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ERRORS IN SOCIAL
NEUROSCIENCE
PART I – INDIVIDUAL ERRORS
Corso di Neuroscienze Sociali - Prof. Candidi
Quentin Moreau, PhD
quentin.moreau@uniroma1.it
Behavioural
Neuroscience of
Errors
These errors can be cognitive mistakes
Or motor-related
They can be part of a learning process
Or a general reminder that more attention is needed
At all age, when we are performing tasks, we
occasionally commit mistakes.
Behavioural Neuroscience of Errors
■ Since the 1990s, a growing number of researchers are interested in studying
these errors:
- what brain mechanisms are involved when errors are committed?
- how do we learn from those errors?
- how do we detect our own errors?
- what consequences do errors have on both the self and others’
behaviour?
Behavioural Neuroscience of Errors
■ The classic tasks used to generate errors in Behavioural Psychology are
the Eriksen ‘Flanker’ Task and the Stroop Task
■ Both these tasks generate cognitive interference due a mismatch in
stimuli
Eriksen Flanker Task
■ Subject are sitting in front of a screen and they are asked to press a
button based on a central target stimulus
> Press Right
< Press Left
>>>>>>>
Flankers
>>>>>>> Press Right
<<<<<<< Press Left
Congruent
Condition
<<<><<< Press Right
>>><>>> Press Left
Incongruent
Condition
0
200
400
600
800
Congruent Incongruent
Reaction
Times
(ms)
0
50
100
150
Congruent Incongruent
Number
of
Errors
Flanker
behavioural
effects
*Simulated data
Stroop Task
■ Subjects are asked to name the colour in which a
word is written
■ The name of the colour and the colour in which
it is written can either:
congruent
incongruent
Stroop
behavioural
effects
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Congruent Incongruent
Number
of
Errors
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Congruent Incongruent
Reaction
times
(ms)
*Simulated data
Conflict Monitoring
■ Conflicts and mismatches increase the difficulty of a given task and
results in longer reaction times and more frequent errors
■ But how does the brain reacts to such errors ?
■ Two main neuro-imaging techniques have been used to answer this
question:
– Electroencephalography (EEG)
– Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
EEG
>>>>>>>
Raw
Data
Averaged
Data:
Event-related
Potentials (ERPs)
Advantage of EEG:
Good Temporal
Resolution
EEG responses to Errors:
The Error-related Negativity (ERN)
Error
Correc
t
Adapted from Hoffman &
Falkenstien, 2011
■ A negative peak is detected between 50 and
250ms following an erroneous response
■ The peak is maximal over fronto-central
electrodes (principally FCz)
EEG responses to Errors:
The Error Positivity (Pe)
Adapted from Muir et al,
2019
■ A positive peak is detected between 150 and
500ms following an erroneous response
■ The peak is maximal over centro-parietal
electrodes (principally Pz)
ERN-Pe mechanisms
■ The debates regarding what do the ERN and Pe
actually highlights are still ongoing.
■ However, there is a consensus, they are both, to
a certain degree, linked to error awareness
■ For subjects realize they made a mistake, the
ERN and Pe are larger than when subject are not
conscious of their mistakes (Wessel, 2012)
Negativity
is
up
Time-Frequency Markers or Errors
■ When EEG signal is
transformed through Fourier,
we can extract information
regarding the different
frequencies
■ In the case of errors, the most
reported frequency is the
Theta waves (4-7 Hz) over
frontal electrodes
■ We see an increase of Theta
waves power when errors are
committed
Munneke et al., 2015
fMRI
Advantage of fMRI:
Good Spatial
Resolution
fMRI responses to Error:
Increased activity of the Anterior
Cingulate Cortex (ACC)
Error vs Correct contrast
Jessup et al., 2010, JNeurosci
ERN and ACC
■ Source Analysis (trying to find the most
probable location for the origin of an
ERP) reveals that the Error-related
Negativity is very likely to emanate from
the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Alain et al., 2002
Larger Error-related Network ->
Performance Monitoring System
Theta Waves (4-7 Hz)
regulates the activity over
the extended Prefrontal areas
during error commissions
Post-Error slowing
■ Another famous behavioural consequence of conflict and errors is Post-
Error Slowing (PES)
■ PES is detected in Flanker and Stroop tasks (as well as other fast response
tasks) and is characterized by longer reaction times in trials following an
erroneous response
0
200
400
600
Post-Correct Trials Post-Error Trials
Reaction
times
(ms)
Post-Error Slowing
■ Post-Error slowing highlights adaptative mechanisms after one
committed an Error
■ Two dominant accounts explaining PES:
– Cognitive Control: PES reflects an increase of attention (Botvinick
et al., 2001)
– Motor Inhibition: PES reflects an decrease of activity in motor and
pre-motor area (Ridderinkhof, 2012)
0
200
400
600
Post-Correct Trials Post-Error Trials
Reaction
times
(ms)
Performance Monitoring
System
ACC – ERN - Theta
Motor System
Post-Error Slowing – Motor
Correction
Modulation of Error-processing:
Psychological Disorders
■ Since errors are deeply linked with general monitoring (motor and
cognitive control), people having troubles affecting these aspects of
cognition have been studied
■ For instance, ADHD population is known to have an altered attention
and impulsive behaviour
ADHD
■ ADHD children commits more errors
than controls and their ERN is reduced
■ This highlights a deficit in ongoing
behaviour monitoring in ADHD (Van
Meel et al., 2006) and suggest
that the frontal Performance
monitoring system might
be altered
OCD
■ On the other hand, patients suffering from obsessive and compulsive disorders
show an increased ERN activity and suggest an hyperactivity of the frontal
monitoring system (Hanna et al., 2016)
■ They also show reduced Post-Error slowing, showing a difficulty to adapt and
adjust their behaviour after erroneous actions (Moddirousta et al., 2015)
Negativity
up
Social Modulation of Error-processing
■ Koban and Pourtois (2016)
■ The Monitoring is connected to
the amygdala, suggesting that
social and emotional processing
can affect the processing of errors
Emotional, Social and Errors systems
overlap over the Prefrontal areas
Koban and Pourtois, 2016
Emotional Stroop Task
■ When the mismatch is no longer based on only
words but on face processing, the Angry (and
therefore potentially threatening stimuli) show
larger Interference effects (Berget et al.,
2019)
Sum-up
■ Errors are an inherent part of our perceptive and cognitive
processes
■ The processing of errors is handled by a distributed prefrontal
network (Performance Monitoring System), including the
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
■ EEG markers of errors are the frontal Error-related Negativity
(ERN) and Theta Wave (4-7 Hz) Power and the centro-parietal
Positive Error (Pe)
■ The activity of these brain substrates is affected in several
psychological and psychiatric conditions (ADHD, OCD, etc.)
■ The performance monitoring system is connected to social
and emotional networks

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Social Errors Part I.pptx

  • 1. ERRORS IN SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE PART I – INDIVIDUAL ERRORS Corso di Neuroscienze Sociali - Prof. Candidi Quentin Moreau, PhD quentin.moreau@uniroma1.it
  • 2. Behavioural Neuroscience of Errors These errors can be cognitive mistakes Or motor-related They can be part of a learning process Or a general reminder that more attention is needed At all age, when we are performing tasks, we occasionally commit mistakes.
  • 3. Behavioural Neuroscience of Errors ■ Since the 1990s, a growing number of researchers are interested in studying these errors: - what brain mechanisms are involved when errors are committed? - how do we learn from those errors? - how do we detect our own errors? - what consequences do errors have on both the self and others’ behaviour?
  • 4. Behavioural Neuroscience of Errors ■ The classic tasks used to generate errors in Behavioural Psychology are the Eriksen ‘Flanker’ Task and the Stroop Task ■ Both these tasks generate cognitive interference due a mismatch in stimuli
  • 5. Eriksen Flanker Task ■ Subject are sitting in front of a screen and they are asked to press a button based on a central target stimulus > Press Right < Press Left >>>>>>> Flankers
  • 6. >>>>>>> Press Right <<<<<<< Press Left Congruent Condition <<<><<< Press Right >>><>>> Press Left Incongruent Condition
  • 8. Stroop Task ■ Subjects are asked to name the colour in which a word is written ■ The name of the colour and the colour in which it is written can either: congruent incongruent
  • 10. Conflict Monitoring ■ Conflicts and mismatches increase the difficulty of a given task and results in longer reaction times and more frequent errors ■ But how does the brain reacts to such errors ? ■ Two main neuro-imaging techniques have been used to answer this question: – Electroencephalography (EEG) – Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
  • 12. EEG responses to Errors: The Error-related Negativity (ERN) Error Correc t Adapted from Hoffman & Falkenstien, 2011 ■ A negative peak is detected between 50 and 250ms following an erroneous response ■ The peak is maximal over fronto-central electrodes (principally FCz)
  • 13. EEG responses to Errors: The Error Positivity (Pe) Adapted from Muir et al, 2019 ■ A positive peak is detected between 150 and 500ms following an erroneous response ■ The peak is maximal over centro-parietal electrodes (principally Pz)
  • 14. ERN-Pe mechanisms ■ The debates regarding what do the ERN and Pe actually highlights are still ongoing. ■ However, there is a consensus, they are both, to a certain degree, linked to error awareness ■ For subjects realize they made a mistake, the ERN and Pe are larger than when subject are not conscious of their mistakes (Wessel, 2012) Negativity is up
  • 15. Time-Frequency Markers or Errors ■ When EEG signal is transformed through Fourier, we can extract information regarding the different frequencies ■ In the case of errors, the most reported frequency is the Theta waves (4-7 Hz) over frontal electrodes ■ We see an increase of Theta waves power when errors are committed Munneke et al., 2015
  • 16. fMRI Advantage of fMRI: Good Spatial Resolution
  • 17. fMRI responses to Error: Increased activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) Error vs Correct contrast Jessup et al., 2010, JNeurosci
  • 18. ERN and ACC ■ Source Analysis (trying to find the most probable location for the origin of an ERP) reveals that the Error-related Negativity is very likely to emanate from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Alain et al., 2002
  • 19. Larger Error-related Network -> Performance Monitoring System Theta Waves (4-7 Hz) regulates the activity over the extended Prefrontal areas during error commissions
  • 20. Post-Error slowing ■ Another famous behavioural consequence of conflict and errors is Post- Error Slowing (PES) ■ PES is detected in Flanker and Stroop tasks (as well as other fast response tasks) and is characterized by longer reaction times in trials following an erroneous response 0 200 400 600 Post-Correct Trials Post-Error Trials Reaction times (ms)
  • 21. Post-Error Slowing ■ Post-Error slowing highlights adaptative mechanisms after one committed an Error ■ Two dominant accounts explaining PES: – Cognitive Control: PES reflects an increase of attention (Botvinick et al., 2001) – Motor Inhibition: PES reflects an decrease of activity in motor and pre-motor area (Ridderinkhof, 2012) 0 200 400 600 Post-Correct Trials Post-Error Trials Reaction times (ms)
  • 22. Performance Monitoring System ACC – ERN - Theta Motor System Post-Error Slowing – Motor Correction
  • 23. Modulation of Error-processing: Psychological Disorders ■ Since errors are deeply linked with general monitoring (motor and cognitive control), people having troubles affecting these aspects of cognition have been studied ■ For instance, ADHD population is known to have an altered attention and impulsive behaviour
  • 24. ADHD ■ ADHD children commits more errors than controls and their ERN is reduced ■ This highlights a deficit in ongoing behaviour monitoring in ADHD (Van Meel et al., 2006) and suggest that the frontal Performance monitoring system might be altered
  • 25. OCD ■ On the other hand, patients suffering from obsessive and compulsive disorders show an increased ERN activity and suggest an hyperactivity of the frontal monitoring system (Hanna et al., 2016) ■ They also show reduced Post-Error slowing, showing a difficulty to adapt and adjust their behaviour after erroneous actions (Moddirousta et al., 2015) Negativity up
  • 26. Social Modulation of Error-processing ■ Koban and Pourtois (2016) ■ The Monitoring is connected to the amygdala, suggesting that social and emotional processing can affect the processing of errors
  • 27. Emotional, Social and Errors systems overlap over the Prefrontal areas Koban and Pourtois, 2016
  • 28. Emotional Stroop Task ■ When the mismatch is no longer based on only words but on face processing, the Angry (and therefore potentially threatening stimuli) show larger Interference effects (Berget et al., 2019)
  • 29. Sum-up ■ Errors are an inherent part of our perceptive and cognitive processes ■ The processing of errors is handled by a distributed prefrontal network (Performance Monitoring System), including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex ■ EEG markers of errors are the frontal Error-related Negativity (ERN) and Theta Wave (4-7 Hz) Power and the centro-parietal Positive Error (Pe) ■ The activity of these brain substrates is affected in several psychological and psychiatric conditions (ADHD, OCD, etc.) ■ The performance monitoring system is connected to social and emotional networks

Editor's Notes

  1. Hello Everyone and welcome to the first part of the