SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Industrial Plant Agriculture
and GMOs
• Intensive agriculture—a system of intensive farming that extensively
utilizes tools and machinery and tends to focus on profit as measured by
single-crop yield.
• Monoculture / monocropping—the practice of growing only a single plant
species; this is the basis of intensive agriculture today.
• Biodiversity—the variety of species inhabiting the planet or a single
ecosystem, often used as a measure of environmental health.
• Hybrid—the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or
varieties.
• Bioengineering—the manipulation of biological organisms or processes in
industry or engineering.
• GMO—genetically-modified organism; a plant or animal whose genetic
makeup has been altered in a laboratory.
• Transgenic crop—a GMO that contains one or more genes from an
unrelated crop or a different species that have been artificially inserted.
Key Concepts
Source: Sierra Club Canada
As this USDA graph indicates, the
vast majority of key commodity
food crops like soybeans and corn
grown in the U.S. today are
genetically modified (GMO)
varieties. This is especially notable
since GMO foods have been on the
market for less than three decades.
In 2020, 94 percent of soybeans
grown in the U.S. contained a
genetic modification (HT) that
made them herbicide-tolerant.
Likewise, 82 percent of corn grown
was HT while 89 percent was
genetically modified to be insect
resistant (Bt). The vast majority of
U.S. corn grown today is both
herbicide-tolerant and insecticide-
resistant.
https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us/recent-trends-in-ge-
adoption.aspx
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Benefits*
• Crops can be bred with desired traits:
• Herbicide tolerance and pesticide resistance
• Ability to withstand disease and drought
with fewer environmental resources
• Preferred flavor and size
• Faster growth  greater efficiency
• Creation of nutritionally fortified foods (e.g.
“golden rice”) that may benefit food insecure
parts of the world
• Potential to reduce use of pesticides*
• Cheaper, more abundant, and reliable food
supply*
Concerns
• Loss of biodiversity with only a few
varieties of crops being grown
• Corporate control of the food supply
• Environmental contamination, esp. due to
GMO tolerance of herbicides and pesticides
• Uncertainty surrounding long-term health
effects in humans (lack of good data)
• Ethical and legal questions about patenting
life
• Lack of transparency (labelling)
• Loss of food sovereignty both for small
American farmers and for farmers in
developing countries
*Opponents of GMOs dispute many of these benefits
cited by proponents of GMOs.
Source: Monsanto’s website (c. 2017)
What is Monsanto
(now Bayer)?
The “revolving door” refers to rules and political
structures that permit the movement of “former
federal employees into jobs as lobbyists, consultants
and strategists just as the door pulls former hired
guns into government careers.” In other words, the
revolving door allows individuals to move easily
between paid work in the corporate sector and work
in government agencies and elected office.
The revolving door allows political appointees at
agencies like the USDA and FDA to shape
government policies on behalf of their former (and
possibly future) employers. This creates a conflict of
interest, whereby the concerns or aims of two groups
represented by an appointee (e.g. farmers and
consumers, or food industries and workers) are
potentially incompatible.
Source: https://www.opensecrets.org/revolving/
The Revolving Door
The Revolving Door and Monsanto*
*Monsanto is now owned by Bayer.
Supreme Court Justice Clarence
Thomas was a corporate lawyer
for Monsanto in the 1970s.
In 2001, he wrote a key decision
that determined that “new,
developed plant breeds are
patentable.” This was obviously
a huge legal and financial victory
for Thomas’ former employer,
Monsanto.
https://www.opensecrets.org/new
s/2013/02/monsanto/
The above individuals (in red) have held public office before or since working for
Monsanto. Among them are former lawmakers, presidential advisors and cabinet
secretaries, regulators with the Department of Agriculture and the Environmental
Protection Agency, and even a Supreme Court justice.
Monsanto’s “Roundup”
• Roundup is an herbicide (weed killer) produced by the agro-chemical
company Monsanto (now owned by Bayer) and first sold in 1974.
• Roundup’s key ingredient is glyphosate, considered a “known
carcinogen” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer; as a
result, dozens of countries have banned the use of Roundup.
• Roundup is used on so-called “Roundup Ready” seed (e.g. soy), which
have been genetically engineered by Monsanto to withstand the
herbicide. This means that Roundup can be heavily sprayed on
Roundup Ready crops without killing the crop itself.
Roundup contains glyphosate, which is toxic to standard plants that contain its target
protein. The plants containing this protein are destroyed upon exposure to glyphosate,
indicated by the red X. Roundup Ready crops have been engineered to contain a gene
from Agrobacteria, making them immune to the herbicide.
https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2015/roundup-ready-crops/
Roundup and Cancer?
• In Aug 2020, the National Black Farmers Association (NBFA) sued Bayer,
arguing that black farmers are at risk of developing cancer and that Bayer
“knowingly failed and continues to fail to adequately warn farmers about
the dangers of glyphosate” (Hettinger).
• The NBFA argues that Roundup should no longer be sold and that, while
still on the market, Roundup must include a warning label.
• According to Hettinger, the NBFA lawsuit, filed by a prominent civil rights
attorney, “argues that Black farmers disproportionately have limited access
to internet and are less literate than the general population, and often rely on
local seed salesmen for education on what seeds to buy and pesticides to
spray. Because of the prevalence of Monsanto’s Roundup Ready seeds, they
are basically forced to use Roundup…”
• In June 2020, Bayer made a legal settlement for nearly $11 billion in
response to claims that Roundup causes cancer. However, Roundup is still
on the market.
An Obama administration law requiring
mandatory labelling of GMOs must be
implemented by the beginning of 2021 using the
above icons. Notably, the labels do not include
the commonly–known terms “GMO” or “genetic
modification.”
What is “organic”?
The term “organic” refers to crops that are grown without
the use of chemical inputs like fertilizers, herbicides, and
pesticides. According to the Department of Agriculture,
“USDA certified organic foods are grown and processed
according to federal guidelines addressing, among many
factors, soil quality, animal raising practices, pest and weed
control, and use of additives. Organic producers rely on
natural substances and physical, mechanical, or biologically
based farming methods to the fullest extent
possible…Produce can be called organic if it’s certified to
have grown on soil that had no prohibited substances
applied for three years prior to harvest” (USDA.gov).
Certified organic foods cannot contain genetically
modified organisms. Buying organic is the easiest way to
be sure that your food does not contain GMOs.
Are organic foods better or safer?
• Though industry scientists insist that agricultural chemicals are safe
for human use, common sense suggests that organic foods should be
safer (and are certainly no less safe) than crops grown conventionally
with chemicals.
• There is little question, however, that organic agriculture is better for
the environment because it requires use of sustainable methods to
maintain soil fertility without the addition of chemicals that can
contaminate waterways and harm wildlife.
• Organic production is also better for the health and safety of farm
workers, thousands of whom have filed lawsuits against Bayer (owner
of Monsanto) claiming that the chemical glyphosate, used in the
herbicide Roundup, causes cancer.
The Environmental Working Group
(EWG) releases an annual “dirty
dozen” list of crops with the highest
percentage and most variety of
pesticide residues, meaning those with
the most chemicals still evident even
after washing and peeling. If possible,
consumers should purchase these items
only when organically-grown.
Surprisingly, the “dirtiest” crop as
determined by USDA and FDA tests in
2020 was a conventionally-grown
raisin.
The Dirty Dozen
https://www.organicwithoutboundaries.bio/2020/07/16/a-
shocking-new-entrant-tops-the-dirty-dozen/
https://www.cornucopia.org/2018/04/new-map-identifies-organic-farming-hotspots/

More Related Content

What's hot

Final Project: GMO Foods
Final Project: GMO FoodsFinal Project: GMO Foods
Final Project: GMO Foods
mollyyanne
 
Gmo persuasive speech Samk
Gmo persuasive speech SamkGmo persuasive speech Samk
Gmo persuasive speech Samk
skathnamay
 
Gmo presentation
Gmo presentationGmo presentation
Gmo presentation
Alex Houfek
 
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
Sterling Crew
 
Genetically modified foods bio
Genetically modified foods bioGenetically modified foods bio
Genetically modified foods bio
jennreilly1
 
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing NationsGenetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
KErmels
 

What's hot (20)

Public acceptance of genetically modified crops
Public acceptance of genetically modified cropsPublic acceptance of genetically modified crops
Public acceptance of genetically modified crops
 
Final Project: GMO Foods
Final Project: GMO FoodsFinal Project: GMO Foods
Final Project: GMO Foods
 
Consumer perception of Genetically Modified foods
Consumer perception of Genetically Modified foodsConsumer perception of Genetically Modified foods
Consumer perception of Genetically Modified foods
 
Gmo persuasive speech Samk
Gmo persuasive speech SamkGmo persuasive speech Samk
Gmo persuasive speech Samk
 
Food in The Balance
Food in The BalanceFood in The Balance
Food in The Balance
 
PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON BIOTECHNOLOGY
PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON BIOTECHNOLOGYPUBLIC PERCEPTION ON BIOTECHNOLOGY
PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
Gmo presentation
Gmo presentationGmo presentation
Gmo presentation
 
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
Sterling paper GM crops fight world hunger.IFST Food Science & Technology Jou...
 
Genetically modified foods bio
Genetically modified foods bioGenetically modified foods bio
Genetically modified foods bio
 
GMO Answers Top 10 Questions
GMO Answers Top 10 QuestionsGMO Answers Top 10 Questions
GMO Answers Top 10 Questions
 
Healthy minor-cereals impactpublication-brochure
Healthy minor-cereals impactpublication-brochureHealthy minor-cereals impactpublication-brochure
Healthy minor-cereals impactpublication-brochure
 
Food crisis
Food crisisFood crisis
Food crisis
 
Communicating Concepts in Genetic Engineering
Communicating Concepts in Genetic EngineeringCommunicating Concepts in Genetic Engineering
Communicating Concepts in Genetic Engineering
 
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing NationsGenetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
Genetically Modified Organisms: Impact on Developing Nations
 
Will Potato Growers be Allowed to Benefit from New Technology?
Will Potato Growers be Allowed to Benefit from New Technology? Will Potato Growers be Allowed to Benefit from New Technology?
Will Potato Growers be Allowed to Benefit from New Technology?
 
Senior Project on (Gmo) or (Geo)
Senior Project on (Gmo) or (Geo)Senior Project on (Gmo) or (Geo)
Senior Project on (Gmo) or (Geo)
 
Gm crops
Gm cropsGm crops
Gm crops
 
GM Essay outline
GM Essay outlineGM Essay outline
GM Essay outline
 
G M is evil
G M is evilG M is evil
G M is evil
 
Food: a System in Crisis
Food: a System in CrisisFood: a System in Crisis
Food: a System in Crisis
 

Similar to Slides: Plant Agriculture and GMOs

What is a GMO?
What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
What is a GMO?
Tara Oney
 
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docxMGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
4934bk
 
Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
 Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
MARRY7
 
Genetically-Modified Foods
Genetically-Modified FoodsGenetically-Modified Foods
Genetically-Modified Foods
savannahcitron
 
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docxThere are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
relaine1
 
Pros and cons of biotechnology
Pros and cons of biotechnologyPros and cons of biotechnology
Pros and cons of biotechnology
educationprojects
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
AbbyWhyte974
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
MartineMccracken314
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
TatianaMajor22
 

Similar to Slides: Plant Agriculture and GMOs (20)

Gmo power point for healing energies inc.
Gmo power point for healing energies inc.Gmo power point for healing energies inc.
Gmo power point for healing energies inc.
 
Food inc monsanto perspective final slide_share
Food inc  monsanto perspective final slide_shareFood inc  monsanto perspective final slide_share
Food inc monsanto perspective final slide_share
 
What is a GMO?
What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
What is a GMO?
 
Essay On GMO Labeling
Essay On GMO LabelingEssay On GMO Labeling
Essay On GMO Labeling
 
Business ethics case study of mosanto
Business ethics  case study of mosantoBusiness ethics  case study of mosanto
Business ethics case study of mosanto
 
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docxMGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
MGMT 350 Coppin State University Monsanto A Growing Controversy Discussion.docx
 
Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
 Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
Surname 1Monsanto Agrochemical CompanyMonsanto is an agri.docx
 
Case study on Monsanto
Case study on MonsantoCase study on Monsanto
Case study on Monsanto
 
Get To Know GMOs by GMO Answers
Get To Know GMOs by GMO AnswersGet To Know GMOs by GMO Answers
Get To Know GMOs by GMO Answers
 
Genetically-Modified Foods
Genetically-Modified FoodsGenetically-Modified Foods
Genetically-Modified Foods
 
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docxThere are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
There are two questions relating this case. It can be 1 page for bot.docx
 
Pros and cons of biotechnology
Pros and cons of biotechnologyPros and cons of biotechnology
Pros and cons of biotechnology
 
The Economics of Genetically Modified Food Labeling
The Economics of Genetically Modified Food LabelingThe Economics of Genetically Modified Food Labeling
The Economics of Genetically Modified Food Labeling
 
FDA Corruption
FDA CorruptionFDA Corruption
FDA Corruption
 
coexistencePB170.ppt
coexistencePB170.pptcoexistencePB170.ppt
coexistencePB170.ppt
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
 
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
1-1Introduction When you think of Monsanto, the phrase genet
 
Is GMO safe to consume?
Is GMO safe to consume?Is GMO safe to consume?
Is GMO safe to consume?
 
Is GMO safe to consume
Is GMO safe to consumeIs GMO safe to consume
Is GMO safe to consume
 

More from MaryPotorti1

2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 

More from MaryPotorti1 (20)

2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
 
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
 
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
 
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
 
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
 
1.23.24.B The Great Migration.pptx
1.23.24.B The Great Migration.pptx1.23.24.B The Great Migration.pptx
1.23.24.B The Great Migration.pptx
 
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
 
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
 
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
 
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
 
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
 
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
 
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
 
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
 
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
 
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
 
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdfPoster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
Alexander Litvinenko
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptxThe Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
 
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING IIII BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
Benefits and Challenges of OER by Shweta Babel.pptx
Benefits and Challenges of OER by Shweta Babel.pptxBenefits and Challenges of OER by Shweta Babel.pptx
Benefits and Challenges of OER by Shweta Babel.pptx
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdfPoster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
Poster_density_driven_with_fracture_MLMC.pdf
 

Slides: Plant Agriculture and GMOs

  • 2. • Intensive agriculture—a system of intensive farming that extensively utilizes tools and machinery and tends to focus on profit as measured by single-crop yield. • Monoculture / monocropping—the practice of growing only a single plant species; this is the basis of intensive agriculture today. • Biodiversity—the variety of species inhabiting the planet or a single ecosystem, often used as a measure of environmental health. • Hybrid—the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties. • Bioengineering—the manipulation of biological organisms or processes in industry or engineering. • GMO—genetically-modified organism; a plant or animal whose genetic makeup has been altered in a laboratory. • Transgenic crop—a GMO that contains one or more genes from an unrelated crop or a different species that have been artificially inserted. Key Concepts
  • 3.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. As this USDA graph indicates, the vast majority of key commodity food crops like soybeans and corn grown in the U.S. today are genetically modified (GMO) varieties. This is especially notable since GMO foods have been on the market for less than three decades. In 2020, 94 percent of soybeans grown in the U.S. contained a genetic modification (HT) that made them herbicide-tolerant. Likewise, 82 percent of corn grown was HT while 89 percent was genetically modified to be insect resistant (Bt). The vast majority of U.S. corn grown today is both herbicide-tolerant and insecticide- resistant. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us/recent-trends-in-ge- adoption.aspx
  • 9. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Benefits* • Crops can be bred with desired traits: • Herbicide tolerance and pesticide resistance • Ability to withstand disease and drought with fewer environmental resources • Preferred flavor and size • Faster growth  greater efficiency • Creation of nutritionally fortified foods (e.g. “golden rice”) that may benefit food insecure parts of the world • Potential to reduce use of pesticides* • Cheaper, more abundant, and reliable food supply* Concerns • Loss of biodiversity with only a few varieties of crops being grown • Corporate control of the food supply • Environmental contamination, esp. due to GMO tolerance of herbicides and pesticides • Uncertainty surrounding long-term health effects in humans (lack of good data) • Ethical and legal questions about patenting life • Lack of transparency (labelling) • Loss of food sovereignty both for small American farmers and for farmers in developing countries *Opponents of GMOs dispute many of these benefits cited by proponents of GMOs.
  • 10. Source: Monsanto’s website (c. 2017) What is Monsanto (now Bayer)?
  • 11. The “revolving door” refers to rules and political structures that permit the movement of “former federal employees into jobs as lobbyists, consultants and strategists just as the door pulls former hired guns into government careers.” In other words, the revolving door allows individuals to move easily between paid work in the corporate sector and work in government agencies and elected office. The revolving door allows political appointees at agencies like the USDA and FDA to shape government policies on behalf of their former (and possibly future) employers. This creates a conflict of interest, whereby the concerns or aims of two groups represented by an appointee (e.g. farmers and consumers, or food industries and workers) are potentially incompatible. Source: https://www.opensecrets.org/revolving/ The Revolving Door
  • 12. The Revolving Door and Monsanto* *Monsanto is now owned by Bayer. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas was a corporate lawyer for Monsanto in the 1970s. In 2001, he wrote a key decision that determined that “new, developed plant breeds are patentable.” This was obviously a huge legal and financial victory for Thomas’ former employer, Monsanto. https://www.opensecrets.org/new s/2013/02/monsanto/ The above individuals (in red) have held public office before or since working for Monsanto. Among them are former lawmakers, presidential advisors and cabinet secretaries, regulators with the Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency, and even a Supreme Court justice.
  • 13. Monsanto’s “Roundup” • Roundup is an herbicide (weed killer) produced by the agro-chemical company Monsanto (now owned by Bayer) and first sold in 1974. • Roundup’s key ingredient is glyphosate, considered a “known carcinogen” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer; as a result, dozens of countries have banned the use of Roundup. • Roundup is used on so-called “Roundup Ready” seed (e.g. soy), which have been genetically engineered by Monsanto to withstand the herbicide. This means that Roundup can be heavily sprayed on Roundup Ready crops without killing the crop itself.
  • 14. Roundup contains glyphosate, which is toxic to standard plants that contain its target protein. The plants containing this protein are destroyed upon exposure to glyphosate, indicated by the red X. Roundup Ready crops have been engineered to contain a gene from Agrobacteria, making them immune to the herbicide. https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2015/roundup-ready-crops/
  • 15. Roundup and Cancer? • In Aug 2020, the National Black Farmers Association (NBFA) sued Bayer, arguing that black farmers are at risk of developing cancer and that Bayer “knowingly failed and continues to fail to adequately warn farmers about the dangers of glyphosate” (Hettinger). • The NBFA argues that Roundup should no longer be sold and that, while still on the market, Roundup must include a warning label. • According to Hettinger, the NBFA lawsuit, filed by a prominent civil rights attorney, “argues that Black farmers disproportionately have limited access to internet and are less literate than the general population, and often rely on local seed salesmen for education on what seeds to buy and pesticides to spray. Because of the prevalence of Monsanto’s Roundup Ready seeds, they are basically forced to use Roundup…” • In June 2020, Bayer made a legal settlement for nearly $11 billion in response to claims that Roundup causes cancer. However, Roundup is still on the market.
  • 16. An Obama administration law requiring mandatory labelling of GMOs must be implemented by the beginning of 2021 using the above icons. Notably, the labels do not include the commonly–known terms “GMO” or “genetic modification.”
  • 17. What is “organic”? The term “organic” refers to crops that are grown without the use of chemical inputs like fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. According to the Department of Agriculture, “USDA certified organic foods are grown and processed according to federal guidelines addressing, among many factors, soil quality, animal raising practices, pest and weed control, and use of additives. Organic producers rely on natural substances and physical, mechanical, or biologically based farming methods to the fullest extent possible…Produce can be called organic if it’s certified to have grown on soil that had no prohibited substances applied for three years prior to harvest” (USDA.gov). Certified organic foods cannot contain genetically modified organisms. Buying organic is the easiest way to be sure that your food does not contain GMOs.
  • 18. Are organic foods better or safer? • Though industry scientists insist that agricultural chemicals are safe for human use, common sense suggests that organic foods should be safer (and are certainly no less safe) than crops grown conventionally with chemicals. • There is little question, however, that organic agriculture is better for the environment because it requires use of sustainable methods to maintain soil fertility without the addition of chemicals that can contaminate waterways and harm wildlife. • Organic production is also better for the health and safety of farm workers, thousands of whom have filed lawsuits against Bayer (owner of Monsanto) claiming that the chemical glyphosate, used in the herbicide Roundup, causes cancer.
  • 19. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) releases an annual “dirty dozen” list of crops with the highest percentage and most variety of pesticide residues, meaning those with the most chemicals still evident even after washing and peeling. If possible, consumers should purchase these items only when organically-grown. Surprisingly, the “dirtiest” crop as determined by USDA and FDA tests in 2020 was a conventionally-grown raisin. The Dirty Dozen https://www.organicwithoutboundaries.bio/2020/07/16/a- shocking-new-entrant-tops-the-dirty-dozen/

Editor's Notes

  1. http://thelills.com/monocultures-vs-biodiversity/ Industrial agriculture is the largest single threat to the earth’s biodiversity. Fence-row-to-fence-row plowing, planting, and harvesting techniques decimate wildlife habitats, while massive chemical use poisons the soil and water, and kills off countless plant and animal communities.
  2. https://www.sierraclub.ca/en/video-biodiversity-in-ontario
  3. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us/recent-trends-in-ge-adoption.aspx