SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
Characteristics of Semiconducting Diodes
By Sultan LeMarc
Aims
• I-V characteristics of superconducting diodes
▫ Forward bias (Germanium and Silicon)
▫ Reverse bias (Germanium)

• Variation of reverse current as function of temperature
▫ Reverse saturation current
▫ Band gap determination
What is a semiconductor?
• Properties between conductors and insulators
• Two types:
▫ Intrinsic
▫ Extrinsic

• Smaller energy gap between bands than insulators
• Negative and positive charge carriers

(Serway, 2010)
Doping
• Addition of impurities

• Adjusts conductivity of semiconductor
• Modifies band structure and resistivity
N-type

P-type

• Negative

• Positive

• Donor atoms

• Acceptor atoms

• Charge carriers: Electrons

• Charge carriers: Positive ‘holes’
Diodes
• Conducts in only one direction
• p-n junction diode: - p junction
- depletion region
- n junction
Germanium (Ge)
• Similar to Silicon diode

(allaboutcircuits.com)

Zener (Ze)
• Flow in forward and reverse
direction

• High reverse resistance
• Permanent damage at high
reverse current

• Avalanche breakdown at
sufficiently high reverse
voltage
Temperature dependence
• 0K - all electrons in valance band
• Temperature dependence of
▫ Carrier mobility
▫ Carrier concentration
• Conductivity increases with temperature
▫ Excitation of electrons across band gap
Leakage Current
Experiment 1: Forward Characteristics
• p-n junction transistors: Si & Ge
▫ Transistors used as diodes – base emitter junction

• Independent variable – supply voltage
• Dependent variable – current across diode
• Restraints
▫
▫
▫
▫

Current < 10mA
Voltage < 25V
2.2kΩ resistance to limit current
Room temperature (24.7oC)

[KCL 2nd Year Physics Laboratory
Manual 2012/13]
Experiment 1: Results
• Disobedience of Ohm’s law
• Exponential relationship
• Si shows greater
conductivity
• Forward bias voltage:
▫ Si: 0.7V
▫ Ge: 0.3V
• Ge used in low power
circuits – more efficient
than Si
Experiment 2: Reverse Characteristics
• Only for Ge
▫ Si reverse current too small to measure with apparatus
• Sensitive measuring instruments
▫ Levell multimeter
▫ Digital voltmeter

• Supply voltage fixed to ~0.5V

[KCL 2nd Year Physics Laboratory
Manual 2012/13]

• 10µm turn potentiometer used to adjust diode voltage
• Dependent variable – current across diode
Experiment 2: Results
Further Extensions
• Different semiconducting materials
• Resistance level characteristics

• Metal-junction diode: Schottky
• Devices:
- LED
- Photodiode (solar cell)
- Thermal diode

Photodiode
[rapidonline.com]

More Related Content

What's hot

Analog Electronics ppt on Diodes by Being topper
Analog Electronics  ppt on Diodes by Being topperAnalog Electronics  ppt on Diodes by Being topper
Analog Electronics ppt on Diodes by Being topperVipin Kumar
 
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...Robioul Hasan
 
Chapter 38
Chapter 38Chapter 38
Chapter 38mcfalltj
 
Special purpose diodes
Special purpose diodesSpecial purpose diodes
Special purpose diodesadnanqayum
 
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODESPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODEmihir jain
 
Zener Diode Full Presentation
Zener Diode Full Presentation Zener Diode Full Presentation
Zener Diode Full Presentation Adeel Rasheed
 
Special purpose Diodes
Special purpose DiodesSpecial purpose Diodes
Special purpose DiodesPrerak Trivedi
 
Working principle diode and special diode
Working principle diode and special diodeWorking principle diode and special diode
Working principle diode and special diodeaman1894
 
Semiconductor diodes
Semiconductor diodesSemiconductor diodes
Semiconductor diodesjst8795
 
The Complete Diode Model
The Complete Diode ModelThe Complete Diode Model
The Complete Diode ModelShefa Idrees
 
Types of Diodes
Types of DiodesTypes of Diodes
Types of DiodesMoin Aman
 

What's hot (20)

Analog Electronics ppt on Diodes by Being topper
Analog Electronics  ppt on Diodes by Being topperAnalog Electronics  ppt on Diodes by Being topper
Analog Electronics ppt on Diodes by Being topper
 
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...
Type of all_kind_of_diode.zenzer_diode_p-n_junction_diode_pin_diode_led_diode...
 
Chapter 38
Chapter 38Chapter 38
Chapter 38
 
Special purpose diodes
Special purpose diodesSpecial purpose diodes
Special purpose diodes
 
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODESPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE
SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODE
 
Tunnel diode(1)
Tunnel diode(1)Tunnel diode(1)
Tunnel diode(1)
 
L5 special purpose diodes
L5 special purpose diodesL5 special purpose diodes
L5 special purpose diodes
 
Zener Diode Full Presentation
Zener Diode Full Presentation Zener Diode Full Presentation
Zener Diode Full Presentation
 
Special purpose Diodes
Special purpose DiodesSpecial purpose Diodes
Special purpose Diodes
 
Working principle diode and special diode
Working principle diode and special diodeWorking principle diode and special diode
Working principle diode and special diode
 
Diodes basics
Diodes   basicsDiodes   basics
Diodes basics
 
Semiconductor diodes
Semiconductor diodesSemiconductor diodes
Semiconductor diodes
 
Special purpose diode
Special purpose diodeSpecial purpose diode
Special purpose diode
 
DIODES
DIODES DIODES
DIODES
 
The Complete Diode Model
The Complete Diode ModelThe Complete Diode Model
The Complete Diode Model
 
Edtech2
Edtech2Edtech2
Edtech2
 
Photo diode
Photo diodePhoto diode
Photo diode
 
Diodes
DiodesDiodes
Diodes
 
Diode applications
Diode applicationsDiode applications
Diode applications
 
Types of Diodes
Types of DiodesTypes of Diodes
Types of Diodes
 

Viewers also liked

Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and doped
Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and dopedNature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and doped
Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and dopedWilson Jimmy
 
Pn junction diodes (presentation)
Pn junction diodes (presentation)Pn junction diodes (presentation)
Pn junction diodes (presentation)Alan Bullard
 
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse biasLearn By Watch
 
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarc
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarcProduction and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarc
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarcslemarc
 
Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics
 Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics
Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physicsSara El-Gendy
 
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.Electrical presentation on pn diodes.
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.Atif Imam
 
4.2 semiconductor diodes
4.2 semiconductor diodes4.2 semiconductor diodes
4.2 semiconductor diodesSyiera Rahman
 
Diodes
DiodesDiodes
Diodescallr
 
Opto electronics devices
Opto electronics devicesOpto electronics devices
Opto electronics devicesSiddharth Panda
 
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)Edc(electronics devices and circuits)
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)rawatsap
 
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineering
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineeringBasic electronics and electrical first year engineering
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineeringron181295
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and doped
Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and dopedNature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and doped
Nature and the characteristics of semi conductors(diodes and doped
 
Pn junction
Pn junctionPn junction
Pn junction
 
Pn junction diodes (presentation)
Pn junction diodes (presentation)Pn junction diodes (presentation)
Pn junction diodes (presentation)
 
Vivalab
VivalabVivalab
Vivalab
 
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias
1.1.3 forward bias and reverse bias
 
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarc
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarcProduction and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarc
Production and Emission of X-Rays - Sultan LeMarc
 
Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics
 Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics
Lec1 introduction & basic semiconductor physics
 
Mobility
MobilityMobility
Mobility
 
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.Electrical presentation on pn diodes.
Electrical presentation on pn diodes.
 
Semiconductor theory
Semiconductor theorySemiconductor theory
Semiconductor theory
 
Semiconductor diode
Semiconductor diodeSemiconductor diode
Semiconductor diode
 
4.2 semiconductor diodes
4.2 semiconductor diodes4.2 semiconductor diodes
4.2 semiconductor diodes
 
hall effect
hall effecthall effect
hall effect
 
Diodes
DiodesDiodes
Diodes
 
THE HALL EFFECT
THE HALL EFFECTTHE HALL EFFECT
THE HALL EFFECT
 
Opto electronics devices
Opto electronics devicesOpto electronics devices
Opto electronics devices
 
Pn junction diode
Pn junction diodePn junction diode
Pn junction diode
 
Diode
DiodeDiode
Diode
 
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)Edc(electronics devices and circuits)
Edc(electronics devices and circuits)
 
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineering
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineeringBasic electronics and electrical first year engineering
Basic electronics and electrical first year engineering
 

Similar to I-V Characteristics of Semiconducting Diodes

Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptx
Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptxElectronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptx
Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptxDhivya Ramachandran
 
EST 130 Passive Components Resistors
EST 130 Passive Components ResistorsEST 130 Passive Components Resistors
EST 130 Passive Components ResistorsCKSunith1
 
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).ppt
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).pptBasic Electronics presentation v2 (1).ppt
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).pptSATHISHKUMARC37
 
Diode - All you need to know
Diode - All you need to knowDiode - All you need to know
Diode - All you need to knowYeasinNewaj
 
EST 130, Semiconductors
EST 130, SemiconductorsEST 130, Semiconductors
EST 130, SemiconductorsCKSunith1
 
Diode - Operational Principle
Diode - Operational PrincipleDiode - Operational Principle
Diode - Operational PrincipleYong Heui Cho
 
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpoint
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpointEngr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpoint
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpointSagar Jadhav
 
Full sessional pack ii
Full sessional pack iiFull sessional pack ii
Full sessional pack iiUmer Tanvir
 
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronics
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronicsAVR_Course_Day1 basic electronics
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronicsMohamed Ali
 
New electronics slides
New electronics slidesNew electronics slides
New electronics slidesjogajosh
 
EST 130, PN Junction Diodes
EST 130, PN Junction DiodesEST 130, PN Junction Diodes
EST 130, PN Junction DiodesCKSunith1
 
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)4.2 semiconductor diode (1)
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)Nurul Fadhilah
 

Similar to I-V Characteristics of Semiconducting Diodes (20)

Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptx
Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptxElectronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptx
Electronic Devices - Special Diodes - Unit 1.pptx
 
P n junction diode prabhakar
P n junction diode prabhakar P n junction diode prabhakar
P n junction diode prabhakar
 
EST 130 Passive Components Resistors
EST 130 Passive Components ResistorsEST 130 Passive Components Resistors
EST 130 Passive Components Resistors
 
Chapter 5: Diode
Chapter 5: DiodeChapter 5: Diode
Chapter 5: Diode
 
4 semiconductor electronics
4 semiconductor electronics4 semiconductor electronics
4 semiconductor electronics
 
unit-2.pdf
unit-2.pdfunit-2.pdf
unit-2.pdf
 
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).ppt
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).pptBasic Electronics presentation v2 (1).ppt
Basic Electronics presentation v2 (1).ppt
 
Elec01 electrical elements
Elec01 electrical elementsElec01 electrical elements
Elec01 electrical elements
 
Diode - All you need to know
Diode - All you need to knowDiode - All you need to know
Diode - All you need to know
 
Welding lectures 7 8
Welding lectures 7 8Welding lectures 7 8
Welding lectures 7 8
 
EST 130, Semiconductors
EST 130, SemiconductorsEST 130, Semiconductors
EST 130, Semiconductors
 
Basic_electronics (2).pptx
Basic_electronics (2).pptxBasic_electronics (2).pptx
Basic_electronics (2).pptx
 
Diode - Operational Principle
Diode - Operational PrincipleDiode - Operational Principle
Diode - Operational Principle
 
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpoint
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpointEngr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpoint
Engr fe 6_basic_circuitcomponentspowerpoint
 
Full sessional pack ii
Full sessional pack iiFull sessional pack ii
Full sessional pack ii
 
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronics
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronicsAVR_Course_Day1 basic electronics
AVR_Course_Day1 basic electronics
 
basic electronics
basic electronicsbasic electronics
basic electronics
 
New electronics slides
New electronics slidesNew electronics slides
New electronics slides
 
EST 130, PN Junction Diodes
EST 130, PN Junction DiodesEST 130, PN Junction Diodes
EST 130, PN Junction Diodes
 
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)4.2 semiconductor diode (1)
4.2 semiconductor diode (1)
 

Recently uploaded

Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World Politics
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World PoliticsThe Contemporary World: The Globalization of World Politics
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World PoliticsRommel Regala
 
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSGRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSJoshuaGantuangco2
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...Postal Advocate Inc.
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxRosabel UA
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
 
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE_GOT_EMAIL_PRELIMS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World Politics
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World PoliticsThe Contemporary World: The Globalization of World Politics
The Contemporary World: The Globalization of World Politics
 
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTSGRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
GRADE 4 - SUMMATIVE TEST QUARTER 4 ALL SUBJECTS
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
 
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptxPresentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
Presentation Activity 2. Unit 3 transv.pptx
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 

I-V Characteristics of Semiconducting Diodes

  • 1. Characteristics of Semiconducting Diodes By Sultan LeMarc
  • 2. Aims • I-V characteristics of superconducting diodes ▫ Forward bias (Germanium and Silicon) ▫ Reverse bias (Germanium) • Variation of reverse current as function of temperature ▫ Reverse saturation current ▫ Band gap determination
  • 3.
  • 4. What is a semiconductor? • Properties between conductors and insulators • Two types: ▫ Intrinsic ▫ Extrinsic • Smaller energy gap between bands than insulators • Negative and positive charge carriers (Serway, 2010)
  • 5. Doping • Addition of impurities • Adjusts conductivity of semiconductor • Modifies band structure and resistivity N-type P-type • Negative • Positive • Donor atoms • Acceptor atoms • Charge carriers: Electrons • Charge carriers: Positive ‘holes’
  • 6. Diodes • Conducts in only one direction • p-n junction diode: - p junction - depletion region - n junction Germanium (Ge) • Similar to Silicon diode (allaboutcircuits.com) Zener (Ze) • Flow in forward and reverse direction • High reverse resistance • Permanent damage at high reverse current • Avalanche breakdown at sufficiently high reverse voltage
  • 7. Temperature dependence • 0K - all electrons in valance band • Temperature dependence of ▫ Carrier mobility ▫ Carrier concentration • Conductivity increases with temperature ▫ Excitation of electrons across band gap
  • 9. Experiment 1: Forward Characteristics • p-n junction transistors: Si & Ge ▫ Transistors used as diodes – base emitter junction • Independent variable – supply voltage • Dependent variable – current across diode • Restraints ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Current < 10mA Voltage < 25V 2.2kΩ resistance to limit current Room temperature (24.7oC) [KCL 2nd Year Physics Laboratory Manual 2012/13]
  • 10. Experiment 1: Results • Disobedience of Ohm’s law • Exponential relationship • Si shows greater conductivity • Forward bias voltage: ▫ Si: 0.7V ▫ Ge: 0.3V • Ge used in low power circuits – more efficient than Si
  • 11. Experiment 2: Reverse Characteristics • Only for Ge ▫ Si reverse current too small to measure with apparatus • Sensitive measuring instruments ▫ Levell multimeter ▫ Digital voltmeter • Supply voltage fixed to ~0.5V [KCL 2nd Year Physics Laboratory Manual 2012/13] • 10µm turn potentiometer used to adjust diode voltage • Dependent variable – current across diode
  • 13. Further Extensions • Different semiconducting materials • Resistance level characteristics • Metal-junction diode: Schottky • Devices: - LED - Photodiode (solar cell) - Thermal diode Photodiode [rapidonline.com]