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Amani mohsen
Prepared by:-
Was invented by the Swedish
ophthalmologist and self-
taught mathematician
Allvar Gullstrand (1862-
1930)
The slit lamp:
is an instrument consisting of
a high-intensity light source
that can be focused to shine
a thin sheet of light into the
eye.
We can use slit lamp as
Diagnostic andTreatment
device Because of strong
illuminated and highly
magnified view of the area
Slit lamp presentation 2015
Principle:
A narrow "slit" beam of very bright light produced
by lamp. This beam is focused on to the eye
which is then viewed under magnification with a
microscope
1. Help to detect abnormal in the structures in
the front of the eye, such as infection or injury
to the cornea, lens, conjunctiva, iris, sclera.
2. Help To detect glaucoma or macular
degeneration
3. To check for a foreign body, such as a metal
fragment, on or in the eye
4.Detecat intraocular pressure
5.Detect tear film layer
6.Detect the ciliary body, anterior
chamber angle structures and
funds but when using attachment
.
7.Very useful in follow up.
Slit lamp presentation 2015
 Is controlled by a transformer with adjustable
ranges of voltage to provide intense
Illumination when required.
 The objective of the slit-lamp illumination
system is to produce a bright light evenly
illuminated ,finely focused ,adjustable slit of
light at the eye .
 Almost all slit –lamp manufactures have
adopted the koller illumination system .
 All slit lamps have an illuminating system
combined with a microscope, set on an instrument
table fitted with a head and chin rest.
 This allows both the illuminating system and
the microscope to rotate about the point of
focus .
 This arrangement ensures that light falls on the
( eye’s patient) where microscope is focused.
• The light source L is imaged in the objective O by
the collector system K.
• The objective in turn produces an image at S in
the mechanical slit located next to the collector
system .
• The image of the light source at O is the exit
pupil.
• The filament is imaged on to the objective lens
but the mechanical slit is imaged on to the
patient’s eye.
- The illumination system is
consists of:
1. A light source :
_usually halogen_
often with a reflector
positioned behind it to
maximise illumination.
Zeiss type hag-streit type
2. condensing lenses:
-Usually a pair of aspheric plano-convex lenses.
-These lenses are aspheric to reduce chromatic
aberration.
3. projector lens :
The diameter of the projection lens is usually fairly
small in size.
This has two advantage :
 first is keep the aberrations of the lens down ,which
results in a better quality image .
 Second it increases the depth of focus of the slit
and thereby produces a better optical section of the
eye .
4. a slit aperture or diaphragm to alter length, width
and orientation of slit
5. Filters.
Slit lamp presentation 2015
Slit lamp presentation 2015
1- Eyepiece
2- Marked ring for Adjustment of examiner’s
refractive error
3- Prism housing
4- Magnification Wheel
5- Objective lens
1.the eyepiece :
With extra pair for higher magnification .
The eye piece has a lens of +10D.
Microscope is binocular .it has 2 eyepieces .
2.Marked ring for Adjustment of examiner’s
refractive error :
Enable the examiner to neutralize his or her own
error of refraction .
3.Prism housing :
To overcome the problem of double vision
image produced by compound microscope
4. Magnification Wheel :-
Most slit lamp provide a range of
magnification from 6x to 40x
5.Objective lens:
In front of patient’s eye to
make the working
distance about 9-12cm
It presents to the observer
an enlarged image of a
near object .
Slit lamp presentation 2015
1- slit-lamp table (base )
2- head rest and fixation
3- joystick
 It concern with :
•Positioning & adjustment of patient and
observer
•Maneuvering the illumination and microscope
system together with joystick
•Providing base to other parts
A- Power switch :
- The conventional type of slit-lamp only require
a transformer for power supply of the low-
voltage filament lamp.
- the transformer is fixed underneath the table
top.
- the transformer out put for operation on
the main lamp is 5,6 or 7.5 volts and 5 volts
for the fixation lamp .
1. slit-lamp table ( base ) :
B -Table height adjustment:
provide the excellent vertically movement of the
head rest to provide the best comfort position of
the patient .
C- Lock for slit lamp base :
should lock the base if there is a children around
the instrument .
D- Low friction plate:
to provide an easy movement of
the slit lamp by joystick .
1. slit lamp table ( base ) :
A- Fixation target :
A movable fixation target on top of the head rest
to bring the fixation light in front of the examine
eye of the patient .
B- black mark
C- Chin rest
D- Hand grip for patient
E- Chin rest adjustment knob
2. head rest and fixation :
- provide the movement of microscope &
illumination system vertically ( towards and away
from patient's eye ) and horizontally ( from side
to side ) .
3. joystick :
Slit lamp presentation 2015
1. goldman Tonometer
2. Gonioscopic Lens
3. volk Lens
4. Goldmann 3-Mirror gonioscopic lens :
5. Video attachment
The Goldmann Applanation Tonometer is the
most common tonometer that usually mounted
on the standard slit- lamp biomicroscope, it use
to determine the intraocular pressure of eye. It is
an important test in the evaluation of patients at
risk from glaucoma.
* Parts :
1.Tonometer tip
2.Metal rod
3.Tonometer housing
4.Force adjustment knob
Slit lamp presentation 2015
Contact Non contact
•Different types of Contact and Non-contact lenses
used for examination & diagnostic
A-Non-contact lenses
2. volk lenses (+60,+78,+90):
•It have plus power with 2 convex lense , it give
a wild field of fundus
•Additional tool for fundus observation with the
slit lamp (BIO)
•Mostly indirect; inverted image of the fundus
• Required: •undilated pupil •Coaxial angle (0°)
•Illumination - low with 2-4mm slit
•Magnification 10-16 X
B -Contact lenses
· 4. indirect goniolens.
•Additional tool for AC angle observation with
the slit lamp
•Mostly direct; inverted image of the angle
•Required :
•dilated pupil •Illumination – low with 2-4
mm slit
•use with liquid to avoid Scratch of cornea &
avoid TIR
•Magnification 10 -16 X
◦
•Procedure same as contact fundus lens
Observation , it consist of four parts; the
central lens and three mirrors set at different
angles
•Central lens: Posterior pole
• the largest mirror (73°): peripheral of retina
(peripheral mirror)
• the intermediate mirror (67° ): Equator of
retina (equatorial mirro)
• the smallest mirror (59°) : Iridocorneal angle
( Gonioscopy mirror)
Slit lamp presentation 2015
Use as teaching tool & to follow up the patient
case by taking photo
Slit lamp presentation 2015
1.Make the table comfortable for both
the examiner and patient.
2.Set magnification on law (6or10).
3.Set IPD comfortable for the examiner.
4.Set up a diffuse beam and medium
intensity.
5.Ask the patient to put his head in the
forehead rest .
6.Adjust the black marker.
7.Start examine the eye from outside to
inside by the method that was explained
before.
Slit lamp presentation 2015
1-Diffuse illumination
2-Direct focal illumination
3-Indirect illumination
4-Sclerotic scatter
5-Retro illumination
6-specular reflection
This is a good method of observing the eye and
adnexa in general
The slit should be opened wide and the
magnification should be set as low as possible
to enable a large field of view
Wide slit, diffusing inserted, microscope in front,
illumination angle 30–50°, magnification of 6-
10x
Patients are generally unable to tolerate the
brightness of a wide beam
is the most frequently used form of corneal
illumination ,focuses the slit beam and
microscope at coincident point
the magnification can be increased quite
markedly (10x to40x or more)to view any
areas of interest in greater detail
A. Wide beam:
2mm slit width enabling corneal surface as well
as stroma to be studied .this allows us to test
the depth of any interesting feature e.g. foreign
body ,corneal abrasion.
A-wide beam
B-narrow beam
C-conical beam
 Use the narrowest slit possible (0.1 – 0.2 mm),
this technique is only used if you wish to
investigate something the resolution of the
section can be improved by reducing the slit
width to a minimum and be viewed more clearly
by increasing the magnification . generally the
angle between the illuminating and observation
systems should be set around 45 to 60 degrees
,however to increase the amount of cross
section , this angle can be further increased to
90degrees.
 tears (outer)
 epithelium and bowman s membrane
 stroma
 endothelium and descemet s membrane
an important modification of direct illumination is
used when inflammatory cells within the anterior
chamber are suspected
Depends on transmission of light in illumination
non transparent tissue
This simply means looking at tissue outside the
area which is directly illuminated
Slit lamp presentation 2015
This method uses the principle of total internal
reflection . A narrow vertical slit (1-1.5mm in
width) is directed in line with the temporal or
nasal limbus.
a hole of light will be observed around the limbus
as light is internally reflected within the cornea ,
but scattered by the sclera .
any corneal opacities , foreign bodies will be
made visible by the scattering light , appearing
as bright patches against the dark background
of the iris and pupil .
It is important that the room
illumination is as dark as
possible
the light is reflected off the deeper structures ,
such as the iris and retina , while the
microscope is focused to study the more
anterior structure in the reflected light like the
cornea
the most typical use is to
study the cornea in light
reflected from the iris
or the lens in light reflected
from the retina or choroid
By this method we can see very well both the
iris ,the cornea , and the lens
Use the narrowest slit , generally the angle
between the illuminating and observation
systems should be set 90 degree
relies on the use of the reflective properties of
the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces .
The magnification of the microscope must be
200x view through one eye piece
Observe: corneal epithelium
and endothelium,
lens surfaces.
Slit lamp presentation 2015
http://vseyeobserver.patternless.com/ophthalmi
c-equipment/history-of-the-slit-lamp/
http://www.college-
optometrists.org/en/college/museyeum/online_
exhibitions/optical_instruments/slit_lamps.cfm
http://optometry.berkeley.edu/class/opt260a/la
bs_pp/labslitlamp.htm
http://www.slideshare.net/dkar2013/slit-lamp-
instrumentation-and-illumination-
techniques?qid=f1fd464e-1cec-4381-be7b-
098eafb628bc&v=default&b=&from_search=1
Ophthalmic instruments, page (86-92) written by
nazik khalaf al-herot
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/slit-lamp-
examination?page=2

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Slit lamp presentation 2015

  • 2. Was invented by the Swedish ophthalmologist and self- taught mathematician Allvar Gullstrand (1862- 1930)
  • 3. The slit lamp: is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye. We can use slit lamp as Diagnostic andTreatment device Because of strong illuminated and highly magnified view of the area
  • 5. Principle: A narrow "slit" beam of very bright light produced by lamp. This beam is focused on to the eye which is then viewed under magnification with a microscope
  • 6. 1. Help to detect abnormal in the structures in the front of the eye, such as infection or injury to the cornea, lens, conjunctiva, iris, sclera. 2. Help To detect glaucoma or macular degeneration 3. To check for a foreign body, such as a metal fragment, on or in the eye
  • 7. 4.Detecat intraocular pressure 5.Detect tear film layer 6.Detect the ciliary body, anterior chamber angle structures and funds but when using attachment . 7.Very useful in follow up.
  • 9.  Is controlled by a transformer with adjustable ranges of voltage to provide intense Illumination when required.  The objective of the slit-lamp illumination system is to produce a bright light evenly illuminated ,finely focused ,adjustable slit of light at the eye .  Almost all slit –lamp manufactures have adopted the koller illumination system .
  • 10.  All slit lamps have an illuminating system combined with a microscope, set on an instrument table fitted with a head and chin rest.  This allows both the illuminating system and the microscope to rotate about the point of focus .  This arrangement ensures that light falls on the ( eye’s patient) where microscope is focused.
  • 11. • The light source L is imaged in the objective O by the collector system K. • The objective in turn produces an image at S in the mechanical slit located next to the collector system . • The image of the light source at O is the exit pupil. • The filament is imaged on to the objective lens but the mechanical slit is imaged on to the patient’s eye.
  • 12. - The illumination system is consists of: 1. A light source : _usually halogen_ often with a reflector positioned behind it to maximise illumination.
  • 14. 2. condensing lenses: -Usually a pair of aspheric plano-convex lenses. -These lenses are aspheric to reduce chromatic aberration.
  • 15. 3. projector lens : The diameter of the projection lens is usually fairly small in size. This has two advantage :  first is keep the aberrations of the lens down ,which results in a better quality image .  Second it increases the depth of focus of the slit and thereby produces a better optical section of the eye . 4. a slit aperture or diaphragm to alter length, width and orientation of slit 5. Filters.
  • 18. 1- Eyepiece 2- Marked ring for Adjustment of examiner’s refractive error 3- Prism housing 4- Magnification Wheel 5- Objective lens
  • 19. 1.the eyepiece : With extra pair for higher magnification . The eye piece has a lens of +10D. Microscope is binocular .it has 2 eyepieces . 2.Marked ring for Adjustment of examiner’s refractive error : Enable the examiner to neutralize his or her own error of refraction .
  • 20. 3.Prism housing : To overcome the problem of double vision image produced by compound microscope 4. Magnification Wheel :- Most slit lamp provide a range of magnification from 6x to 40x
  • 21. 5.Objective lens: In front of patient’s eye to make the working distance about 9-12cm It presents to the observer an enlarged image of a near object .
  • 23. 1- slit-lamp table (base ) 2- head rest and fixation 3- joystick
  • 24.  It concern with : •Positioning & adjustment of patient and observer •Maneuvering the illumination and microscope system together with joystick •Providing base to other parts
  • 25. A- Power switch : - The conventional type of slit-lamp only require a transformer for power supply of the low- voltage filament lamp. - the transformer is fixed underneath the table top. - the transformer out put for operation on the main lamp is 5,6 or 7.5 volts and 5 volts for the fixation lamp . 1. slit-lamp table ( base ) :
  • 26. B -Table height adjustment: provide the excellent vertically movement of the head rest to provide the best comfort position of the patient . C- Lock for slit lamp base : should lock the base if there is a children around the instrument . D- Low friction plate: to provide an easy movement of the slit lamp by joystick . 1. slit lamp table ( base ) :
  • 27. A- Fixation target : A movable fixation target on top of the head rest to bring the fixation light in front of the examine eye of the patient . B- black mark C- Chin rest D- Hand grip for patient E- Chin rest adjustment knob 2. head rest and fixation :
  • 28. - provide the movement of microscope & illumination system vertically ( towards and away from patient's eye ) and horizontally ( from side to side ) . 3. joystick :
  • 30. 1. goldman Tonometer 2. Gonioscopic Lens 3. volk Lens 4. Goldmann 3-Mirror gonioscopic lens : 5. Video attachment
  • 31. The Goldmann Applanation Tonometer is the most common tonometer that usually mounted on the standard slit- lamp biomicroscope, it use to determine the intraocular pressure of eye. It is an important test in the evaluation of patients at risk from glaucoma. * Parts : 1.Tonometer tip 2.Metal rod 3.Tonometer housing 4.Force adjustment knob
  • 33. Contact Non contact •Different types of Contact and Non-contact lenses used for examination & diagnostic
  • 34. A-Non-contact lenses 2. volk lenses (+60,+78,+90): •It have plus power with 2 convex lense , it give a wild field of fundus •Additional tool for fundus observation with the slit lamp (BIO) •Mostly indirect; inverted image of the fundus • Required: •undilated pupil •Coaxial angle (0°) •Illumination - low with 2-4mm slit •Magnification 10-16 X
  • 35. B -Contact lenses · 4. indirect goniolens. •Additional tool for AC angle observation with the slit lamp •Mostly direct; inverted image of the angle •Required : •dilated pupil •Illumination – low with 2-4 mm slit •use with liquid to avoid Scratch of cornea & avoid TIR •Magnification 10 -16 X ◦
  • 36. •Procedure same as contact fundus lens Observation , it consist of four parts; the central lens and three mirrors set at different angles •Central lens: Posterior pole • the largest mirror (73°): peripheral of retina (peripheral mirror) • the intermediate mirror (67° ): Equator of retina (equatorial mirro) • the smallest mirror (59°) : Iridocorneal angle ( Gonioscopy mirror)
  • 38. Use as teaching tool & to follow up the patient case by taking photo
  • 40. 1.Make the table comfortable for both the examiner and patient. 2.Set magnification on law (6or10). 3.Set IPD comfortable for the examiner. 4.Set up a diffuse beam and medium intensity. 5.Ask the patient to put his head in the forehead rest .
  • 41. 6.Adjust the black marker. 7.Start examine the eye from outside to inside by the method that was explained before.
  • 43. 1-Diffuse illumination 2-Direct focal illumination 3-Indirect illumination 4-Sclerotic scatter 5-Retro illumination 6-specular reflection
  • 44. This is a good method of observing the eye and adnexa in general The slit should be opened wide and the magnification should be set as low as possible to enable a large field of view Wide slit, diffusing inserted, microscope in front, illumination angle 30–50°, magnification of 6- 10x Patients are generally unable to tolerate the brightness of a wide beam
  • 45. is the most frequently used form of corneal illumination ,focuses the slit beam and microscope at coincident point the magnification can be increased quite markedly (10x to40x or more)to view any areas of interest in greater detail
  • 46. A. Wide beam: 2mm slit width enabling corneal surface as well as stroma to be studied .this allows us to test the depth of any interesting feature e.g. foreign body ,corneal abrasion. A-wide beam B-narrow beam C-conical beam
  • 47.  Use the narrowest slit possible (0.1 – 0.2 mm), this technique is only used if you wish to investigate something the resolution of the section can be improved by reducing the slit width to a minimum and be viewed more clearly by increasing the magnification . generally the angle between the illuminating and observation systems should be set around 45 to 60 degrees ,however to increase the amount of cross section , this angle can be further increased to 90degrees.
  • 48.  tears (outer)  epithelium and bowman s membrane  stroma  endothelium and descemet s membrane
  • 49. an important modification of direct illumination is used when inflammatory cells within the anterior chamber are suspected
  • 50. Depends on transmission of light in illumination non transparent tissue This simply means looking at tissue outside the area which is directly illuminated
  • 52. This method uses the principle of total internal reflection . A narrow vertical slit (1-1.5mm in width) is directed in line with the temporal or nasal limbus. a hole of light will be observed around the limbus as light is internally reflected within the cornea , but scattered by the sclera .
  • 53. any corneal opacities , foreign bodies will be made visible by the scattering light , appearing as bright patches against the dark background of the iris and pupil . It is important that the room illumination is as dark as possible
  • 54. the light is reflected off the deeper structures , such as the iris and retina , while the microscope is focused to study the more anterior structure in the reflected light like the cornea the most typical use is to study the cornea in light reflected from the iris or the lens in light reflected from the retina or choroid
  • 55. By this method we can see very well both the iris ,the cornea , and the lens Use the narrowest slit , generally the angle between the illuminating and observation systems should be set 90 degree
  • 56. relies on the use of the reflective properties of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces . The magnification of the microscope must be 200x view through one eye piece Observe: corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens surfaces.