context of getting news. To read their material about other sites such as YouTube, Google+, Tumblr, Reddit, and Vine, please go to http://www.journalism.org/2013/11/14/news-use-across-social-media-platforms/. About this survey The results in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from August 7 to September 16, 2013, among a sample www.pewresearch.org
  • 4. 3 PEW RESEARCH CENTER of 1,801 adults, age 18 and older. Telephone interviews were conducted in English and Spanish by landline (901) and cell phone (900, including 482 without a landline phone). For results based on the total sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points. For results based on Internet users (n=1,445), the margin of sampling error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points. www.pewresearch.org
  • 5. 4 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Fully 71% of online adults now use Facebook, and usage among seniors has increased significantly in the last year. Some 45% of internet users age 65 or older now use Facebook, up from 35% who did so in late 2012. Women are also particularly likely to use Facebook compared with men. Facebook users Among online adults, the % who use Facebook Use Facebook All internet users (n= 1,445) 71% a Men (n= 734) 66 b Women (n= 711) 76a a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025) 71 b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138) 76 c Hispanic (n= 169) 73 a 18-29 (n= 267) 84cd b 30-49 (n= 473) 79cd c 50-64 (n= 401) 60d d 65+ (n= 278) 45 a High school grad or less (n= 385) 71 b Some college (n= 433) 75c c College+ (n= 619) 68 a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328) 76d b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259) 76 c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187) 68 d $75,000+ (n= 486) 69 a Urban (n= 479) 75 b Suburban (n= 700) 69 c Rural (n= 266) 71 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age). PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 6. 5 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Some 18% of online adults currently use Twitter, statistically similar to the 16% who did so in 2012. As was the case in our previous surveys on Twitter use, adoption levels are particularly high among younger adults and African-Americans. Twitter users Among online adults, the % who use Twitter Use Twitter All internet users (n= 1,445) 18% a Men (n= 734) 17 b Women (n= 711) 18 a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025) b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138) c Hispanic (n= 169) 16 29ac 16 a 18-29 (n= 267) 31bcd b 30-49 (n= 473) 19cd c 50-64 (n= 401) 9 d 65+ (n= 278) 5 a High school grad or less (n= 385) 17 b Some college (n= 433) 18 c College+ (n= 619) 18 a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328) 17 b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259) 18 c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187) 15 d $75,000+ (n= 486) 19 a Urban (n= 479) 18c b Suburban (n= 700) 19c c Rural (n= 266) 11 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age). PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 7. 6 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Some 17% of online adults use Instagram, up from 13% in late 2012. Two groups in particular have experienced a notable increase in Instagram usage in the last year. Instagram adoption by internet users ages 18-29 has increased from 28% in late 2012 to 37% in 2013, and adoption by African American internet users has increased from 23% to 34% over the same time period. Instagram was acquired by Facebook in April 2013. Instagram users Among online adults, the % who use Instagram Use Instagram All internet users(n= 1,445) 17% a Men (n= 734) 15 b Women (n= 711) 20a a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025) 12 b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138) 34ac c Hispanic (n= 169) 23a a 18-29 (n= 267) 37bcd b 30-49 (n= 473) 18cd c 50-64 (n= 401) 6d d 65+ (n= 278) 1 a High school grad or less (n= 385) 16 b Some college (n= 433) 21c c College+ (n= 619) 15 a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328) 18 b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259) 20 c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187) 15 d $75,000+ (n= 486) 16 a Urban (n= 479) 22c b Suburban (n= 700) 18c c Rural (n= 266) 6 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age). PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 8. 7 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Some 21% of online adults use Pinterest, up from the 15% who did so in December 2012. Women continue to dominate the site: fully 33% of online women are Pinterest users, compared to just 8% of men. Pinterest users also skew slightly towards the affluent side – those in the highest income bracket are more likely than those in the lowest to use the site, as are those with a college degree or higher compared to those who have not attended college. Pinterest users Among online adults, the % who use Pinterest Use Pinterest All internet users(n= 1,445) a Men (n= 734) 21% 8 b Women (n= 711) 33a a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025) 21 b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138) 20 c Hispanic (n= 169) 18 a 18-29 (n= 267) 27cd b 30-49 (n= 473) 24cd c 50-64 (n= 401) 14 d 65+ (n= 278) 9 a High school grad or less (n= 385) 17 b Some college (n= 433) 20 c College+ (n= 619) 25a a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328) 15 b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259) 21 c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187) 21 d $75,000+ (n= 486) 27a a Urban (n= 479) 19 b Suburban (n= 700) 23c c Rural (n= 266) 17 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age). PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 9. 8 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Some 22% of online adults are LinkedIn users. As a platform geared towards professional networking, its user demographics are unique from the other sites discussed above. Specifically, LinkedIn usage is especially high among people with a college degree or higher, and among those with an annual household income of $75,000 or more. It is also the only social networking site we measured for which usage among 50-64 year olds is higher than usage among those ages 18-29. LinkedIn users Among online adults, the % who use LinkedIn Use LinkedIn All internet users(n= 1,445) 22% a Men (n= 734) 24b b Women (n= 711) 19 a White, Non-Hispanic (n= 1,025) 22c b Black, Non-Hispanic (n= 138) 30c c Hispanic (n= 169) 13 a 18-29 (n= 267) 15 b 30-49 (n= 473) 27ad c 50-64 (n= 401) 24ad d 65+ (n= 278) 13 a High school grad or less (n= 385) 12 b Some college (n= 433) 16 38ab c College+ (n= 619) a Less than $30,000/yr (n= 328) 12 b $30,000-$49,999 (n= 259) 13 c $50,000-$74,999 (n= 187) 22ab d $75,000+ (n= 486) 38abc a Employed (n= 912) 27b b Not employed (n= 524) 12 a Urban (n= 479) 23c b Suburban (n= 700) 26c c Rural (n= 266) 8 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. Note: Percentages marked with a superscript letter (e.g., a) indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter, among categories of each demographic characteristic (e.g., age). PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 10. 9 PEW RESEARCH CENTER When asked how often they visit the social networking sites they use, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter users stand out as having the highest rates of engagement. Fully 63% of Facebook users report going on the site at least daily (with 40% logging on multiple times per day), giving it not only the highest overall percentage of users, but also the most engaged. Just 14% of Facebook users say that they visit the site less than once a week. Instagram users visit the site nearly as frequently as Facebook users. More than half of Instagram users (57%) use the app on a daily basis, with 35% doing so several times per day. Twitter users are also frequent visitors to the site. Some 46% use Twitter daily, with 29% checking in several times per day. However, 32% of Twitter users say that they check in less than once per week. Pinterest and LinkedIn users tend to have more intermittent patterns of usage. Just 23% of Pinterest users and 13% of LinkedIn users visit the sites daily, and around half say they use the sites less than once per week. Frequency of social media site use % of social media site users who use a particular site with the following frequencies (% is reported among each specific site’s user groups, e.g., 63% of Facebook users use the site on a daily basis) Daily Weekly Less often 63 Facebook 22 14 57 Instagram 20 22 46 Twitter 21 32 23 Pinterest 30 45 13 LinkedIn 34 52 Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 11. 10 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Some 36% of internet users say that they use just one of the five social media sites specified in this report (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn), while 42% use two or more of these sites. The remaining 22% of internet users have not adopted any of Number of social media sites used the five major platforms we asked about % of internet users who use the following number of social networking sites (sites measured include: in our survey. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn) Among those internet users who only use one of these five major social networking platforms, 8% use LinkedIn, 4% use Pinterest, and 2% each say that Instagram or Twitter is their sole social networking site. The remaining 84% say that Facebook is the one social networking site they use. 36 22 23 12 5 2 No sites One site Two sites Three Four Five sites Facebook is by far the most commonlysites sites used social networking platform, and as a Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, result, a significant majority of Twitter, August 07 –September 16, 2013. N=1,445 internet users ages Instagram, Pinterest, and LinkedIn users 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. The margin of error for results based on all also use Facebook. At the low end, 83% of internet users is +/- 2.9 percentage points. LinkedIn users also use Facebook. At the PEW RESEARCH CENTER high end, 93% of Instagram users also use Facebook (Instagram’s parent company). About a quarter of Facebook users use each of the other sites. Turning to sites other than Facebook, a significant level of overlap exists between Instagram and Twitter users – 53% of Twitter users also use Instagram, and 53% of Instagram users also use Twitter. Among non-Facebook sites, this is the highest rate of “reciprocity” between user groups we measured. www.pewresearch.org
  • 12. 11 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Social media matrix % of users of each particular site who use another particular site (e.g., 29% of Pinterest users also use Twitter) Use Twitter % of Twitter users who… % of Instagram users who… % of Pinterest users who… % of LinkedIn users who… % of Facebook users who… Use Instagram Use Pinterest Use LinkedIn Use Facebook N/A 53 34 39 90 53 N/A 37 30 93 29 31 N/A 29 87 31 24 28 N/A 83 22 23 25 25 N/A Pew Research Center’s Internet Project August Tracking Survey, August 07 –September 16, 2013. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org
  • 13. 12 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Survey Questions August Tracking 2013 / Facebook Survey Final Topline 9/18/2013 Data for August 7-September 16, 2013 Princeton Survey Research Associates International for the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project Sample: n=1,801 national adults, age 18 and older, including 900 cell phone interviews Interviewing dates: 08.07.2013 – 09.16.2013 Margin of error is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points for results based on Total [n=1,801] Margin of error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points for results based on all internet users [n=1,445] WEB1-A Next... Please tell me if you ever use the internet to do any of the following things. Do you ever use the internet to...[INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE; ALWAYS ASK ABOUT FACEBOOK LAST]?2 Based on all internet users [N=1,445] TOTAL HAVE EVER DONE THIS ---------DID YEST ERDAY HAVE NOT DONE T HIS DON’T KNOW REFUSED 18 18 16 16 15 12 13 10 12 8 n/a n/a n/a n/a 8 5 4 n/a n/a 2 82 82 84 84 85 88 87 90 88 92 * * * * * * * * * 0 0 * * 0 0 0 0 * 0 * 21 15 12 n/a n/a n/a 77 83 87 2 2 1 * 0 * Use Twitter Current May 2013 December 2012 August 2012 February 2012 August 2011 May 2011 January 2011 December 2010 November 2010 Use Pinterest Current December 2012 August 2-5, 2012 WEB1-A continued... Prior to January 2005, question wording was “Please tell me if you ever do any of the following when you go online. Do you ever...[ITEM]?” Unless otherwise noted, trends are based on all internet users for that survey. 2 www.pewresearch.org
  • 14. 13 PEW RESEARCH CENTER TOTAL HAVE EVER DONE THIS ---------DID YEST ERDAY HAVE NOT DONE T HIS DON’T KNOW REFUSED 22 n/a 77 1 * 71 67 n/a n/a 29 33 0 0 0 * Use LinkedIn Current Use Facebook3 Current December 13-16, 2012i SNS2 Thinking about the social networking sites you use... About how often do you visit or use [INSERT ITEMS; RANDOMIZE]? Several times a day, about once a day, 3-5 days a week, 1-2 days a week, every few weeks or less often? SEVERAL TIMES A DAY Item A: Based on Twitter users [N=223] a. Twitter Item B: Based on Instagram users [N=196] b. Instagram Item C: Based on Pinterest users [N=272] c. Pinterest Item D: Based on LinkedIn users [N=341] d. LinkedIn Item E: Based on Facebook users [N=960] e. Facebook ABOUT ONCE A DAY 3-5 DAYS A WEEK 1-2 DAYS A WEEK EVERY FEW WEEKS LESS OFTEN DON’T KNOW REFUSED 29 17 10 11 12 20 1 0 35 22 11 10 6 15 1 0 11 13 10 20 21 24 1 1 5 8 15 19 27 25 * * 40 24 10 13 6 8 * 0 December 13-16, 2012 trend was asked of all internet users as a standalone question: "Do you ever use Facebook?" 3 www.pewresearch.org
  • 15. 14 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Methods This report is based on the findings of a survey on Americans' use of the Internet. The results in this report are based on data from telephone interviews conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from August 7 to September 16, 2013, among a sample of 1,801 adults, age 18 and older. Telephone interviews were conducted in English and Spanish by landline (901) and cell phone (900, including 482 without a landline phone). For results based on the total sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points. For results based on Internet users4 (n=1,445), the margin of sampling error is plus or minus 2.9 percentage points. In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting telephone surveys may introduce some error or bias into the findings of opinion polls. A combination of landline and cellular random digit dial (RDD) samples was used to represent all adults in the United States who have access to either a landline or cellular telephone. Both samples were provided by Survey Sampling International, LLC (SSI) according to PSRAI specifications. Numbers for the landline sample were drawn with equal probabilities from active blocks (area code + exchange + two-digit block number) that contained three or more residential directory listings. The cellular sample was not list-assisted, but was drawn through a systematic sampling from dedicated wireless 100-blocks and shared service 100-blocks with no directory-listed landline numbers. New sample was released daily and was kept in the field for at least seven days. The sample was released in replicates, which are representative subsamples of the larger population. This ensures that complete call procedures were followed for the entire sample. At least 7 attempts were made to complete an interview at a sampled telephone number. The calls were staggered over times of day and days of the week to maximize the chances of making contact with a potential respondent. Each number received at least one daytime call in an attempt to find someone available. For the landline sample, interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult male or female currently at home based on a random rotation. If no male/female was available, interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult of the other gender. For the cellular sample, interviews were conducted with the person who answered the phone. Interviewers verified that the person was an adult and in a safe place before administering the survey. Cellular sample respondents were offered a post-paid cash incentive for their participation. All interviews completed on any given day were considered to be the final sample for that day. Internet user definition includes those who use the internet or email at least occasionally or access the internet on a mobile handheld device at least occasionally. 4 www.pewresearch.org
  • 16. 15 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Weighting is generally used in survey analysis to compensate for sample designs and patterns of non-response that might bias results. A two-stage weighting procedure was used to weight this dual-frame sample. The first-stage corrected for different probabilities of selection associated with the number of adults in each household and each respondent’s telephone usage patterns.5 This weighting also adjusts for the overlapping landline and cell sample frames and the relative sizes of each frame and each sample. The second stage of weighting balances sample demographics to population parameters. The sample is balanced to match national population parameters for sex, age, education, race, Hispanic origin, region (U.S. Census definitions), population density, and telephone usage. The Hispanic origin was split out based on nativity; U.S born and non-U.S. born. The White, nonHispanic subgroup was also balanced on age, education and region. The basic weighting parameters came from the US Census Bureau’s 2011 American Community Survey data.6 The population density parameter was derived from Census 2010 data. The telephone usage parameter came from an analysis of the July-December 2012 National Health Interview Survey.7 Following is the full disposition of all sampled telephone numbers: 5 i.e., whether respondents have only a landline telephone, only a cell phone, or both kinds of telephone. ACS analysis was based on all adults excluding those living in institutional group quarters (GCs). SJ, Luke JV. Wireless substitution: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, July-December, 2012. National Center for Health Statistics. June 2013. 6 7Blumberg www.pewresearch.org
  • 17. 16 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Sample Disposition Landline Cell 40,985 27,000 Total Numbers Dialed 1,669 1,458 15 24,589 1,994 11,260 27.5% 346 94 ---10,375 427 15,758 58.4% Non-residential Computer/Fax Cell phone Other not working Additional projected not working Working numbers Working Rate 665 3,332 27 7,236 64.3% 142 5,501 16 10,099 64.1% No Answer / Busy Voice Mail Other Non-Contact Contacted numbers Contact Rate 328 5,898 1,010 14.0% 1,793 6,776 1,530 15.2% Callback Refusal Cooperating numbers Cooperation Rate 53 ---957 94.8% 56 901 94.1% 8.4% 67 540 923 60.3% 22 901 97.6% 9.5% Language Barrier Child's cell phone Eligible numbers Eligibility Rate Break-off Completes Completion Rate Response Rate The disposition reports all of the sampled telephone numbers ever dialed from the original telephone number samples. The response rate estimates the fraction of all eligible respondents in the sample that were ultimately interviewed. At PSRAI it is calculated by taking the product of three component rates: o o o Contact rate – the proportion of working numbers where a request for interview was made Cooperation rate – the proportion of contacted numbers where a consent for interview was at least initially obtained, versus those refused Completion rate – the proportion of initially cooperating and eligible interviews that were completed Thus the response rate for the landline sample was 8 percent. The response rate for the cellular sample was 10 percent. www.pewresearch.org
  • 18. 17 PEW RESEARCH CENTER i December 13-16, 2012 trends based on an omnibus survey conducted December 13-16, 2012 [N=1,006, including 405 cell phone interviews]. Omnibus survey not conducted as a tracking survey. www.pewresearch.org