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1. Smart Security System Using Arm and WSN (XBEE) for
Boarder Areas
Introduction
Three U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) component agencies carry out
the majority of border-security missions: the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Customs and
Border Protection (CBP), and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). A universal
and more open world creates a growing need for more effective ways to control borders.
The soldiers may sometimes cross their area limit without their knowledge. This
causes a lot of problems. They may be caught by other people. This project is developed for
the soldiers to find out the border and to check whether the person is authorized or
unauthorized. The main modules in this project are the RF transducer, ARM controller unit,
and LCD. The Zigbee transmitter is connected to the border area. It transmits RF signals
within a particular limit. The Zigbee receiver with the ARM controller unit will be under the
control of the commander. When the soldier reaches a particular area, the RF signals are
received by the receiver and given to the ARM controller unit. The ARM controller analyses
the signal and sends the corresponding message to the LCD and the same information is
transmitted to the commander via Zigbee. The receiver which is there at the commander
receives the signal which was transmitted from the transmitter via Zigbee and displays proper
information on the display. The ARM controller program is written in embedded c language
and the microcontroller used is ARM7LPC2148.
Block diagram
• Transmitter stage
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: ARM 7 / Cortex M3, LCD, Relay Driver, Relays, Resistors, Capacitors, LEDs, Crystal, Diodes, Transformer, Voltage Regulator,
Push Button.
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Keil compiler uVision 4, Language: Embedded C or Assembly, WLPRO Programmer
230 V, AC
Supply
TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER REGULATOR
+12 Volts
+5 Volts
GND
RF TRANSMITTER
INTERFACING
STAGE
PIR
SENSOR
RF RECEIVER
XBEE TX
M
VISUAL
INDICATION
BUZZER
DC MOTOR
OUTPUT DEVICES
BUFFER DRIVER RELAY
LCD DISPLAY
ARM PROCESSOR
• Receiver
stage
BUFFER DRIVER RELAY
LCD DISPLAY
ARM PROCESSOR
M
VISUAL
INDICATION
BUZZER
DC MOTOR
OUTPUT DEVICES
XBEE RX
Block diagram explanation
Power supply unit
This section needs two voltages viz., +12 V & +5 V, as working voltages. Hence
specially designed power supply is constructed to get regulated power suppliesPIR
SENSOR:
Passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor)
A passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic sensor that
measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most
often used in PIR-based motion detectors.
Operating principle: All objects with a temperature of absolute zero emit heat energy in
the form of radiation. Usually, this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it
radiates at infrared wavelengths, but it can be detected by electronic devices designed for
such a purpose.
PIR-based motion detector
A PIR-based motion detector is used to sense the movement of people, animals,
or other objects. They are commonly used in burglar alarms and automatically-
activated lighting systems. They are commonly called simply "PIR", or sometimes "PID",
for "passive infrared detector".
RF transmitter
RF transmitters are electronic devices that create continuously varying
electric currents, encode sine waves, and broadcast radio waves. RF transmitters use
oscillators to create sine waves, the simplest and smoothest form of continuously varying
waves, which contain information such as audio and video. Modulators encode these sign
wives and antennas broadcast them as radio signals. There are several ways to encode or
modulate this information, including amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency
modulation (FM). Radio techniques limit localized interference and noise.
RF receiver
RF receivers are electronic devices that separate radio signals from one another
and convert specific signals into audio, video, or data formats. RF receivers use an
antenna to receive transmitted radio signals and a tuner to separate a specific signal from
all of the other signals that the antenna receives. Detectors or demodulators then extract
information that was encoded before transmission. There are several ways to decode or
modulate this information, including amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency
modulation (FM). Radio techniques limit localized interference and noise.
ARM processor
ARM is a computer processor-based RISC architecture. A RISC-based
computer design approach means ARM processors require significantly fewer
transistors than typical processors in average computers. This approach reduces costs,
heat, and power use. The low power consumption of ARM processors has made them
very popular:
The ARM architecture (32-bit) is the most widely used in mobile devices, and
the most popular 32-bit one in embedded systems.
Buffers
Buffers do not affect the logical state of a digital signal (i.e. a logic 1 input results in a
logic 1 output whereas logic 0 input results in a logic 0 output). Buffers are normally used to
provide extra current drive at the output but can also be used to regularize the logic present at
an interface
Drivers
This section is used to drive the relay where the output is the complement of input
which is applied to the drive but the current will be amplified
Relays
It is an electromagnetic device that is used to drive the load connected across the
relay and the o/p of the relay can be connected to the controller or load for further
processing.
Zigbee Technology
ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to
create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios. ZigBee is based on
an IEEE 802.15 standard. Though low-powered, ZigBee devices can transmit data over long
distances by passing data through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones, creating
a mesh network.
Buzzer:
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may
be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers
include alarm devices, timers, and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or
keystroke.
DC motor:
A DC motor relies on the fact that magnet poles repel and unlike magnetic poles
attract each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it generates
an electromagnetic field aligned with the center of the coil. By switching the current on or off
in a coil its magnetic field can be switched on or off or by switching the direction of the
current in the coil the direction of the generated magnetic field can be switched 180°.
Methodology:
This project is developed for the soldiers to find out the border and to check whether
the person is authorized or unauthorized. The main modules in this project are the RF
transducer, ARM controller unit, and LCD.
The transmitter will be there in the border area and the receiver will be there at the
commander. The transmitter module has two inputs. One is the PIR sensor, which is used to
detect persons. And the second is the RF receiver, which is used to detect whether the person
is authorized or unauthorized with the help of an RF transmitter. If PIR senses a person and
the RF receiver receives a signal from the RF transmitter, then the ARM controller analyses
the signal and indicates the person is authorized via LCD. And the same information is
transmitted to the commander via Zigbee and that will be displayed on receiver LCD. If PIR
only receives a signal and sends that to the ARM controller. Then the controller will indicate
the person is unauthorized with the help of a buzzer and display on the LCD. The
commander will take appropriate action based on the information received at the receiver
end.
Advantages
1. Protecting borders and other strategic areas are key to preventing these illegal
activities and maintaining tight national security.
2. Secure and reliable communication.
3. Leading-edge technology that meets today's and tomorrow's needs.
4. Preventing unauthorized activity with many national borders stretching for hundreds
of kilometers across dramatically variable terrain and climates is an ongoing task.
5. A solid border operation can be an effective deterrent to illegal activity, but
successful border management requires a combination of efficient systems and
effective manpower deployment, supported by strong communications.
Disadvantages
1. One-time investment cost.
2. It has to be planted throughout the border area.
Applications
1. This project can be implemented to provide security for Homes, Schools, Colleges, and
Companies.
2. Restricted zones.
3. Wherever security is important there we can implement this project.

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Smart Security System Using ARM And XBee For Boarder Areas( SYNOPSIS)

  • 1. 1. Smart Security System Using Arm and WSN (XBEE) for Boarder Areas Introduction Three U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) component agencies carry out the majority of border-security missions: the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). A universal and more open world creates a growing need for more effective ways to control borders. The soldiers may sometimes cross their area limit without their knowledge. This causes a lot of problems. They may be caught by other people. This project is developed for the soldiers to find out the border and to check whether the person is authorized or unauthorized. The main modules in this project are the RF transducer, ARM controller unit, and LCD. The Zigbee transmitter is connected to the border area. It transmits RF signals within a particular limit. The Zigbee receiver with the ARM controller unit will be under the control of the commander. When the soldier reaches a particular area, the RF signals are received by the receiver and given to the ARM controller unit. The ARM controller analyses the signal and sends the corresponding message to the LCD and the same information is transmitted to the commander via Zigbee. The receiver which is there at the commander receives the signal which was transmitted from the transmitter via Zigbee and displays proper information on the display. The ARM controller program is written in embedded c language and the microcontroller used is ARM7LPC2148.
  • 2. Block diagram • Transmitter stage HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: ARM 7 / Cortex M3, LCD, Relay Driver, Relays, Resistors, Capacitors, LEDs, Crystal, Diodes, Transformer, Voltage Regulator, Push Button. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Keil compiler uVision 4, Language: Embedded C or Assembly, WLPRO Programmer 230 V, AC Supply TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER REGULATOR +12 Volts +5 Volts GND RF TRANSMITTER INTERFACING STAGE PIR SENSOR RF RECEIVER XBEE TX M VISUAL INDICATION BUZZER DC MOTOR OUTPUT DEVICES BUFFER DRIVER RELAY LCD DISPLAY ARM PROCESSOR
  • 3. • Receiver stage BUFFER DRIVER RELAY LCD DISPLAY ARM PROCESSOR M VISUAL INDICATION BUZZER DC MOTOR OUTPUT DEVICES XBEE RX
  • 4. Block diagram explanation Power supply unit This section needs two voltages viz., +12 V & +5 V, as working voltages. Hence specially designed power supply is constructed to get regulated power suppliesPIR SENSOR: Passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) A passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR-based motion detectors. Operating principle: All objects with a temperature of absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually, this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it radiates at infrared wavelengths, but it can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. PIR-based motion detector A PIR-based motion detector is used to sense the movement of people, animals, or other objects. They are commonly used in burglar alarms and automatically- activated lighting systems. They are commonly called simply "PIR", or sometimes "PID", for "passive infrared detector". RF transmitter RF transmitters are electronic devices that create continuously varying electric currents, encode sine waves, and broadcast radio waves. RF transmitters use oscillators to create sine waves, the simplest and smoothest form of continuously varying waves, which contain information such as audio and video. Modulators encode these sign wives and antennas broadcast them as radio signals. There are several ways to encode or
  • 5. modulate this information, including amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). Radio techniques limit localized interference and noise. RF receiver RF receivers are electronic devices that separate radio signals from one another and convert specific signals into audio, video, or data formats. RF receivers use an antenna to receive transmitted radio signals and a tuner to separate a specific signal from all of the other signals that the antenna receives. Detectors or demodulators then extract information that was encoded before transmission. There are several ways to decode or modulate this information, including amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). Radio techniques limit localized interference and noise. ARM processor ARM is a computer processor-based RISC architecture. A RISC-based computer design approach means ARM processors require significantly fewer transistors than typical processors in average computers. This approach reduces costs, heat, and power use. The low power consumption of ARM processors has made them very popular: The ARM architecture (32-bit) is the most widely used in mobile devices, and the most popular 32-bit one in embedded systems. Buffers Buffers do not affect the logical state of a digital signal (i.e. a logic 1 input results in a logic 1 output whereas logic 0 input results in a logic 0 output). Buffers are normally used to provide extra current drive at the output but can also be used to regularize the logic present at an interface Drivers This section is used to drive the relay where the output is the complement of input which is applied to the drive but the current will be amplified
  • 6. Relays It is an electromagnetic device that is used to drive the load connected across the relay and the o/p of the relay can be connected to the controller or load for further processing. Zigbee Technology ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios. ZigBee is based on an IEEE 802.15 standard. Though low-powered, ZigBee devices can transmit data over long distances by passing data through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones, creating a mesh network. Buzzer: A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers, and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke. DC motor: A DC motor relies on the fact that magnet poles repel and unlike magnetic poles attract each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it generates an electromagnetic field aligned with the center of the coil. By switching the current on or off in a coil its magnetic field can be switched on or off or by switching the direction of the current in the coil the direction of the generated magnetic field can be switched 180°.
  • 7. Methodology: This project is developed for the soldiers to find out the border and to check whether the person is authorized or unauthorized. The main modules in this project are the RF transducer, ARM controller unit, and LCD. The transmitter will be there in the border area and the receiver will be there at the commander. The transmitter module has two inputs. One is the PIR sensor, which is used to detect persons. And the second is the RF receiver, which is used to detect whether the person is authorized or unauthorized with the help of an RF transmitter. If PIR senses a person and the RF receiver receives a signal from the RF transmitter, then the ARM controller analyses the signal and indicates the person is authorized via LCD. And the same information is transmitted to the commander via Zigbee and that will be displayed on receiver LCD. If PIR only receives a signal and sends that to the ARM controller. Then the controller will indicate the person is unauthorized with the help of a buzzer and display on the LCD. The commander will take appropriate action based on the information received at the receiver end. Advantages 1. Protecting borders and other strategic areas are key to preventing these illegal activities and maintaining tight national security. 2. Secure and reliable communication. 3. Leading-edge technology that meets today's and tomorrow's needs. 4. Preventing unauthorized activity with many national borders stretching for hundreds of kilometers across dramatically variable terrain and climates is an ongoing task. 5. A solid border operation can be an effective deterrent to illegal activity, but successful border management requires a combination of efficient systems and effective manpower deployment, supported by strong communications.
  • 8. Disadvantages 1. One-time investment cost. 2. It has to be planted throughout the border area. Applications 1. This project can be implemented to provide security for Homes, Schools, Colleges, and Companies. 2. Restricted zones. 3. Wherever security is important there we can implement this project.