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SIZE REDUCTION
Dr ANJANA P
2ND YEAR PG SCHOLAR
R& B DEPARTMENT
GAVC TRIPUNITHURA
KERALA
DEFINTIONS :-
Size reduction :-
 Size reduction is the process of reducing the
particle size of a substance to a finer state of
subdivision to smaller pieces, to coarse
particles or to powder.
 synonyms – Comminution, grinding
 When a particle size of solids is reduced by
mechanical means it is known as Milling .
 There are a large number of processes which are
used in size reduction e.g. cutting, chopping,
crushing, grinding, milling, micronizing and
trituration which depends on the type of
equipment employed.
PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS :-
 Size reduction increases the surface area of drugs which helps in
rapid solution formation in the case of chemical substances.
 The therapeutic effectiveness of certain drugs is increased by
reducing the particle size.
 The mixing of several solid ingredients is easier and more
uniform if the ingredients are reduced to same particle size.
 In the manufacture of tablets relatively few drugs can be
compressed directly, generally they are mixed with excipients and
made in the form of suitable size granules which are then
compressed.
 The physical appearance of ointments, pastes and creams can be
improved by reducing its particle size.
 All the ophthalmic preparation and preparations meant for
external application to the skin must be free from gritty particles
to avoid irritation of the area to which they are applied.
 The rate of absorption of a drug depends on the dosage form,
route of administration and particle size. The smaller the
particle size, quicker and greater will be rate of absorption.
 Depending on the particle size, the sustained action of a
preparation can be produced.
 In certain drugs the Colour and texture is changed on reducing
the particle size.
 The rate of drying is enhanced if the particle size is reduced.
 On reducing the particle size the bulkiness of certain drugs can
be increased.
DISADVANTAGES :-
 On grinding, the aromatic and volatile constituents of crude
drugs may be lost due to increase in temperature during
grinding. Therefore drugs such as cinnamon, clove, cardamom
and other drugs containing volatile oils must not be subjected to
heavy grinding to prevent the loss of volatile oils.
 Since on size reduction the surface area is increased which when
exposed to atmospheric conditions may result in oxidation and
hydrolysis. Therefore such drugs must be stored in a well closed
container and at a cool place.
Factors affecting size reduction :-
 Factors related to nature of raw materials :-
 Hard materials
 Fibrous materials
 Friable materials
 Plastic materials
 Hygroscopic materials
 Thermo liable materials
 Inflammable materials
 Moisture content
Particle size of the feed
Factors related to the finished product :-
 Particle size
 Ease of sterilization
 Contamination of milled materials .
 During size reduction energy is supplied to the equipment
(mill). Very small amount of energy (less than 2%) actually
produce size reduction.
 Rest of energy is dissipated in
(i)Elastic deformation of particles
(ii)Transport of material within the milling chamber
(iii)Friction between the particles
(iv)Friction between the particles and mill
(v)Generation of heat
(vi)Vibration and noise.
(vii)Inefficiency of transmission and motor.
Theories of milling :-
A number of theories have been proposed to establish a
relationship between energy input and the degree of size
reduction produced.
Rittinger’s theory - It is most applicable in size
reducing brittle materials undergoing fine milling.
Bond’s theory - : This law is useful in rough mill sizing.
The work index is useful in comparing the efficiency of
milling operations.
Kick’s theory- For crushing of large particles Kick’s
theory most useful.
Walker’s theory - Walker proposed a generalized
differential form of the energy-size relationship:
 Now a days manufacturers use very well developed machines by
which powders of desired degree of fineness can be obtained.
Certain vegetable drugs like stems, roots, barks, fruits and seeds may
require preliminary size reduction there for some methods are
applying, that is…
 SLICING & CUTTING.
 BRUSHING
 RASPING OR GRATING.
 GRINDING
Slicing & Cutting:-
 Slicing and cutting may be done with a sharp knife, a pair
of scissors, a root cutter or any other sharp instrument.
 It may be done either in transverse or longitudinal
direction.
 This method is usually employed to hasten the drying of
crude vegetable drugs such as leaves and roots.
 On large scale for cutting the drugs a cutter mill is used.
BRUSHING :-
It is a process in which the particle size of the drugs is
reduced by striking heavy blows in succession over the
drug.
 For this purpose ordinary porcelain pestle and mortar or
steel pestle and mortar may be used.
 On large scale roller mill is used.
Rasping or grating :-
 It is a process in which the soft woody drugs or materials
are thinly cut in a transverse direction which can be
easily separated from each other and broken into small
pieces.
 For large scale work a saw mill may be used
Grinding:-
 It is a process in which the substances are reduced into
coarse particles or fine powders.
 On small scale crystalline substances are usually reduced
to a fine powder in a pestle and mortar.
 This process is also known as trituration.
 Size reduction may be divided into two general categories.
 Manual size reduction
 Mechanical size reduction
Manual size reduction:-
 On small scale the size reduction may be carried out
manually by means of…
 Trituration
 levigation
 Pulverization
 For large scale work, size reduction is carried out mostly by using
different kind of mills which have the capability of producing
powders with wide range of particle size.
 MECHANISM OF SIZE REDUCTION :-
 Cutting :- During this process the material is cut into small pieces
by means of a sharp blade or any other sharp instrument.
 Compression :- During this process the material is crushed by
application of pressure with a suitable device.
 Impact :- During impact the material which is more or less
stationary, is hit by an object moving at a high speed or the
moving particles strike a stationary surface and the material is
broken into smaller particles.
 Attrition :- During attrition the pressure is applied to the
material as in the case of compression but the surfaces
are in motion in relation to each other, resulting in shear
forces which break the particles into still smaller
particles.
Method Diagram Common Examples
Cutting
Scissors
Cutter mill
Compression
Roller mill
Crusher mill
Impact
Hammer mill
Attrition
(Pressure and
friction)
File
Fluid energy mill
Degree of size reduction Typical methods Examples
Large pieces Cutter or compression mills Rhubarb
Coarse powders Impact mills Liquorice, cascara
Fine powders Combined impact and attrition mills Rhubarb , belladonna
Very fine powders Fluid energy mills Vitamins and antibiotics
CUTTER MILL:-
Method of size reduction: Cutting
 The equipment has two parts – one is rotor and another
part is the casing.
Stationary knives are fitted on the casing and rotating knives
are fitted on the rotor.
Feed enters through the top hopper.
. The rotor rotates and both stationary and rotating knives
cut the material into pieces.
. The lower part consists of a screen, so that material is
retained in the mill until sufficient degree of size reduction
has been effected.
This method is used to obtain coarse degree of size
reduction of soft materials.
ROLLER MILL:-
Method of size reduction: Compression
 Roller mill consist of two equal size rolls made up of stone
or metal with an adjustable gap between them to control the
size of the product.
 Generally one roll is driven mechanically where as the other
rotates free.
 The material to be crushed is dropped from a hopper into the
gap.
The speed with which the rollers rotate and the gap between the
rollers determines the particle size of the material to be crushed,
which can be adjusted easily.
BALL MILL :-
 This mill works on the principle of impact and attrition.
 The cylindrical vessel is mounted on a metallic frame and
rotates horizontally by hand or mechanically.
 The upper side of the vessel is fitted with a tightly closed
lid through which the material is introduced.
 The material to be ground is put into the mill through the
lid.
The mill is rotated at a slow speed until the product of
desired size is produced.
Rotation of the mill at high speed is avoided because at
high speed the balls are held against the mill casing by
centrifugal force and revolve with the mill and will not fall
on the drug when they reach at the top position.
 After an appropriate time when the material has been
reduced it is taken out from the vessel and passed through
a suitable sieve to get the powder of desired particle size.
Advantages :-
 They are economical and simple to operate.
They afford a large grinding surface within a
compact space.
A wide variety of materials can be ground with it.
They are easy to clean as compared to other mills.
They can be used for wet and dry grinding.
HAMMER MILL :-
It works on the principle of impact.
 The hammer mill consists of a steel casing in which a
central shaft is enclosed to which a number of swinging
hammers are attached.
 When the shaft is rotated the hammers swing out to a radial
position. On the lower part of the casing a screen of desired
size is fitted which can be easily replaced according to the
particle size required.
 The material to be reduced in size is fed through the
hopper which is then supplied to the mill centrifugally and
reduced in size by impact of hammers or against the plates
along the periphery of the mill casing.
 The reduced powder passes out through the screen fitted
at the lower part of the mill.
Advantages :-
 They are simple to install and operate.
 They are rapid in action and many different types of
materials can be ground with them.
 The particle size of the material to be reduced can be
easily controlled by changing the speed of the rotor,
hammer type, shape and size of the screen.
EDGE RUNNER MILL :-
 This mill works on the principle of crushing and friction.
 The edge runner mill is also known as chaser mill
because two heavy wheels made of steel or granite are
mounted vertically on a horizontal shaft which are made
to revolve or chase each other on a steel or granite base.
 The stones may vary from 0.5 to 2.5 meter in diameter.
Usually the wheels are rotated but sometimes the bed is
made to rotate.
The height between the rollers and the base determines the
particle size of the material hence the fineness of the
particles can be increased or decreased by adjusting the
height.
The material to be ground is put on the base of the mill
and is kept in the path of the runners by scrappers.
The particle size is reduced due to crushing by the weight
of rollers but is more due to the friction between the rollers
and the bed stone.
After grinding the material for a specified time it is taken
out of the mill, passed through a suitable sieve and the
coarse material obtained after sieving is again put in the
mill for regrinding.
END RUNNER MILL :-
It works on the principle of crushing and shearing.
 Basically end runner mill is a mechanical pestle and
mortar. It consists of a mortar made of steel or granite.
 A dumble shaped heavy pestle made from the same
material as that of mortar is mounted eccentrically in the
mortar through a hinged joint.
The Disintegrator:-
 It works on the principle of impact and grinding.
 The disintegrator consists of a drum shaped chamber made of
steel.
 In the chamber, there are four steel beaters fixed to a disc through
which passes a shaft which rotates at a high speed upto 5000 to
7000 r.p.m.
 The lower part of the chamber is fitted with a desired number
sieve which can be easily attached or detached.
 A hopper is attached at the upper surface of the chamber.
 The drug to be comminuted is fed into the chamber through the
hopper where it is broken by the direct blow of the beaters and by
the impact of the material which is thrown with a great force
against the surface of the chamber. The reduced particles pass
through the sieve of desired size.
 This is very popular because they can be used for reducing the
particle size of all kinds of materials.
 They can be used for powdering very hard drugs but to avoid
jamming of the beaters the drug in moderately small pieces and in
dry condition should be used.
 They are used for powdering crude vegetable drugs
Bohr stone mill:-
 It works on the principle of crushing and shearing. Bohr stone mill
is known by the name because two heavy stones are used in this
mill.
 They are flat in nature and are placed horizontally one above the
other with a suitable adjusting device in-between them.
 Generally the lower stone is fixed and upper one rotates.
 In the centre of the upper stone there is a hole through which the
material is fed.
 To this hole a hopper is attached.
 The material to be ground is placed in the hopper from where it
is supplied in-between the two stones.
 Due to the heavy weight of upper stone and friction caused by
the surfaces of two stones the material is reduced to fine
particles.
 Then the powdered material is collected in a container through
the outlet.
 They can be used for making coarse or moderately fine powder.
 Large quantities of a drug can be powdered at a time.
Colloid mill :-
 It works on the principle of shearing.
 A collide mill consists of a conical rotor and a stator.
 The gap between them can be adjusted from 0.005 to
0.075 cms.
 The rotor is connected to a high speed motor which can
revolve at a speed of 3000 to 20000 r.p.m.
 The reduced material is then fed into the machine through a
hopper, which is thrown outward by centrifugal action.
 As the material passes through a narrow gap between the rotor
and stator its size is reduced.
 The fine particles are collected from the outlet in a container.
 Size reduction is always carried out in the presence of a liquid.
 They are useful for preparing pharmaceutical suspensions,
emulsions, lotions, ointments, and creams.
Fluid energy mill:-
 This mill is based on the simple principle that when two objects
strike with each other with sufficient force, one or both of them
break into small pieces. Thus they are broken by interparticular
attrition. These mills are also known as jet mills or micronizers
which do not have any moving part.
 They consist of a hollow grinding chamber which is fitted with a
number of nozzles through which air, steam or inert gas is
introduced, a feed inlet is also attached.
 Pre-grinded material in the form of coarse particles are fed into the
grinding chamber through the feed inlet.
 The elastic fluids like air, steam, or an inert gas is introduced under
very high pressure in to the chamber through the nozzles which causes
the material to circulate at high speed.
 The violent impact between the particles and particles, and the walls of
the chamber breaks the particles into very small particles.
 As a result of centrifugal force the large size particles move to the
outer grinding zone where they are further exposed to the attrition
action.
 Fine particles move towards the centre of the chamber along with
exhaust gas from where they are collected in a cyclone collector.
 A bag is fitted which allows the air or gas to escape but does not
allow the fine powder to go out, the fine powder is collected in the
cyclone collector fitted in the chamber.
 Fluid energy mills are available in different sizes, which can grind
upto 2000 kg per hour depending on their size and model.
Advantages :-
 These mills do not have any moving part in the grinding area.
 Since no heat is generated during grinding therefore these mills
are useful for thermo labile substances like vitamins, enzymes
and antibiotics.
 SIZE REDUCTION IN AYURVEDA
PHARMACEUTICALS :-
 Choorna kalpana :-
 The word meaning of Choorna , “choorna peshanae “
 That which is powdered or pulverized.
 Ayurvedic pharmacy defined Choorna as fine powder
obtained by sifting through a fine cloth.
According to therapeutic utility powder's are classified
in to 5 types
 coarse powder – 355um mesh size
 moderately coarse powder – 710um – 250um
 moderately fine powder – 355um -180um
 fine powder – 180um
 very fine powder – 125um
 Equipments :- pulverizer, ball mill, hammer mill,
disintegrator, pestle & mortar , hand mill , edge runner
& end runner mill etc.
Advantages :-
 As the particle size decreases absorption increases.
 Being a dry formulation it can be kept potent for longer
periods.
 Utilized in various secondary preparations like Leha,
Arista, Vataka etc.
 Tablets & capsules are made from powders
 Used in preparation of Kwatha, Hima , Phanta
 Used as Lepa for external application with suitable
liquids.
SIZE REDUCTION IN RASA SASTRA :-
 Shodhana
 Bhavana
 Marana
Shodhana :-
According to R.T 2/ 52 ,
 In this process the drugs to be purified is treated with
specific substances and peshanadi karmas are done to
remove the impurities.
New other materials are added to remove the toxicity
To make the drug suitable for further processing
Bhavana :-
 Grinding by using drava dravya
Particle size reduced
Each particle comes in contact with the Bhavana dravya
 Can be considered as the one way of mechanical size
reduction
Marana :-
 sodhana
 bhavana
 chakrika nirmana
 samputikarana
 Objectives :-
 reduction in particle size
 to increase the potency and quality of drug
 to make the material non irritant to GIT
 Conversion in to absorbable, adaptable & assimilable
form
Bhasma :-
 Bhasmas are considered to be nano particles in
Ayurveda
 There are numerous tests are explained by our
ancient scholars for its authenticity .
 Varitartvam
 Rekhapoornata
 Apunarbhava
 Uthama
Nirutha
 Slakshnatwa
 Laghutwa
 Nirmlata
 Nirdhooma
 Nirswadu
 Avami
 Niscandratwa
 Dantagraekacha kachabhava etc.
Slakshnata :-
 fineness of bhasma
 physical reduction of a metal in to a fine powder
 when a pinch of bhasma is added with small quantity of
water , shaken thoroughly and left to see the particles
 the particles not settling down or sedimenting and
moving in the water even after quite some time
 Indicating the colloidal state of bhasma particle
NANOTECHNOLGY :-
 Latest advancement in the era of size reduction
 Based on the fact that a nanometer is one billionth of a
meter & when materials decompose and rearranged at
such smaller scale their characteristics changes .
 Nanoparticles :-
 produced as a result of molecular processing &
nanotechnology
Particles with extra ordinary properties of deliberating
new components & transmitting energies at nanometer
scale .
 Our Bhasmas are very nearer to Nano crystalline
materials.
 Nanocrystalline materials are the solids composed of
crystallites with size less than 100nm in at least one
dimension .
 produced by mechanical alloying & milling ,
conventional ball milling etc.
Conclusion :-
 The success of any system of medicine mainly
depends up on efficacy of medicaments.
 The rate of drug absorption depends mainly on dosage
form , routes & particle size.
 Size reduction can be illustrated as the process in
which the particle size of a substance or chemical is
reduced.
 This process converts the substance or chemical to
smaller pieces , powders , coarse particles or an
advanced type of subdivision.
Most often the raw or active materials to be used in
formulations do not exist in desired size .
 For that reason most of the materials are reduced to an
optimum size at different stages during processing of a
preparation.
 Concept of reduction in particle size of metal is
prevailing since Charaka samhita ( 1500BC)
 Charaka explained Lauhadi rasayana which is a good
example of size reduction .
Saragadhara explained size reduction in the context of
choorna kalpana.
 As the particle size reduces absorption & adsorption
increases.
 Drugs are rarely administered in their original state.
 They are converted in to different dosage forms after
converting them in to a suitable forms.
 For such convertion size reduction techniques play a
golden role.
THANK YOU

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Size reduction

  • 1. SIZE REDUCTION Dr ANJANA P 2ND YEAR PG SCHOLAR R& B DEPARTMENT GAVC TRIPUNITHURA KERALA
  • 2. DEFINTIONS :- Size reduction :-  Size reduction is the process of reducing the particle size of a substance to a finer state of subdivision to smaller pieces, to coarse particles or to powder.  synonyms – Comminution, grinding
  • 3.  When a particle size of solids is reduced by mechanical means it is known as Milling .  There are a large number of processes which are used in size reduction e.g. cutting, chopping, crushing, grinding, milling, micronizing and trituration which depends on the type of equipment employed.
  • 4. PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS :-  Size reduction increases the surface area of drugs which helps in rapid solution formation in the case of chemical substances.  The therapeutic effectiveness of certain drugs is increased by reducing the particle size.  The mixing of several solid ingredients is easier and more uniform if the ingredients are reduced to same particle size.  In the manufacture of tablets relatively few drugs can be compressed directly, generally they are mixed with excipients and made in the form of suitable size granules which are then compressed.
  • 5.  The physical appearance of ointments, pastes and creams can be improved by reducing its particle size.  All the ophthalmic preparation and preparations meant for external application to the skin must be free from gritty particles to avoid irritation of the area to which they are applied.  The rate of absorption of a drug depends on the dosage form, route of administration and particle size. The smaller the particle size, quicker and greater will be rate of absorption.  Depending on the particle size, the sustained action of a preparation can be produced.
  • 6.  In certain drugs the Colour and texture is changed on reducing the particle size.  The rate of drying is enhanced if the particle size is reduced.  On reducing the particle size the bulkiness of certain drugs can be increased.
  • 7. DISADVANTAGES :-  On grinding, the aromatic and volatile constituents of crude drugs may be lost due to increase in temperature during grinding. Therefore drugs such as cinnamon, clove, cardamom and other drugs containing volatile oils must not be subjected to heavy grinding to prevent the loss of volatile oils.  Since on size reduction the surface area is increased which when exposed to atmospheric conditions may result in oxidation and hydrolysis. Therefore such drugs must be stored in a well closed container and at a cool place.
  • 8. Factors affecting size reduction :-  Factors related to nature of raw materials :-  Hard materials  Fibrous materials  Friable materials  Plastic materials  Hygroscopic materials  Thermo liable materials  Inflammable materials  Moisture content
  • 9. Particle size of the feed Factors related to the finished product :-  Particle size  Ease of sterilization  Contamination of milled materials .
  • 10.  During size reduction energy is supplied to the equipment (mill). Very small amount of energy (less than 2%) actually produce size reduction.  Rest of energy is dissipated in (i)Elastic deformation of particles (ii)Transport of material within the milling chamber (iii)Friction between the particles (iv)Friction between the particles and mill (v)Generation of heat (vi)Vibration and noise. (vii)Inefficiency of transmission and motor.
  • 11. Theories of milling :- A number of theories have been proposed to establish a relationship between energy input and the degree of size reduction produced. Rittinger’s theory - It is most applicable in size reducing brittle materials undergoing fine milling. Bond’s theory - : This law is useful in rough mill sizing. The work index is useful in comparing the efficiency of milling operations.
  • 12. Kick’s theory- For crushing of large particles Kick’s theory most useful. Walker’s theory - Walker proposed a generalized differential form of the energy-size relationship:
  • 13.  Now a days manufacturers use very well developed machines by which powders of desired degree of fineness can be obtained. Certain vegetable drugs like stems, roots, barks, fruits and seeds may require preliminary size reduction there for some methods are applying, that is…  SLICING & CUTTING.  BRUSHING  RASPING OR GRATING.  GRINDING
  • 14. Slicing & Cutting:-  Slicing and cutting may be done with a sharp knife, a pair of scissors, a root cutter or any other sharp instrument.  It may be done either in transverse or longitudinal direction.  This method is usually employed to hasten the drying of crude vegetable drugs such as leaves and roots.  On large scale for cutting the drugs a cutter mill is used.
  • 15. BRUSHING :- It is a process in which the particle size of the drugs is reduced by striking heavy blows in succession over the drug.  For this purpose ordinary porcelain pestle and mortar or steel pestle and mortar may be used.  On large scale roller mill is used.
  • 16. Rasping or grating :-  It is a process in which the soft woody drugs or materials are thinly cut in a transverse direction which can be easily separated from each other and broken into small pieces.  For large scale work a saw mill may be used
  • 17. Grinding:-  It is a process in which the substances are reduced into coarse particles or fine powders.  On small scale crystalline substances are usually reduced to a fine powder in a pestle and mortar.  This process is also known as trituration.
  • 18.  Size reduction may be divided into two general categories.  Manual size reduction  Mechanical size reduction
  • 19. Manual size reduction:-  On small scale the size reduction may be carried out manually by means of…  Trituration  levigation  Pulverization
  • 20.  For large scale work, size reduction is carried out mostly by using different kind of mills which have the capability of producing powders with wide range of particle size.
  • 21.  MECHANISM OF SIZE REDUCTION :-  Cutting :- During this process the material is cut into small pieces by means of a sharp blade or any other sharp instrument.  Compression :- During this process the material is crushed by application of pressure with a suitable device.  Impact :- During impact the material which is more or less stationary, is hit by an object moving at a high speed or the moving particles strike a stationary surface and the material is broken into smaller particles.
  • 22.  Attrition :- During attrition the pressure is applied to the material as in the case of compression but the surfaces are in motion in relation to each other, resulting in shear forces which break the particles into still smaller particles.
  • 23. Method Diagram Common Examples Cutting Scissors Cutter mill Compression Roller mill Crusher mill Impact Hammer mill Attrition (Pressure and friction) File Fluid energy mill
  • 24. Degree of size reduction Typical methods Examples Large pieces Cutter or compression mills Rhubarb Coarse powders Impact mills Liquorice, cascara Fine powders Combined impact and attrition mills Rhubarb , belladonna Very fine powders Fluid energy mills Vitamins and antibiotics
  • 25. CUTTER MILL:- Method of size reduction: Cutting  The equipment has two parts – one is rotor and another part is the casing. Stationary knives are fitted on the casing and rotating knives are fitted on the rotor.
  • 26. Feed enters through the top hopper. . The rotor rotates and both stationary and rotating knives cut the material into pieces. . The lower part consists of a screen, so that material is retained in the mill until sufficient degree of size reduction has been effected. This method is used to obtain coarse degree of size reduction of soft materials.
  • 27.
  • 28. ROLLER MILL:- Method of size reduction: Compression  Roller mill consist of two equal size rolls made up of stone or metal with an adjustable gap between them to control the size of the product.  Generally one roll is driven mechanically where as the other rotates free.  The material to be crushed is dropped from a hopper into the gap.
  • 29. The speed with which the rollers rotate and the gap between the rollers determines the particle size of the material to be crushed, which can be adjusted easily.
  • 30. BALL MILL :-  This mill works on the principle of impact and attrition.  The cylindrical vessel is mounted on a metallic frame and rotates horizontally by hand or mechanically.  The upper side of the vessel is fitted with a tightly closed lid through which the material is introduced.  The material to be ground is put into the mill through the lid.
  • 31. The mill is rotated at a slow speed until the product of desired size is produced. Rotation of the mill at high speed is avoided because at high speed the balls are held against the mill casing by centrifugal force and revolve with the mill and will not fall on the drug when they reach at the top position.  After an appropriate time when the material has been reduced it is taken out from the vessel and passed through a suitable sieve to get the powder of desired particle size.
  • 32.
  • 33. Advantages :-  They are economical and simple to operate. They afford a large grinding surface within a compact space. A wide variety of materials can be ground with it. They are easy to clean as compared to other mills. They can be used for wet and dry grinding.
  • 34. HAMMER MILL :- It works on the principle of impact.  The hammer mill consists of a steel casing in which a central shaft is enclosed to which a number of swinging hammers are attached.  When the shaft is rotated the hammers swing out to a radial position. On the lower part of the casing a screen of desired size is fitted which can be easily replaced according to the particle size required.
  • 35.  The material to be reduced in size is fed through the hopper which is then supplied to the mill centrifugally and reduced in size by impact of hammers or against the plates along the periphery of the mill casing.  The reduced powder passes out through the screen fitted at the lower part of the mill.
  • 36.
  • 37. Advantages :-  They are simple to install and operate.  They are rapid in action and many different types of materials can be ground with them.  The particle size of the material to be reduced can be easily controlled by changing the speed of the rotor, hammer type, shape and size of the screen.
  • 38. EDGE RUNNER MILL :-  This mill works on the principle of crushing and friction.  The edge runner mill is also known as chaser mill because two heavy wheels made of steel or granite are mounted vertically on a horizontal shaft which are made to revolve or chase each other on a steel or granite base.  The stones may vary from 0.5 to 2.5 meter in diameter. Usually the wheels are rotated but sometimes the bed is made to rotate.
  • 39. The height between the rollers and the base determines the particle size of the material hence the fineness of the particles can be increased or decreased by adjusting the height. The material to be ground is put on the base of the mill and is kept in the path of the runners by scrappers. The particle size is reduced due to crushing by the weight of rollers but is more due to the friction between the rollers and the bed stone.
  • 40. After grinding the material for a specified time it is taken out of the mill, passed through a suitable sieve and the coarse material obtained after sieving is again put in the mill for regrinding.
  • 41.
  • 42. END RUNNER MILL :- It works on the principle of crushing and shearing.  Basically end runner mill is a mechanical pestle and mortar. It consists of a mortar made of steel or granite.  A dumble shaped heavy pestle made from the same material as that of mortar is mounted eccentrically in the mortar through a hinged joint.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. The Disintegrator:-  It works on the principle of impact and grinding.  The disintegrator consists of a drum shaped chamber made of steel.  In the chamber, there are four steel beaters fixed to a disc through which passes a shaft which rotates at a high speed upto 5000 to 7000 r.p.m.  The lower part of the chamber is fitted with a desired number sieve which can be easily attached or detached.  A hopper is attached at the upper surface of the chamber.
  • 46.  The drug to be comminuted is fed into the chamber through the hopper where it is broken by the direct blow of the beaters and by the impact of the material which is thrown with a great force against the surface of the chamber. The reduced particles pass through the sieve of desired size.  This is very popular because they can be used for reducing the particle size of all kinds of materials.  They can be used for powdering very hard drugs but to avoid jamming of the beaters the drug in moderately small pieces and in dry condition should be used.  They are used for powdering crude vegetable drugs
  • 47.
  • 48. Bohr stone mill:-  It works on the principle of crushing and shearing. Bohr stone mill is known by the name because two heavy stones are used in this mill.  They are flat in nature and are placed horizontally one above the other with a suitable adjusting device in-between them.  Generally the lower stone is fixed and upper one rotates.  In the centre of the upper stone there is a hole through which the material is fed.  To this hole a hopper is attached.
  • 49.  The material to be ground is placed in the hopper from where it is supplied in-between the two stones.  Due to the heavy weight of upper stone and friction caused by the surfaces of two stones the material is reduced to fine particles.  Then the powdered material is collected in a container through the outlet.  They can be used for making coarse or moderately fine powder.  Large quantities of a drug can be powdered at a time.
  • 50.
  • 51. Colloid mill :-  It works on the principle of shearing.  A collide mill consists of a conical rotor and a stator.  The gap between them can be adjusted from 0.005 to 0.075 cms.  The rotor is connected to a high speed motor which can revolve at a speed of 3000 to 20000 r.p.m.
  • 52.  The reduced material is then fed into the machine through a hopper, which is thrown outward by centrifugal action.  As the material passes through a narrow gap between the rotor and stator its size is reduced.  The fine particles are collected from the outlet in a container.  Size reduction is always carried out in the presence of a liquid.  They are useful for preparing pharmaceutical suspensions, emulsions, lotions, ointments, and creams.
  • 53.
  • 54. Fluid energy mill:-  This mill is based on the simple principle that when two objects strike with each other with sufficient force, one or both of them break into small pieces. Thus they are broken by interparticular attrition. These mills are also known as jet mills or micronizers which do not have any moving part.  They consist of a hollow grinding chamber which is fitted with a number of nozzles through which air, steam or inert gas is introduced, a feed inlet is also attached.
  • 55.  Pre-grinded material in the form of coarse particles are fed into the grinding chamber through the feed inlet.  The elastic fluids like air, steam, or an inert gas is introduced under very high pressure in to the chamber through the nozzles which causes the material to circulate at high speed.  The violent impact between the particles and particles, and the walls of the chamber breaks the particles into very small particles.  As a result of centrifugal force the large size particles move to the outer grinding zone where they are further exposed to the attrition action.  Fine particles move towards the centre of the chamber along with exhaust gas from where they are collected in a cyclone collector.
  • 56.  A bag is fitted which allows the air or gas to escape but does not allow the fine powder to go out, the fine powder is collected in the cyclone collector fitted in the chamber.  Fluid energy mills are available in different sizes, which can grind upto 2000 kg per hour depending on their size and model. Advantages :-  These mills do not have any moving part in the grinding area.  Since no heat is generated during grinding therefore these mills are useful for thermo labile substances like vitamins, enzymes and antibiotics.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.  SIZE REDUCTION IN AYURVEDA PHARMACEUTICALS :-  Choorna kalpana :-  The word meaning of Choorna , “choorna peshanae “  That which is powdered or pulverized.  Ayurvedic pharmacy defined Choorna as fine powder obtained by sifting through a fine cloth.
  • 60. According to therapeutic utility powder's are classified in to 5 types  coarse powder – 355um mesh size  moderately coarse powder – 710um – 250um  moderately fine powder – 355um -180um  fine powder – 180um  very fine powder – 125um  Equipments :- pulverizer, ball mill, hammer mill, disintegrator, pestle & mortar , hand mill , edge runner & end runner mill etc.
  • 61. Advantages :-  As the particle size decreases absorption increases.  Being a dry formulation it can be kept potent for longer periods.  Utilized in various secondary preparations like Leha, Arista, Vataka etc.  Tablets & capsules are made from powders  Used in preparation of Kwatha, Hima , Phanta  Used as Lepa for external application with suitable liquids.
  • 62. SIZE REDUCTION IN RASA SASTRA :-  Shodhana  Bhavana  Marana
  • 63. Shodhana :- According to R.T 2/ 52 ,  In this process the drugs to be purified is treated with specific substances and peshanadi karmas are done to remove the impurities. New other materials are added to remove the toxicity To make the drug suitable for further processing
  • 64. Bhavana :-  Grinding by using drava dravya Particle size reduced Each particle comes in contact with the Bhavana dravya  Can be considered as the one way of mechanical size reduction
  • 65. Marana :-  sodhana  bhavana  chakrika nirmana  samputikarana  Objectives :-  reduction in particle size  to increase the potency and quality of drug  to make the material non irritant to GIT  Conversion in to absorbable, adaptable & assimilable form
  • 66. Bhasma :-  Bhasmas are considered to be nano particles in Ayurveda  There are numerous tests are explained by our ancient scholars for its authenticity .  Varitartvam  Rekhapoornata  Apunarbhava  Uthama
  • 67. Nirutha  Slakshnatwa  Laghutwa  Nirmlata  Nirdhooma  Nirswadu  Avami  Niscandratwa  Dantagraekacha kachabhava etc.
  • 68. Slakshnata :-  fineness of bhasma  physical reduction of a metal in to a fine powder  when a pinch of bhasma is added with small quantity of water , shaken thoroughly and left to see the particles  the particles not settling down or sedimenting and moving in the water even after quite some time  Indicating the colloidal state of bhasma particle
  • 69. NANOTECHNOLGY :-  Latest advancement in the era of size reduction  Based on the fact that a nanometer is one billionth of a meter & when materials decompose and rearranged at such smaller scale their characteristics changes .  Nanoparticles :-  produced as a result of molecular processing & nanotechnology
  • 70. Particles with extra ordinary properties of deliberating new components & transmitting energies at nanometer scale .  Our Bhasmas are very nearer to Nano crystalline materials.  Nanocrystalline materials are the solids composed of crystallites with size less than 100nm in at least one dimension .  produced by mechanical alloying & milling , conventional ball milling etc.
  • 71. Conclusion :-  The success of any system of medicine mainly depends up on efficacy of medicaments.  The rate of drug absorption depends mainly on dosage form , routes & particle size.  Size reduction can be illustrated as the process in which the particle size of a substance or chemical is reduced.  This process converts the substance or chemical to smaller pieces , powders , coarse particles or an advanced type of subdivision.
  • 72. Most often the raw or active materials to be used in formulations do not exist in desired size .  For that reason most of the materials are reduced to an optimum size at different stages during processing of a preparation.  Concept of reduction in particle size of metal is prevailing since Charaka samhita ( 1500BC)  Charaka explained Lauhadi rasayana which is a good example of size reduction .
  • 73. Saragadhara explained size reduction in the context of choorna kalpana.  As the particle size reduces absorption & adsorption increases.  Drugs are rarely administered in their original state.  They are converted in to different dosage forms after converting them in to a suitable forms.  For such convertion size reduction techniques play a golden role.