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Distributed Information Systems - The Client server model Week 1 – Lecture 2
Client server model Any computer connected to a network is called a  host  –  ( a host for a process which provides  or requests  a service ) The  process   on a  client host requests a service from  a  process  on  the server host A process is a program running within a host
Operating system Proc A  Proc B Proc C Operating system Proc X  Proc Y Proc Z Client process Client process Server process Server process Host 1 Host 2 Proc. A asks Proc. X to Perform a service. Proc. Z asks Proc. C to Perform a service Host 1  does not  ask  Host 2 to perform a Service
A brief history of IS 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s Main frame or mini with dumb terminals LAN server & PC s 2 tier Client Server 3 & 4 tier Client server
Application layers Presentation Formatting & displaying data Displaying a form & accepting data Checking the validity of the data entered Application – the business logic Database – storing and locating data File system - recording and reading records on disk
Network Dumb terminals Centralised Mainframe or Minicomputer Basic presentation Form definition Application Database File system
Centralised mainframe or Mini computer Weaknesses Constrained by single server Expensive hardware at the time Strengths Low bandwidth network Architecturally simple Most hardware & system software from the one supplier
Network PCs PC Lan PC Server File system Presentation Application Database
Network PCs PC Lan File Server Operating system Application Operating system File system
PC LAN Weaknesses Very high bandwidth – LAN only Constrained by single server Software is distributed Strengths Cheap hardware Provides low cost systems to small organisations with up to 20 users
Network PCs 2 Tier Client server Database Server PC or UNIX Database File system Presentation Application
Network PCs 2 Tier Client server Database Server Windows or UNIX Proc C Operating system File system Operating system Application Database
Two Tier Client Server Weaknesses Constrained by single server Distributed software Not scalable Strengths Relatively simple architecture Cheap hardware
Network PCs Servers Database File system Presentation 3 Tier Client/Server Application
Network PCs 3 Tier Client/Server Proc C Operating system File system Operating system Presentation Process Database Process Proc C Operating system Application Process
Three Tier Client Server Weaknesses Presentation layer still distributed Complex architecture Strengths Scalable Consistent Performance  Lower bandwidth than 4 tier
Network PCs Servers Database File system Browser 4 Tier Client/Server Application Web
Network PCs 4 Tier Client/Server Proc C Operating system Browser Process Proc C Operating system Application Process Operating system File system Database Process Operating system WEB Server
Four Tier Client Server Weaknesses Browser not designed for TP Perhaps higher bandwidth than 3 tier Complex architecture Strengths Software not distributed Scalable
 
The Advantages of distribution Scalable Additional servers can be added as needed Open Software components can be replaced or added Heterogenous Software can be in different languages, need different operating systems, run on different hardware Fault tolerant While multiple servers is inherently more likely to result in errors, they also provide redundancy
The advantages of being centralised Architecturally simpler All software and hardware from one supplier Eliminates the overhead of distribution Easier to control security On average, requires less bandwidth
Communications & Networks How does the client host find the server host ? Having found the server host, how are messages reliably passed between them, over telephone lines, wireless links, optical fibre cables? This is the subject matter of communications and networks  (weeks 2-5)
Distributed Components How does the client know what server can perform the service? What format does the client use to pass the parameters to the server? Week 6
Integrating disparate systems Organisations have many separate systems Systems in one organisation have to integrate with systems in another Systems are usually developed in complete isolation from each other – often many years apart. They use different data definitions, different coding structures, different data values These systems still have to work together. Week 7 - 9
Security How do we prevent unauthorised users accessing the system? How do we prevent authorised users doing things they should not, or seeing data they must not? How do we identify and authenticate a user? How do we pass messages between systems without those messages being intercepted? Week 10
Server platform There are many different operating systems, computer suppliers, types of middleware etc What are the critical differences? How do we select the right software and hardware to meet our system needs? Week 11
Performance, scalability & reliability Most DIS have many concurrent users How do we design a system to give the required level of performance The number of users and the quantity of data will increase, how do we add hardware and change the software to accommodate those extra users and maintain the required levels of performance & reliability? (week 11)
International differences Users often come from many different countries How does the system adapt to the specific needs of each user Language Character set Legal system Tax laws Currency Week 12
Case study Rory Collins – ex CIO of the ASX Will discuss a major project to implement a new system for the Singapore Stock Exchange Week 12
Next week Basic concepts in computers communicating with each other.

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Slides for Week 1 - Lec 2

  • 1. Distributed Information Systems - The Client server model Week 1 – Lecture 2
  • 2. Client server model Any computer connected to a network is called a host – ( a host for a process which provides or requests a service ) The process on a client host requests a service from a process on the server host A process is a program running within a host
  • 3. Operating system Proc A Proc B Proc C Operating system Proc X Proc Y Proc Z Client process Client process Server process Server process Host 1 Host 2 Proc. A asks Proc. X to Perform a service. Proc. Z asks Proc. C to Perform a service Host 1 does not ask Host 2 to perform a Service
  • 4. A brief history of IS 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s Main frame or mini with dumb terminals LAN server & PC s 2 tier Client Server 3 & 4 tier Client server
  • 5. Application layers Presentation Formatting & displaying data Displaying a form & accepting data Checking the validity of the data entered Application – the business logic Database – storing and locating data File system - recording and reading records on disk
  • 6. Network Dumb terminals Centralised Mainframe or Minicomputer Basic presentation Form definition Application Database File system
  • 7. Centralised mainframe or Mini computer Weaknesses Constrained by single server Expensive hardware at the time Strengths Low bandwidth network Architecturally simple Most hardware & system software from the one supplier
  • 8. Network PCs PC Lan PC Server File system Presentation Application Database
  • 9. Network PCs PC Lan File Server Operating system Application Operating system File system
  • 10. PC LAN Weaknesses Very high bandwidth – LAN only Constrained by single server Software is distributed Strengths Cheap hardware Provides low cost systems to small organisations with up to 20 users
  • 11. Network PCs 2 Tier Client server Database Server PC or UNIX Database File system Presentation Application
  • 12. Network PCs 2 Tier Client server Database Server Windows or UNIX Proc C Operating system File system Operating system Application Database
  • 13. Two Tier Client Server Weaknesses Constrained by single server Distributed software Not scalable Strengths Relatively simple architecture Cheap hardware
  • 14. Network PCs Servers Database File system Presentation 3 Tier Client/Server Application
  • 15. Network PCs 3 Tier Client/Server Proc C Operating system File system Operating system Presentation Process Database Process Proc C Operating system Application Process
  • 16. Three Tier Client Server Weaknesses Presentation layer still distributed Complex architecture Strengths Scalable Consistent Performance Lower bandwidth than 4 tier
  • 17. Network PCs Servers Database File system Browser 4 Tier Client/Server Application Web
  • 18. Network PCs 4 Tier Client/Server Proc C Operating system Browser Process Proc C Operating system Application Process Operating system File system Database Process Operating system WEB Server
  • 19. Four Tier Client Server Weaknesses Browser not designed for TP Perhaps higher bandwidth than 3 tier Complex architecture Strengths Software not distributed Scalable
  • 20.  
  • 21. The Advantages of distribution Scalable Additional servers can be added as needed Open Software components can be replaced or added Heterogenous Software can be in different languages, need different operating systems, run on different hardware Fault tolerant While multiple servers is inherently more likely to result in errors, they also provide redundancy
  • 22. The advantages of being centralised Architecturally simpler All software and hardware from one supplier Eliminates the overhead of distribution Easier to control security On average, requires less bandwidth
  • 23. Communications & Networks How does the client host find the server host ? Having found the server host, how are messages reliably passed between them, over telephone lines, wireless links, optical fibre cables? This is the subject matter of communications and networks (weeks 2-5)
  • 24. Distributed Components How does the client know what server can perform the service? What format does the client use to pass the parameters to the server? Week 6
  • 25. Integrating disparate systems Organisations have many separate systems Systems in one organisation have to integrate with systems in another Systems are usually developed in complete isolation from each other – often many years apart. They use different data definitions, different coding structures, different data values These systems still have to work together. Week 7 - 9
  • 26. Security How do we prevent unauthorised users accessing the system? How do we prevent authorised users doing things they should not, or seeing data they must not? How do we identify and authenticate a user? How do we pass messages between systems without those messages being intercepted? Week 10
  • 27. Server platform There are many different operating systems, computer suppliers, types of middleware etc What are the critical differences? How do we select the right software and hardware to meet our system needs? Week 11
  • 28. Performance, scalability & reliability Most DIS have many concurrent users How do we design a system to give the required level of performance The number of users and the quantity of data will increase, how do we add hardware and change the software to accommodate those extra users and maintain the required levels of performance & reliability? (week 11)
  • 29. International differences Users often come from many different countries How does the system adapt to the specific needs of each user Language Character set Legal system Tax laws Currency Week 12
  • 30. Case study Rory Collins – ex CIO of the ASX Will discuss a major project to implement a new system for the Singapore Stock Exchange Week 12
  • 31. Next week Basic concepts in computers communicating with each other.