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Singapore Highlights
Global Leadership Forecast 2011
Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D., and Ian
Till
The Talent Management Expert
Revolutionize
leadership,
revolutionize
your business.
Singapore Highlights
Global Leadership Forecast 2011
Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., and Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D.
A WELCOME FROM DDI
© Development Dimensions International, Inc., MMXI.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. All rights reserved under U.S.,
International, and Universal Copyright Conventions.
Reproduction in whole or part without prior written permission
from DDI is prohibited.
We are pleased to present this report outlining the
current state of leadership and its practices in the
Singapore business community. This report is part
of a larger study, Global Leadership Forecast 2011,
the sixth in DDI’s research series on global
leadership issues and practices. The results
presented here contrast the responses from HR
professionals and leaders in Singapore
organizations with other organizations around the
globe.
We heard one overarching theme from thousands
of leaders while conducting this research: The only
thing constant is change itself. Today’s business
landscape continues to evolve at a blistering pace.
Competition continues to grow, and having
appropriate talent remains the key competitive
advantage for organizations. The big question we
wanted to answer is whether today’s leaders are
prepared for the rapid growth and change that they
will face. Are they keeping up or falling behind?
This report addresses several issues related to
today’s most valuable commodity:
• What is the overall quality of leadership in
Singapore organizations today?
• Do Singapore organizations have a sufficient
supply of capable leaders to meet tomorrow’s
unknown business challenges?
• What can we do to radically change how we
accelerate the development of our leaders?
• Is it time to radically innovate not only our
products and business models but also how we
manage them?
While we are unable to include all the findings, we
are confident that this report will offer you new
insights into leadership practices in Singapore.
Additional information can be found in our global
report. We hope these reports will stimulate your
thinking about how you can institute real change
that will enhance the capabilities of your leaders
and your business.
Ian Till
General Manager, Singapore
ABOUT DDI
For more than 40 years, DDI has helped the most
successful companies around the world close the gap
between where their businesses need to go and the
talent required to take them there. Our areas of
expertise span every staffing level, from the executive
suite to individual contributors. We excel in:
• Competency and success profile management.
• Selection and assessment.
• Leadership and workforce development.
• Succession management.
• Performance management.
Since 1990 DDI has worked with some of the most
successful local and multinational organizations in
Singapore on their talent management strategies.
Based in our Leadership Acceleration Centre at Changi
Business Park, the DDI team helps to deliver results
through the profiling, selection, assessment, and
development of talent, particularly leadership talent.
DDI Singapore has consistently been recognized as
one of the top succession planning and management
training companies in Human Resources magazine’s
Top HR Vendors of the Year Awards, as voted by its
readership of more than 12,000 senior HR
professionals.
DDI’s comprehensive, practical approach to talent
management starts by ensuring a close connection
between solutions and business strategies, and ends
when you achieve the results you require. DDI is an
essential partner wherever you are on your journey to
building extraordinary talent.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4 STUDY PARTICIPANTS
6 STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY
9 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
10 Critical Skills: The Whats
14 Effective Development Methods: The
Hows
16 TALENT MANAGEMENT
17 Selection Systems
18 Performance Management Systems
20 Succession Management Systems
23 MANAGEMENT CULTURE
25 CONCLUSION
27 APPENDIX
27 Demographics
28 About the Authors
28 Partners
STUDY PARTICIPANTS
DDI’s Global Leadership Forecast 2011 is the largest global
study of its kind.
More than 2,600 organizations provided perspectives on their
current state of
leadership and their future talent-related needs. Participating in
the study were
1,897 HR professionals and 12,423 leaders from 74 countries.
This report is based on survey responses from HR professionals
and leaders
based in Singapore. An HR professional completed a survey for
each
organization or major business unit. The HR professionals then
invited
representative samples of their organization’s leaders to
complete leader
surveys. The Singapore respondents are compared in this report
to the total
group of HR professionals and leaders in the global sample (see
Table 1). To
ensure that no individual organization dominated the results, we
selected a
random sample from organizations with more than 100 leaders.
The sample of Singapore organizations was very similar to
those in the global
sample; that is, the percentages of small (1,000 employees or
less), medium-
sized (1,001 to 10,000 employees), and large organizations
(more than 10,000
employees) in the sample were similar (see Figure 1). However,
fully
88 percent of the Singapore organizations were multinationals
(i.e., owned,
operated, or had affiliate offices in multiple countries), whereas
60 percent of
those in the global sample were multinationals.
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Singapore Global
HR Professionals 32 1,897
Leaders 321 12,423
TOTAL 353 14,320
TABLE 1 SAMPLE SIZE
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Singapore’s organizations also were very similar to those in the
global sample
with respect to leadership levels (see Figure 2). Additional
information about
participating Singapore organizations and leaders is in the
Demographics
section of this report.
28%
10,001
or more
41%
1 to 1,000
31%
1,001 to 10,000
23%
10,001
or more
40%
1 to 1,000
37%
1,001 to 10,000
Singapore Global
FIGURE 1 ORGANIZATION SIZE
28%
Senior-Level
Leader
38%
First-Level
Leader
29%
First-Level
Leader
28%
Mid-Level
Leader
Global
6%
Executive-Level
Leader
9%
Executive-Level
Leader
33%
Mid-Level
Leader
29%
Senior-Level
Leader
Singapore
FIGURE 2 LEADERSHIP LEVELS
STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY
Most would agree that the past few years have been challenging
ones for
businesses worldwide. The economic crisis forced
organizations to make tough
decisions and left many suffering in a multitude of ways.
However, as the world
economy starts to show signs of improvement, fear is beginning
to be replaced
by optimism, and organizations are starting to look toward the
future.
While Singapore avoided the brunt of the global financial crisis
and is enjoying
strong economic growth, the reality is that leaders globally and
in Singapore are
ill-equipped to handle the challenges organizations face in the
new business
environment (see Figure 3). Only 38 percent of leaders in the
global sample
reported that leadership quality in their organization is very
good or excellent; at
39 percent, Singapore leaders felt very much the same way.
The latter rating
may reflect the fact that Singapore’s sample consisted mostly of
multinational
organizations. On the other hand, HR professionals in
Singapore had a more
optimistic view of leadership quality in their organizations
compared to others
around the world. Still, they considered only about one of three
Singapore
organizations had high-quality leaders.
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0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
31%
26%
HR
39%38%
LDR
Singapore
Global
Pe
rc
en
t o
f R
es
po
nd
en
ts
W
ho
R
ep
or
t H
ig
h
Le
ad
er
sh
ip
Q
ua
lit
y
at
T
he
ir
O
rg
an
iz
at
io
n
FIGURE 3 LEADERSHIP QUALITY
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The quality of leadership can make or break an organization. In
fact, this
research demonstrated that organizations with the highest
quality leaders were
13 times more likely to outperform their competition in key
bottom-line metrics
such as financial performance, quality of products and services,
employee
engagement, and customer satisfaction (see Figure 4).
Specifically, when
leaders reported their organization’s current leadership quality
as poor, only
6 percent were in organizations that outperformed their
competition. Compare
that with those who rated their organization’s leadership quality
as excellent.
There, more than three-quarters (78 percent) of leaders are in
organizations that
are outperforming their competition in key bottom-line metrics.
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0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
6%
Poor
9%
Fair
27%
Good
53%
Very Good
78%
Excellent
Pe
rc
en
t o
f L
ea
de
rs
R
at
in
g
Th
ei
r O
rg
an
iz
at
io
n’
s
O
ve
ra
ll
Pe
rfo
rm
an
ce
B
et
te
r T
ha
n
Co
m
pe
tit
or
’s
Leadership Quality
FIGURE 4 LEADERSHIP QUALITY RELATED TO
ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Leadership quality doesn’t just affect the bottom line; it also
affects the retention
of the organization’s employees as well as its leaders’
engagement and passion.
Organizations with higher quality leadership retained more
employees than their
competition, and they also had more engaged and passionate
leaders (see the
global report for more details). Given the importance of
leadership for ensuring
business success, this question needs to be answered: What can
organizations do to improve leadership quality?
The Global Leadership Forecast 2011 uncovered three key
drivers of leadership
quality (see Figure 5):
1. Leadership development
2. Talent management systems and practices
3. Management culture
To achieve high-quality leadership, organizations need effective
leadership
development and talent management systems in the areas of
selection,
performance management, and succession management. Also,
for leaders to
fulfill their potential to drive the business, management needs
to ensure that the
organization’s culture gives people the freedom and
opportunities they need to
be effective. These three key drivers provide the structure for
the remainder of
this report.
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Leadership
Development
Talent Systems
& Practices
Management
Culture
High-
Quality
Leadership
Enhanced
People
Outcomes
(e.g., retention,
engagement)
Enhanced
Business
Impact
(e.g., financial
performance,
customer
satisfaction)
FIGURE 5 DRIVING BUSINESS THROUGH LEADERSHIP
PRACTICES
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LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
According to the leaders who participated in the global study,
leadership
development programs were the primary determinant of
leadership quality in
organizations. Based on the global sample, leaders in
organizations with more
effective leadership development programs were eight times
more likely to rate
the quality of their leaders as very good or excellent. What,
then, is happening
now with organizations’ leadership development efforts?
The percentage of Singapore organizations that increased their
leadership
development budgets in 2011 (38 percent) was comparable to
organizations
worldwide (40 percent). However, significantly more Singapore
organizations
plan to ramp up spending in the coming year (74 percent) than
do their global
counterparts (see Figure 6). This is not surprising because
Singapore
organizations were less affected by the financial crisis and are
adding new
leaders at a record pace. (This may be due to the fact that many
large global
multinationals have established regional or international
headquarters in this
cosmopolitan global business city.) Also, organizations in
Singapore appear to
be prioritizing development by increasing their spending more
than other
regions of the world. This probably reflects long-standing,
strong government
support for workforce training plus related initiatives and
programs that promote
training and development.
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0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Singapore
Global
Increase by more than 10%
3% 4% 38% 26% 29%
26% 35% 39%
Stay the same
Increase by less than 10%
Decrease by more than 10%
Decrease by less than 10%
Ex
pe
ct
ed
2
01
2
Singapore
Global
13% 6% 42% 17% 23%
3%6% 52% 19% 19%
Ac
tu
al
2
01
1
FIGURE 6 2011 AND 2012 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
BUDGET CHANGES
LEADERSHIP
DEVELOPMENT
Talent Systems
& Practices
Management
Culture
High-
Quality
Leadership
Enhanced
People
Outcomes
(e.g., retention,
engagement)
Enhanced
Business
Impact
(e.g., financial
performance,
customer
satisfaction)
With millions spent on leadership development initiatives each
year, it is
unfortunate that only about one-third of HR professionals and
leaders in
Singapore rated their organization’s leadership development
efforts as highly
effective (see Figure 7). Without effective leadership
development, Singapore
organizations may find their leaders unprepared to manage
effectively in a
constantly changing business environment.
CRITICAL SKILLS: THE WHATS
To make the most of leadership development efforts,
organizations must answer
two questions: (1) Are we investing in developing the right
skills, and (2) Are we
developing the right skills for today and for tomorrow? To
begin to answer those
questions, leaders were asked to identify the most critical
leadership skills
needed in the past three years and those needed for the next
three years.
Those in Singapore identified the following three skills as the
most critical for
leadership in the past:
1. Driving and managing change
2. Coaching and developing others
3. Executing organizational strategy
Those priorities reflect a focus on business and organizational
strategy. When
asked about the top three skills needed for the future, Singapore
leaders shifted
their focus (see Figure 8). The skills they identified as the most
critical for
success in the next three years focus less on organizational
strategy and more
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0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Singapore
25%
44%
31%
Global
25%
40%
35%
Singapore
17%
47%
36%
Global
19%
44%
37%
Very low or low
High or very high
Moderate
HR LDR
FIGURE 7 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS
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on growing organizational talent. This aligns with Singapore’s
strategy of
positioning itself as a regional talent hub that offers value to
global as well as
Asian organizations, which is reflected in the Singapore
government’s creation
of the Human Capital Leadership Institute. The top three skills
required for the
future from Singapore leaders were:
1. Driving and managing change
2. Identifying and developing future talent
3. Coaching and developing others
The two most critical skills (driving and managing change and
identifying and
developing future talent) also were ranked first and second by
leaders around
the world. These two skills are geared toward organizational
growth rather than
preservation. Singapore leaders also felt that skills in coaching
and developing
others would continue to be needed in the future; globally,
fostering creativity
and innovation was the third most critical leadership skill.
According to a Boston
Consulting Group report (2010), 72 percent of executives
around the world list
innovation as a top priority. Leaders in Singapore ranked
fostering creativity
and innovation in their business as fourth on their list of skills
needed in the
future. This aligns well with Singapore’s strategy to propel its
creative economy,
establish a reputation as a regional creative hub, and double the
percentage of
GDP contributions by the creative cluster (i.e., arts and culture
and design and
media).
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But this question remains to be answered: Are leaders ready to
take on the
challenges of the future? Leaders were asked to rate their own
effectiveness in
the leadership skills. Unfortunately, leaders in Singapore rated
their
effectiveness as lower than their global counterparts in every
critical leadership
skill (see Figure 9). Singapore leaders rated themselves as least
effective in the
area of fostering creativity and innovation, identified by both
the global and local
samples as one of the most critical leadership skills for the
future. Also,
compared to the other leadership skills, leaders in Singapore
rated themselves
relatively less effective in the three areas they identified as
most critical for future
success (managing change, developing future talent, and
coaching others).
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Singapore
36%
5. Executing organizational strategy
32%
32%
6. Building customer satisfaction and loyalty
26%
43%
4. Coaching and developing others
32%
38%
3. Fostering creativity and innovation
35%
46%
2. Identifying and developing future talent
36%
49%
1. Driving and managing change
48%
34%
7. Improving employee engagement
24%
34%
8. Making difficult decisions
23%
Global
Percent of Leaders Who Report the Skill as Most Critical
(order based on the global findings)
FIGURE 8 CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED IN THE NEXT
THREE YEARS
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This last finding indicates that the largest skill gaps for
Singapore’s leaders are
in those areas that are most critical to their future success. This
aligns with data
from hundreds of Singapore-based leaders assessed in our
assessment centers
and through our 360-degree feedback tool, the results of which
will be detailed
in a soon-to-be-released research paper on the readiness of
leaders in
Singapore. To improve leadership quality and effectiveness,
development
efforts should focus on these skills—where the pain from failure
will be felt the
most in the coming years.
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Singapore
47%
5. Executing organizational strategy
60%
53%
6. Building customer satisfaction and loyalty
65%
44%
4. Coaching and developing others
57%
43%
3. Fostering creativity and innovation
50%
44%
2. Identifying and developing future talent
57%
46%
1. Driving and managing change
57%
51%
7. Improving employee engagement
56%
46%
8. Making difficult decisions
55%
Global
Percent of Leaders Who Are Effective
FIGURE 9 LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IN SKILLS
EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT METHODS: THE HOWS
HR professionals reported how frequently each method was
used in their
organization (see Figure 10), and the leaders reported on the
effectiveness of
each method (see Figure 11). Singapore HR professionals, like
those around
the world, reported using formal workshops, special projects,
and manager
coaching most often to develop their leaders. This finding is
gratifying, as
Singapore has often been perceived as having a “send them to a
training course
to fix it” mind-set. While formal training courses are still the
preferred approach,
the finding indicates that Singapore organizations are becoming
increasingly
aware that training alone is not a silver bullet. However, one
caveat needs to be
noted: As previously stated, the majority of Singapore
organizations were
multinationals; thus, the prominence of special assignments
might be related to
these organizations’ frequent use of Singapore as a place for
short-term
development assignments for their employees.
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Singapore
13%
Virtual classroom
27%
22%
Coaching with external coaches
27%
31%
Coaching with internal coaches (other than your manager)
39%
23%
Web-based learning (online, self-study courses)
43%
56%
Movement to a different position to develop targeted skills
47%
71%
Special projects or assignments
68%
66%
Coaching from managers
68%
91%
Formal workshops, courses, seminars
81%
Global
Percent of HR Professionals Reporting Method is Used
Moderately or Extensively
FIGURE 10 FREQUENCY OF USE OF DEVELOPMENT
METHODS
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Leaders around the world tended to find the methods most used
(formal
workshops, special projects, and manager coaching) as the most
effective for
development (Figure 11), suggesting that the methods that
organizations put
their efforts behind pay off. Additionally, leaders in Singapore
indicated that
internal and external coaches are effective development
methods; however, less
than one out of every three leaders use these two methods
(Figure 10). It’s
unclear whether this is a result of inadequate time, a lack of
suitable training to
feel that they would be effective, or the costs associated with
adopting such
approaches. When creating a comprehensive development
program for
leaders, organizations should remember that leaders need
multiple ways to
develop their skills and that a blended approach, with a strategic
mix of skills
and methods, will yield the best results. See the global report
for information on
creating more effective leadership development programs.
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Singapore
32%
Virtual classroom
28%
47%
Coaching with external coaches
37%
44%
Coaching with internal coaches (other than your manager)
44%
53%
Web-based learning (online, self-study courses)
45%
60%
Movement to a different position to develop targeted skills
47%
64%
Special projects or assignments
63%
70%
Coaching from managers
66%
85%
Formal workshops, courses, seminars
73%
Global
Percent of Leaders Reporting Method is Effective
FIGURE 11 EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT
METHODS
TALENT MANAGEMENT
Development alone cannot ensure that organizations have a
ready supply of
capable leaders; it’s just one of the critical components of an
end-to-end talent
management process. DDI defines talent management as a
mission-critical
process that ensures organizations have the quantity and quality
of people in
place to meet current and future business priorities. The
process covers all key
aspects of an employee’s life cycle, starting when the
organization selects the
right leaders then continuing as the person’s performance is
aligned with an
effective performance management system. It’s fueled with
effective
development and leadership succession efforts. Improving the
quality of
leadership involves doing all of these things well.
HR professionals around the world were asked to rate the
importance of their
talent systems in terms of their impact on organizational success
in the next
three years. Although the majority said that development was
important, more
HR professionals cited other systems (i.e., selection,
performance management,
and succession management) as having a more critical impact
on organizational
performance. On the whole, these systems, which constitute
talent
management, appeared to be clear drivers of organizational
success.
Unfortunately, HR professionals worldwide rated the current
effectiveness of
most of these systems as dismal (see Figure 12).
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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Singapore
19%
Leadership succession
22%
38%
Performance management
42%
38%
Development programs and learning opportunities for senior
leaders
33%
41%
Development programs and learning opportunities for mid-level
leaders
30%
34%
Development programs and learning opportunities for frontline
leaders
31%
21%
Leadership selection
31%
Global
Percent of HR Professionals Reporting System is Effective
FIGURE 12 EFFECTIVENESS OF TALENT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS
Leadership
Development
TALENT SYSTEMS
& PRACTICES
Management
Culture
High-
Quality
Leadership
Enhanced
People
Outcomes
(e.g., retention,
engagement)
Enhanced
Business
Impact
(e.g., financial
performance,
customer
satisfaction)
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Organizations around the world reported that performance
management
systems were the most effective of all the talent systems. While
HR
professionals in Singapore also rated performance management
systems as
effective, they rated development programs for mid-level and
senior leaders
even more effective than did their global counterparts.
Leadership selection and
succession were found to be the least effective talent systems in
Singapore as
well as globally, with less than one in four HR professionals
rating these
systems as effective. The following section discusses each of
the talent
systems in more detail, with the exception of leadership
development, which
was covered in the previous section.
SELECTION SYSTEMS
Selection is arguably the most critical step in talent
management because there
are some things that no amount of development or performance
management
will fix. In fact, in our study, effective selection was the talent
management
system with the strongest relationship to leaders’ ratings of
organizational
performance. However, according to Singapore-based
organizations surveyed,
only 25 percent are using proven, validated tools for making
critical leadership
selection and promotion decisions (see Figure 13).
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0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
Singapore
25%
Validated tests and simulations are
used for making leadership selection
and promotion decisions.
32%
Global
Percent Agree or Strongly Agree
FIGURE 13 PERCENT OF ORGANIZATIONS USING
VALIDATED TOOLS FOR
LEADERSHIP SELECTION DECISIONS
Because so few Singapore organizations have used validated
tools, their HR
professionals inevitably reported that up to 36 percent of
leadership hires are
failures (see Figure 14). Given the higher failure rate of leaders
hired externally
compared to those hired internally as well as their significant
costs, grow-your-
own tactics would be a key talent strategy to leverage for the
future. The data
indicates that this would be a more effective strategy.
Regardless of internal or
external hiring, using selection tools that have been proven to
work is important
for gathering objective data to make the right hiring decisions.
Otherwise,
organizations are leaving these critical decisions to chance.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
It’s critical that organizations effectively manage leader
performance because
accomplishing organizational objectives is so closely linked to
and dependent
on leaders achieving their objectives. In our study, leaders
were asked to rate
specific aspects of their performance management system (see
Figure 15). In
Singapore 72 percent of leaders reported that their individual
performance
expectations were tied to corporate goals and strategies. Also,
68 percent
reported that their performance management systems accounted
for objectives
(the whats) as well as the behaviors (the hows) that help achieve
those
objectives. Both of these components are critical to effective
performance
management because leaders who achieve their objectives
without regard for
others are not effective.
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64%Singapore 36%
63%Global 37%
71%Singapore 29%
72%Global 28%
Success Failure
Ex
te
rn
al
Hi
re
s
In
te
rn
al
Hi
re
s
FIGURE 14 LEADERSHIP HIRING SUCCESSES AND
FAILURES
Ian new VAIO
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Organizations around the world were not as successful when
ensuring that
performance review discussions provided leaders with clear
direction for
enhancing their performance. This indicates that most are using
performance
management more as a way to monitor leaders’ performance
instead of an
opportunity to improve their future performance. Just over half
the leaders in
Singapore (59 percent) felt that their performance review
discussions provided
them with clear direction, a finding similar to that around the
world.
Performance management should not be a once-a-year event. It
should be a
process that monitors, inspires, and improves performance over
time.
Managers of leaders need to drive this process by ensuring that
performance
discussions provide their leaders with clear accountabilities,
timely feedback
about their performance, and guidance for helping them
capitalize on their
strengths and take advantage of developmental opportunities.
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Singapore
72%
My performance expectations are tied to
business unit and/or corporate goals/strategies.
81%
68%
My performance appraisal is balanced
between whats (objectives) and hows
(behaviors used to achieve objectives).
69%
59%
My performance review discussions provide
me with clear direction about how to enhance
my performance.
56%
Global
Percent of Leaders Who Agree or Strongly Agree
FIGURE 15 ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS
SUCCESSION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Succession management tended to be the least effective talent
system in
Singapore organizations as well as those around the world.
Succession
management is future oriented; it is about ensuring that
organizations have the
right quantity and quality of leaders—at all levels—to meet
unpredictable future
business needs. Since the onset of the global economic crisis,
organizations
have refocused on the role succession management plays in
talent management.
Most organizations suffered greatly from a lack of focus on the
future and
succession planning, and bench strength was weaker than they
had anticipated.
Singapore organizations were no exception, with only 22
percent of HR
professionals rating their bench strength as strong or very
strong (see Figure 16).
With an aging senior-level workforce in Singapore, grooming
future successors
will be an important talent strategy.
This study focused on three of the many practices required for
successful
succession management: identifying and growing high
potentials and moving
leaders up the pipeline. In Singapore, 53 percent of
organizations have a formal
process for early identification of high-potential talent as well
as processes for
early growth of high-potential talent, a significantly higher
percentage than
organizations around the world (see Figure 17). With one out
of every three
external hires in Singapore failing, identifying and nurturing
internal talent would
be well worth the focus.
20
Singapore Highlights
Weak or Very Weak Mixed Strong or Very Strong
25% 53% 22%
Weak or Very Weak Mixed Strong or Very Strong
25% 57% 18%
Singapore
Global
FIGURE 16 BENCH STRENGTH TO MEET FUTURE NEEDS
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Another important aspect of succession management is leader
promotion. With
70 percent of Singapore leaders in this research making a
leadership transition in
the past five years, it’s unfortunate that only one-third of
organizations have
programs to ensure that employees make smooth leadership
transitions. This
likely explains why the majority of leaders still report their
leadership transitions
as being difficult.
The lack of formality leaves much to chance in terms of filling
the leadership
pipeline and building bench strength. When asked to explain
the low ratings of
their organization’s bench strength, HR professionals repeatedly
pointed to a
lack of focus, strategy, and formality of succession planning as
the reasons for
not having enough prepared leaders. Although it can be all too
easy to forego
planning for the future while the economy is growing,
Singapore organizations
need to start prioritizing succession management now if they
expect to
effectively manage their future.
21
Singapore Highlights
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Singapore
53%
We have a formal process for early
identification of high-potential talent.
44%
53%
We have a formal process for early
growth of high-potential talent.
37%
32%
We have effective programs to ensure
smooth leadership transitions at all levels.
25%
Global
Percent of HR Professionals Who Agree or Strongly Agree
FIGURE 17 ASPECTS OF LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
22
Singapore Highlights
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Singapore
40%
We have open, vigorous, and uncensored discussions
around strategy and key business decisions
39%
46%
Organizational structure is fluid, flexible, and nimble
46%
60%
Our management processes (e.g., strategic planning)
are a source of major competitive advantage
56%
52%
Employees/Leaders have the opportunity to innovate/create
57%
53%
We balance our focus on growth with a commitment to
sustainability and socially significant goals
59%
52%
Power and influence are held by those who value innovation and
change
62%
62%
Status and influence are based on ability to lead, contributions,
and performance
63%
63%
Our company has shared values and aspirations that are
meaningful to our employees
68%
Global
Percent of Leaders Who Agree with Statement
FIGURE 18 EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CULTURE
Ineffective Management Culture
Effective Management Culture
STRUCTURE Organizational structure is siloed, rigid, and
hierarchical. Organizational structure is fluid, flexible, and
nimble.
BUREAUCRACY Our management processes (e.g., budgeting,
Our management processes (e.g., budgeting,
strategic planning, risk management, business review)
strategic planning, risk management, business review)
are highly bureaucratic and often a nuisance.
are a source of major competitive advantage.
POWER Power and influence are held by those who value the
Power and influence are held by those who value innovation
status quo.
and change.
INFLUENCE Status and influence are based on a person’s
formal Status and influence are based on ability to lead,
position and accumulated power.
contributions, and performance.
DECISIONS Strategic and key business decisions are made
mostly We have open, vigorous, and uncensored
discussions
by those in positions of power, with very few opportunities
around strategy and key business decisions.
for open discussion.
INNOVATION Senior leaders are the primary visionaries and
creators. Employees/Leaders have the opportunity to
innovate/create.
VALUES Our company has a set of values and aspirations, but
they Our company has shared values and aspirations that are
hold little meaning to most employees.
meaningful to our employees.
GOALS We almost exclusively focus on top/bottom-line
growth. We balance our focus on growth with a
commitment to
sustainability and socially significant goals.
TABLE 2 MANAGEMENT CULTURE STATEMENTS BY
FACTOR
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1
MANAGEMENT CULTURE
To this point, we have established leadership development and
strategic talent
management as major drivers for building leadership capability
in organizations.
But talent doesn’t work in a vacuum. An organization’s culture
plays a large role
in creating an environment that allows all leaders and
employees to live up to
their fullest potential. Even the most capable people cannot
thrive in a culture
that does not allow them to make decisions, influence others,
and do their jobs
effectively.
We partnered with influential business thinker and professor
Gary Hamel, author
of The Future of Management, and his Management Lab to
identify the key
factors that either facilitate or hinder how the work of
management is carried out.
The factors that impede leaders from being effective include,
but are not limited
to, the bureaucracy of processes in organizations, leaders’ level
of influence, and
the extent to which values are shared throughout the
organization. These factors
affect an organization’s culture and can serve to either allow
leaders to thrive or
to stifle them.
Leaders around the world were asked to rate their organization’s
management
culture by choosing one of two statements. For example, they
were asked to
choose which statement best describes their organization:
“Organizational
structure is fluid, flexible, and nimble” or “Organizational
structure is siloed, rigid,
and hierarchical” (see Table 2 for a complete list of statements
and factors).
Only the more effective of the two statements is presented in
Figure 18.
Leaders in Singapore report that their organization stands
behind shared values
and aspirations that are meaningful across the company and that
management
processes are a major competitive advantage compared to other
organizations
around the globe. However, similar to other organizations, a
major pain point for
Singapore organizations was opening up decision making to
have more open
discussions about key strategic decisions (only 40 percent of
Singapore leaders
described their organization as doing this). This probably
reflects the fact that
decision making is often pushed to senior levels in
organizations, and while
there is a strong execution focus, there is also a strong risk-
averse nature
amongst leaders in Singapore organizations.
23
Singapore Highlights
Leadership
Development
Talent Systems
& Practices
MANAGEMENT
CULTURE
High-
Quality
Leadership
Enhanced
People
Outcomes
(e.g., retention,
engagement)
Enhanced
Business
Impact
(e.g., financial
performance,
customer
satisfaction)
Ian new VAIO
Highlight
Organizations were split into three groups based on their
leaders’ ratings of
management culture. Leader scores for management culture
statements were
aggregated by organization, and organizations were labeled as
low (leaders
choosing the more effective statement 0–2 times), medium (3–5
times), or high
(6–8 times) in terms of management culture effectiveness.
Figure 19
demonstrates that there is still a lot of work to do in this area:
Less than one-
third of organizations in Singapore have a highly effective
management culture.
Generally, Singapore organizations did not fare much worse
than organizations
around the world in terms of management culture, possibly
because most
organizations responding in the Singapore sample were
multinationals, which
have a global understanding of common business practices.
According to the
global sample, organizations with a highly effective
management culture were
three times more likely to outperform their competition in terms
of bottom-line
metrics such as financial performance, productivity, quality of
products or
services, and customer satisfaction, proving that instituting
more effective
management practices has a profound impact on organizational
success.
24
Singapore Highlights
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Singapore
34%
36%
30%
Global
27%
36%
37%
Low Effectiveness
(Score of 0–2)
High Effectiveness
(Score of 6–8)
Medium Effectiveness
(Score of 3–5)
FIGURE 19 CURRENT STATE OF MANAGEMENT CULTURE
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CONCLUSION
Times have changed. Business processes are evolving at a rapid
pace, and
given its importance to organizational success, leadership
cannot afford to be
left behind. Unfortunately, the state of leadership today calls
for drastic
measures (see Table 3). The majority of leaders in Singapore as
well as the
rest of the world don’t have the skills they need to be effective
in this new
landscape. Talent strategies have been neglected, with only
about one-third of
the leaders in Singapore reporting that their organization’s
leadership
development program was effective. Singapore organizations
need to improve
the effectiveness of most of their development methods, but a
special focus on
increasing the use of mentors and coaches other than one’s
manager was
evident because these development methods were rated as
highly effective but
infrequently utilized. Furthermore, organizations need to focus
leadership
development efforts in the skills that will be critical for the
future: driving and
managing change, identifying and developing future talent,
coaching and
developing others, and fostering innovation.
This lack of effective talent strategies has not only affected
current leadership
quality, but also has implications for the future, with just 22
percent of HR
professionals in Singapore rating their bench strength highly.
Talent systems,
which support leaders throughout their careers, will play a
critical role in improving
leadership quality, yet they can be improved too. Singapore
organizations seem
to be focusing on leadership development (the effectiveness of
development was
higher than their global counterparts), especially for mid-level
leaders. However,
the vast majority of organizations in Singapore have ineffective
selection and
succession management systems. Because many Singapore
organizations are
experiencing growth, effectively managing talent throughout
their employees’ life
cycles needs to be prioritized to ensure future viability.
25
Singapore Highlights
Effectiveness of Current Quality of Bench Strength
Development (LDR) Leadership (LDR) (HR)
Global 37% 38% 18%
Singapore 36% 39% 22%
Note: Figures reflect percent of leaders (LDR) or HR
professionals rating the factor highly.
TABLE 3 STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY
How organizations manage people also should not be
overlooked. With only
one in three Singapore organizations having a highly effective
culture, talent
management efforts alone cannot be expected to bridge the
current gap in
leadership quality. An organization’s management culture has a
tremendous
bearing on whether leadership capabilities can be leveraged to
their fullest
potential. Singapore organizations, like those elsewhere, should
focus on
opening up decision making and creating a set of shared and
meaningful values
for their employees.
Considering the state of leadership and business today in
Singapore,
organizations need to reevaluate which talent and management
strategies they
should take with them into the future. Global Leadership
Forecast 2011
demonstrates that focusing on leadership development, talent
management,
and management culture will have a marked impact on
leadership quality. This
research shows a direct relationship between the quality of
leadership and
people and business outcomes. Transforming talent
management and
management culture will have major payoffs. If leaders will be
executing and
creating organizational priorities for years to come, shouldn’t
their organizations
ensure that they are prepared to do that?
26
Singapore Highlights
AP
PE
ND
IX
27
Singapore Highlights
APPENDIX
DEMOGRAPHICS
0% 1–10
0% 11–50
6% 51–100
6% 101–200
16% 201–500
13% 501–1,000
22% 1,001–5,000
9% 5,001–10,000
13% 10,001–20,000
9% 20,001–50,000
6% 50,001 or more
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
13% National
88% Multinational (own, operate, or have affiliate
offices outside own country)
PRESENCE IN GLOBAL MARKET
38% First-level (supervisor, team leader, foreman, etc.)
28% Mid-level (leader of first-level leaders)
28% Senior-level (leader/manager of mid-level leaders)
6% Executive-level (leader in a policy-making position)
MANAGEMENT LEVEL
4% Less than 6 months
5% 6–11 months
14% 1–2 years
32% 3–5 years
25% 6–10 years
10% 11–15 years
10% More than 15 years
ORGANIZATIONAL TENURE
9% 25 and under
39% 26–35
35% 36–45
14% 46–55
3% 56–60
1% Over 60
AGE
69% Male
31% Female
GENDER
NOTE: Numbers may not add up to 100 percent because
of rounding.
32 Number in sample
ORGANIZATIONS
321 Number in sample
LEADERS
28
Singapore Highlights
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., manages DDI’s Center for
Applied Behavioral Research (CABER), DDI’s hub for
research to support evidence-based management.
Jazmine directs research that measures the impact of
selection and development programs on organizational
performance and uncovers new knowledge and
information about global workplace practices and issues.
With special expertise in measurement and evaluation,
Jazmine has consulted with organizations in a wide
variety of industries.
Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D., is senior vice president at
DDI. Rich is responsible for leading DDI’s global research
programs, launching new solutions, and executing DDI’s
brand and marketing strategies. During his tenure at DDI,
Rich has authored five books on leadership and teams
and written for more than 20 publications on global talent
management. Rich has helped organizations around the
world develop their senior leaders. He also serves as a
judge for CNBC’s ABLA, interviewing dozens of Asia’s top
CEOs each year.
Ian Till, general manager for DDI’s operations in
Singapore, oversees the business development team,
manages the Singapore branch’s operations, and
promotes the DDI brand in Singapore. He manages the
portfolio of strategic accounts, examines clients’ needs,
and recommends the appropriate talent management
solutions. Since 1996, Ian has gained extensive
experience throughout Southeast Asia in leadership
assessment and development, performance
management, employee engagement, training and
development, and organizational restructuring.
PARTNERS
This study was a true global effort, and the authors would
like to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of the
following people:
Management Innovation Research Advisors
Gary Hamel and the Management
Innovation Lab
DDI Project Team
Project Management: Jennifer Pesci-Kelly, Aviel
Selkovits
Participant Recruitment: Malu Arredondo, Amit Arte,
Noemi Barbosa de Luna, Monica Chen, Jesie Dieu, Nikki
Dy-Liacco, Tania Fernandes-Klerx, Ramon Fontaine,
Priscilla Giglio, Lisa Han, Kumiko Hashimoto, Julie
Hogan, Marta Janiak, Arati Karve, Emily Kershaw,
Patrycja Korczynska, Cathy Lavoie, Ellen Lee, Maggie
Liu, Dorothy Lo, Victor L. Magdaraog, Yvonne McGowan,
Simon Mitchell, Marisa Molnar, Stephanie Nam, See Yi
Ngiam, Panmanee Ong-art, Joyce Qi, Julie Rautenbach,
Myra Rehman, Katrina Jane L. Roxas, Retianna C.
Shakina, Arunima Shrivastava, Neil Suchman, Lily Sun,
Charna van der Merwe, Julie Vedrinne, Christien Winter
Research: Michael Kemp, Stephanie Neal
Editorial: Mike Crawmer, Shawn Garry
Graphic Design: Susan Ryan, Janet Wiard
Web: Mark Hamilton
REFERENCES
Andrew, J.P., Manget, J., Michael, D.C., Taylor, A., &
Zablit, H. (2010, April). Innovation 2010: A return to
prominence—and the emergence of a new world order.
Boston: The Boston Consulting Group.
To start your leadership revolution
and learn more about DDI’s
Global Leadership Forecast 2011,
please visit
www.ddiworld.com/glf2011
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ABOUT DEVELOPMENT DIMENSIONS INTERNATIONAL:
For over 40 years, DDI has helped the most successful
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Our areas of expertise span every level, from individual
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Sing study participantshow good are our leaders?the leadership
logicare our leadership develoment approaches effective?what
are the critical skills?skill building approacheshow effective are
these approaches?few validated tool usedeffective management
culturesingapore is risk averseconclusion
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Running Head: RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE
2
RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE
RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE
Student Name
University Affiliation
Abstract
This paper explores race gender and occupational stratification
in the workplace despite the fact that stringent anti-
discrimination legislations have been enacted as well as
organizations having their own anti-discrimination policies. To
do so I will try to understand the experiences of those who feel
that they have been discriminated against by interviewing an
African American woman with the aim of:
I. Understanding how formal anti-discrimination policies can be
used to legitimise discrimination
II. How both employees and employers can consciously or
unconsciously be agents of discrimination
III. What coping mechanisms employees who are being
discriminated upon employ to resist discrimination.
Introduction
The united States has come a long way from its infamous days
of slavery and formal discrimination based on race and gender
and has enacted a number of legislations which include the
equal pay act that prohibits different pay on the basis of sex as
well as the Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 which
prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex or
national origin (Shaw, L. B. 2012).
Despite these efforts to move away from its ugly past,
issues of discrimination in the workplace on the basis of gender
and race continue to persist (Thomson, D. 2013).
The purpose of this assignment is to explore race, and
gender, discrimination in the workforce today
Interview questions
I. Have you ever been discriminated against and if yes what was
the nature of the discrimination
II. What actions did you take when you felt that you were being
discriminated against
III. If you took any action, do you think that management was
responsive enough to your concerns
IV. If you did not take any action why did you opt to follow this
route
V. Do you think that the current laws are sufficient to protect
employees against discrimination
Interview response
When asked if she had been discriminated against in any
manner and what was the nature of discrimination in her place
of employment, the respondent affirmed that she had. This is
based on the fact that she had worked in a medical facility for
over 20 years yet she lagged behind among her peers who got
into service with her in terms of pay scale and career
advancement. This she believed was due to the fact that she was
a black woman compared to her colleagues that were mainly
white.
On the question of what actions she took when she felt that
she was being discriminated against, the respondent replied that
she wrote a formal complaint to the facility’s administrator after
she had been denied an opportunity for training that was being
conducted by the facility and that this was the only action that
she undertook.
On whether she believes that management was responsive
to her concerns, the respondent was of the opinion that though
they were not outwardly hostile towards his claims, their
positive actions were merely a way of covering up their
misdeeds. She pointed out that immediately management learnt
of her query, they verbally apologised for the poor judgement in
living her out of the program and they immediately enrolled her
in. Though this seemed like a positive step, it did not address
the years she had lagged behind her colleagues. However she
was just glad that she had finally stood up for herself and that
someone had paid attention.
On the question of whether current legislations were
adequate to protect employees against discrimination, the
respondent was of the view that the legislations were not
enough because many people who were being discriminated
against could not afford to go to court and if they could many
would still be afraid of retaliation from employers especially if
they lost.
Analysis
From this interview, it was clear that discrimination
because of race or gender is still a common issue in the US job
market. However the problem has evolved from the outright
discrimination to a more salient one where even the victim may
not be sure that they are being discriminated against in the first
place. For example the respondent claims she worked at a
medical facility for twenty years before she realised that she
was being discriminated against and this factor is what makes
bringing an end to discrimination more difficult.
The respondent states that she decided to first inform the
administration about her concerns something that only a few
people in such situations do due to fear of reprisal as well as
uncertainty on whether they are actually being discriminated
upon or rather their work performance is not as good as that of
their peers.
The response of the management to her concerns is
actually a classic example of how organizations avoid
litigations without actually changing the situation when they
feel they have been caught. Though they apologised to her
verbally and enrolled her in the training program, they did not
address the main issue of having lagged behind her peers due to
racial discrimination. While the respondent felt that this action
was not enough, the drive to pursue the matter more
aggressively had been diminished since she reasoned that at
least her concerns had been addressed. The half cake she had
was better than the full one she did not have.
Lastly, the respondent feels that the legislations that have
been put in place are not sufficient to protect individuals from
workplace discrimination but her reasons to these are more to
do with the shortcomings of the justice system itself rather than
the legislations that have been enacted.
Conclusion
It is clear that though the United States has come a long
way in healing the racial rifts that existed in the country, it still
has a long way to go in ensuring that work place discrimination
on the basis of sex, religion, or race is eliminated.
The current legislations is clearly not enough to deal with
the problem though it is clear that the issue can no longer be
dealt with from a legal perspective due to the fact that the
problem has toned down to the extent that it becomes difficult
to determine whether a discriminatory policy is being pursued
and whether if it is it is being done consciously or
unconsciously (Smith, A. R. 2009).
On the other hand, a civil response to the problem can
provide more long lasting solutions though this is a longer route
to take. By continuing with aggressive advocacy against
discrimination and educating future generations on the negative
consequences of the vice, the country can truly bury its past
demons. Since this is a social problem, socialization should be
the main means of dealing with it.
Refference
Shaw, L. B. (2012). Examining work place discrimination,
Retrieved from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-
12212010-144838/unrestricted/Braxton_ShawnL_T_2010.pdf
Smith, A. R. (2009). Race, Gender & Authority in the Work
Place, Retrieved from
http://www.csun.edu/~snk1966/R.A.%20Smith%20-
%20Race,%20Gender,%20and%20Authority%20in%20the%20W
orkplace%20--%20Theory%20and%20Research.pdf
Thomson, D. (2013). The Work Force is Even More Divided by
Race than You Think, Retrieved from:
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/11/the-
workforce-is-even-more-divided-by-race-than-you-
think/281175/
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 1
The Leadership Framework
Self assessment tool
Leadership in the health and care services is about delivering
high quality
services to patients by:
· demonstrating personal qualities
· working with others
· managing services
· improving services
· setting direction
· creating the vision, and
· delivering the strategy.
Staff will exhibit a range of leadership behaviours across these
seven domains dependent on the context in which they operate.
It is
essential that all staff are competent in each of the five core
leadership domains: demonstrating personal qualities, working
with
others, managing services, improving services and setting
direction. The other two domains, creating the vision and
delivering
the strategy, focus more on the role and contribution of
individual leaders.
To help users understand and apply the Leadership Framework
each domain is divided into four
elements and each of these elements is further divided into four
descriptive statements which
describe the behaviours all staff should be able to demonstrate.
The Clinical Leadership Competency Framework (CLCF) and
Medical Leadership Competency
Framework (MLCF) are also available to specifically provide
staff with clinically based examples and
learning and development scenarios across the five core
domains shared with the Leadership
Framework.
Please visit www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/lf to learn more
about the framework and how it can
be used and applied.
Self assessment tool
This self assessment tool aims to help you manage your own
learning and development by allowing you to reflect on which
areas
of the leadership framework you would like to develop further.
Please note that the information you provide is not stored
anywhere on the website. We recommend you download and
save this
document so that you can refer back to it when reviewing your
development plans.
A development module is available to support your leadership
development at
www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module
You will also find a personal action plan template starting on
page 10.
Leadership Academy
CLCF/MLCF
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/lf
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 2
1. Demonstrating Personal Qualities
Effective leadership requires individuals to draw upon their
values, strengths
and abilities to deliver high standards of service. To do so, they
must
demonstrate effectiveness in:
• Developing self awareness by being aware of their own values,
principles,
and assumptions, and by being able to learn from experiences
• Managing yourself by organising and managing themselves
while taking
account of the needs and priorities of others
• Continuing personal development by learning through
participating in
continuing professional development and from experience and
feedback
• Acting with integrity by behaving in an open, honest and
ethical manner.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/demonstrating-personal-qualities
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
DEMONSTRATING PERSONAL QUALITIES
Developing Self Awareness
I reflect on how my own values and principles influence my
behaviour and
impact on others
I seek feedback from others on my strengths and limitations and
modify
my behaviour accordingly
I remain calm and focused under pressure
I plan my workload and deliver on my commitments to
consistently high
standards demonstrating flexibility to service requirements
I actively seek opportunities to learn and develop
I apply my learning to practical work
I act in an open, honest and inclusive manner - respecting other
people’s
culture, beliefs and abilities
I speak out when I see that ethics or values are being
compromised
TOTAL
Managing Yourself
Continuing Personal Development
Acting with Integrity
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/demonstrating-personal-qualities
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 3
2. Working with Others
Effective leadership requires individuals to work with others in
teams and
networks to deliver and improve services. To do so, they must
demonstrate
effectiveness in:
• Developing networks by working in partnership with patients,
carers,
service users and their representatives, and colleagues within
and across
systems to deliver and improve services
• Building and maintaining relationships by listening,
supporting others,
gaining trust and showing understanding
• Encouraging contribution by creating an environment where
others have
the opportunity to contribute
• Working within teams to deliver and improve services.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
WORKING WITH OTHERS
Developing Networks
I identify opportunities where working collaboratively with
others will bring
added value to patient care
I share information and resources across networks
I communicate clearly and effectively with others
I listen to and take into account the needs and feelings of others
I actively seek contributions and views from others
I am comfortable managing conflicts of interests or differences
of opinion
I put myself forward to lead teams, whilst always ensuring I
involve the
right people at the right time
I acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of others within the
team and
respect the team’s decision
TOTAL
Building and Maintaining Relationships
Encouraging Contribution
Working within Teams
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/working-with-others
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/working-with-others
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 4
3. Managing Services
Effective leadership requires individuals to focus on the success
of the
organisation(s) in which they work. To do so, they must be
effective in:
• Planning by actively contributing to plans to achieve service
goals
• Managing resources by knowing what resources are available
and using
their influence to ensure that resources are used efficiently and
safely, and
reflect the diversity of needs
• Managing people by providing direction, reviewing
performance,
motivating others, and promoting equality and diversity
• Managing performance by holding themselves and others
accountable for
service outcomes.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
MANAGING SERVICES
Planning
I use feedback from patients, service users and colleagues when
developing plans
I assess the available options in terms of benefits and risks
I deliver safe and effective services within the allocated
resource
I take action when resources are not being used efficiently and
effectively
I support team members in developing their roles and
responsibilities
I provide others with clear purpose and direction
I analyse information from a range of sources about
performance
I take action to improve performance
TOTAL
Managing Resources
Managing People
Managing Performance
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/managing-services
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/managing-services
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 5
4. Improving Services
Effective leadership requires individuals to make a real
difference to people's
health by delivering high quality services and by developing
improvements to
services. To do so, they must demonstrate effective in:
• Ensuring patient safety by assessing and managing risk to
patients
associated with service developments, balancing economic
consideration
with the need for patient safety
• Critically evaluating by being able to think analytically,
conceptually and to
identify where services can be improved, working individually
or as part of a
team
• Encouraging improvement and innovation by creating a
climate of
continuous service improvement
• Facilitating transformation by actively contributing to change
processes
that lead to improving healthcare.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively
on your performance.
IMPROVING SERVICES
Ensuring Patient Safety
I take action when I notice shortfalls in patient safety
I review practice to improve patient safety and minimise risk
I use feedback from patients, carers and service users to
contribute to
improvements in service delivery
I work with others to constructively evaluate our services
I put forward ideas to improve the quality of services
I encourage debate about new ideas with a wide range of people
I articulate the need for change and its impact on people and
services
I focus myself and motivate others to ensure change happens
TOTAL
Critically Evaluating
Encouraging Improvement and Innovation
Facilitating Transformation
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/improving-services
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/improving-services
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 6
5. Setting Direction
Effective leadership requires individuals to contribute to the
strategy and
aspirations of the organisation and act in a manner consistent
with its values.
To do so, they must demonstrate effective in:
• Identifying the contexts for change by being aware of the
range of
factors to be taken into account
• Applying knowledge and evidence by gathering information to
produce
an evidence-based challenge to systems and processes in order
to identify
opportunities for service improvements
• Making decisions using their values, and the evidence, to
make good
decisions
• Evaluating impact by measuring and evaluating outcomes,
taking corrective
action where necessary and by being held to account for their
decisions.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
SETTING DIRECTION
Identifying the Contexts for Change
I identify the drivers of change (e.g. political, social, technical,
economic,
organisational, professional environment)
I anticipate future challenges that will create the need for
change and
communicate these to others
I use data and information to suggest improvements to services
I influence others to use knowledge and evidence to achieve
best practice
I consult with key people and groups when making decisions
taking into
account the values and priorities of the service
I actively engage in formal and informal decision-making
processes about
the future of services
I take responsibility for embedding new approaches into
working practices
I evaluate the impact of changes on patients and service
delivery
TOTAL
Applying Knowledge and Evidence
Making Decisions
Evaluating Impact
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/setting-direction
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/setting-direction
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 7
6. Creating the Vision
Effective leadership involves creating a compelling vision for
the future, and
communicating this within and across organisations. This
requires individuals to
demonstrate effectiveness in:
• Developing the vision of the organisation, looking to the
future to
determine the direction for the organisation
• Influencing the vision of the wider healthcare system by
working with
partners across organisations
• Communicating the vision and motivating others to work
towards
achieving it
• Embodying the vision by behaving in ways which are
consistent with the
vision and values of the organisation
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
CREATING THE VISION
Developing the Vision for the Organisation
I actively engage with others (including patients and public) to
determine
the direction of the organisation
I take into account the full range of factors that will impact
upon the
future of health and care services
I look for opportunities to engage in debate about the future of
healthcare
I influence key decision makers who determine future
government policy
that impacts the NHS and its services
I communicate the vision with enthusiasm and clarity
I take time to build critical support for the vision
I show confidence, commitment and passion for the vision in
my day to day actions
I challenge behaviours, symbols & rituals which are not
consistent with the vision
TOTAL
Influencing the Vision of the Wider Healthcare System
Communicating the Vision
Embodying the Vision
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/creating-the-vision
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/creating-the-vision
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 8
7. Delivering the Strategy
Effective leadership involves delivering the strategy by
developing and agreeing
strategic plans that place patient care at the heart of the service,
and ensuring
that these are translated into achievable operational plans. This
requires
individuals to demonstrate effectiveness in:
• Framing the strategy by identifying strategic options for the
organisation
and drawing upon a wide range of information, knowledge and
experience
• Developing the strategy by engaging with colleagues and key
stakeholders
• Implementing the strategy by organising, managing and
assuming the
risks of the organisation
• Embedding the strategy by ensuring that strategic plans are
achieved and
sustained.
Look at statements below:
• On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that
reflects how frequently it applies to you
• Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you
have
scored yourself
Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself.
If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop
further. If you have green circles then check that these are not
overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a
behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
negatively on
your performance.
DELIVERING THE STRATEGY
Framing the Strategy
I draw on relevant thinking and best practice to inform strategy
development
I use an understanding of the history and culture of the
organisation to
create a realistic strategy
I engage with a wide range of stakeholders when formulating
strategic plans
I mitigate uncertainties and risks associated with strategic
choices
I ensure strategic plans are translated into workable operational
plans
I establish clear accountabilities for delivery of all elements of
the strategy
I help others to overcome obstacles and challenges in delivering
the strategy
I monitor progress of the strategic outcomes and make
adjustments where necessary
TOTAL
Developing the Strategy
Implementing the Strategy
Embedding the Strategy
A lot of the
time
Some of the
time
Very little /
None of the
time
To work through the Leadership Development Module for this
domain,
go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/delivering-the-strategy
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module/delivering-the-strategy
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 9
Next Steps
Having completed your self assessment, we would encourage
you to discuss your results with your Line Manager, mentor
or trusted colleague.
You may find it helpful to ask your Line Manager or colleagues
to also download the document and rate you against some or all
of the leadership domains. Coming together and comparing their
ratings with your self ratings can provide valuable insight into
your leadership behaviour.
Next, you may wish to develop a personal action plan to help
you consolidate your development areas. An action plan
template
is available on the next page.
Hints and tips on action planning
• Define your action plan in SMART terms (Specific,
Measurable, Action oriented, Realistic and Time bound). This
will help you
reach your goals.
• Identify individuals you want to talk to about your action plan
and who can help you make it happen.
• Assess potential obstacles and how you might be able to
overcome these.
• Think about how you can utilise your strengths to help you
reach your goals.
• Identify resources that are available to you or that you will
need to obtain in order to achieve your goal e.g.what resources
(internal, external) can you draw upon in order to reach your
goal?
• Write action steps to help you reach your goal and assign a
completion date to each one.
• Set a date to evaluate your progress towards your goal.
Resources
For suggested reading or development advice related to the each
of the domains of the Leadership Framework, please refer to
the Leadership Development Module at
www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module
IMPORTANT!
If you wish to refer back to this document at any point, please
save a copy to your computer or print in the
usual way. For confidentiality reasons, the information you
have input will not be saved on this website.
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 10
Personal Action Plan
Please read the hints and tips on action planning given on page
9 before starting your action plan. You may also find it helpful
to review
the Leadership Development Module at
www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module
Action Plan - part one
Please choose one of the key development needs identified
above that you would like to work through on the next few
pages.
Should you like to look at more than one development need,
print out or photocopy pages 11-14 before filling them in, or
save
this document under a different name so that you can complete
the following sections separately for each development need
you would like to explore.
Key strengths
Please summarise
your key strengths
Max characters (750)
Key priorities
Please summarise your key
development needs
Max characters (750)
http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-
module
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 11
Development Need:
Reason for choosing
Max characters (750)
Goal
Max characters (750)
Describe the desired new
behaviour in SMART terms
Benefits
Max characters (750)
Describe the benefits
of reaching this goal
Action Plan - part one continued
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 12
Development Need
Risks
Max characters (750)
Outline any risks that might be
involved in reaching this goal
Obstacles
Max characters (500)
Outline any potential obstacles
How are you going
to over come them?
Max characters (500)
Action Plan - part one continued
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 13
Development Need
Resources/
support needed
Max characters (750)
Where available?
Max characters (750)
Action Plan - part one continued
Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
© 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 14
Action Steps max characters (1000) Approach Target Date
Experience
Exposure
Education
Action Plan - part two
Experience
Exposure
Education
IMPORTANT!
If you wish to refer back to this document at any point, please
save a copy to your computer or print in the
usual way. For confidentiality reasons, the information you
have input will not be saved on this website.
Review
When will you review your
progress towards your goals?
(Please specify a date).
Group1: GreenGroup2: GreenGroup3: OrangeGroup4:
OrangeGroup5: GreenGroup6: GreenGroup7: GreenGroup8:
GreenP2 Green Total: 6P2 Orange Total: 2P2 Red Total:
0Group9: GreenGroup10: GreenGroup11: 4Group12: 4Group13:
GreenGroup14: GreenGroup15: GreenGroup16: GreenP3 Green
Total: 6P3 Orange Total: 2P3 Red Total: 0Group17:
GreenGroup18: GreenGroup19: 4Group20: GreenGroup21:
GreenGroup22: GreenGroup23: GreenGroup24: 1P4 Green
Total: 6P4 Orange Total: 2P4 Red Total: 0Group25:
GreenGroup26: Group27: Group28: Group29: Group30:
Group31: Group32: P5 Green Total: P5 Orange Total: P5 Red
Total: Group35: Group36: Group37: Group38: Group39:
Group40: Key Strengths: Key Priorities: Development Need:
Reason for choosing: Goal: Benefits: Risks: Obstacles:
Overcoming them: Resources / support needed: Where
available: Action Seps 1: Check Box Experience 1: Check Box
Exposure 1: Check Box Education 1: Target Date 1: Action Seps
2: Check Box Experience 2: Check Box Exposure 2: Check Box
Education 2: Target Date 2: Review Date: P6 Green Total: P6
Orange Total: P6 Red Total: Group34: Group33: Group41:
Group42: Group43: Group44: Group45: Group46: Group47:
Group48: P7 Green Total: P7 Orange Total: P7 Red Total:
Group49: Group50: Group51: Group52: Group53: Group54:
Group55: P8 Green Total: P8 Orange Total: P8 Red Total:
Group56:
Components of the social responsibility element of the CMU
LDP
• Financial Ethics
• Work-Place Ethics
• Honesty and Integrity
• Being Accountable
• Courage of Convictions
Leaders must act with integrity, honesty, and justice. They must
work in the best interest of others, showing respect
and empathy for unique individual and cultural differences.
Good leaders create a culture that promotes high ethical
standards along with personal, organizational, and civic
responsibility. Ethical leaders recognise and conduct
themselves in concert with universal moral principles as well as
specific values, laws, and ethics relevant to their group
or organisation.
• Communicating with the Community
• Helping the Community
• Civic Action
• Adopting Beneficial Values for Society
• Providing a Good Example
• Social Action
Leading others
ethically
(D)
Civic
responsibility
(A)
Social
knowledge
(B)
Ethical
processes
(C)
Acting with
integrity
(E)
• Open-Door Policy
• Instituting and Following Fair Procedures
• Explaining Decisions in a Respectful Manner
• Ensuring Ethical Behavior of Subordinates
• Servant Leadership
• Valuing Diversity
• Distributing Rewards Fairly
• Responsibility for Others
• Avoiding Exploitative Mentality
Social
Responsibility
Knowledge of:
• Sociology and Anthropology
• History and Geography
• Foreign Language
• Philosophy and Theology
• Organisational Justice Principles
• Legal Regulations
Task Management Dimension
A Civic responsibility
A1 Communicating with the Community:
Communicating organisation’s intentions and activities to the
public (e.g., local press,
radio, television) and representing the organisation in
community affairs and public
activities to promote awareness and foster goodwill.
A2 Helping the Community:
Meeting the needs of the community by promoting opportunities
for corporate giving of
financial and human resources.
A3 Civic Action:
Supporting participation in civic duties by encouraging others
to vote and engaging in
other duties of the political system.
A4 Adopting Beneficial Values for Society:
Seeking and embracing values that benefit society rather than
the organisation.
A5 Providing a Good Example:
Always acting in accordance with society’s and the
organisation’s laws, rules, and
guidelines, and behaving in fair and ethical manner.
B Social knowledge
B1 Sociology and Anthropology Knowledge:
Knowledge of the political systems, values, beliefs, economic
practices, and leadership
styles of countries other than your home country, as well as
knowledge of universal
group dynamics, behavior, and socio-cultural history.
B2 History and Geography Knowledge:
Knowledge of the physical location and relationships between
different land and sea
regions and the historical events that have shaped the culture of
inhabitants of these
regions.
B3 Foreign Language Knowledge:
Understanding a non-native language in order to communicate
in oral and written form
with people who speak that language.
B4 Philosophy and Theology Knowledge:
Knowledge of ethics and the philosophical viewpoints behind
various ethical models and
understanding how different philosophical and religious systems
affect behaviour of
groups and individuals within a cultural context.
B5 Knowledge of Organisational Justice Principles:
Knowing and understanding distributive justice, informational
justice, interpersonal
justice, and procedural justice and being able to apply those
principles to ensure
subordinates are treated fairly.
B6 Legal Regulations:
Awareness of local, state, and federal laws and regulations and
abiding by these
regulations at all times.
C Ethical processes
C1 Open-Door Policy:
Promoting a climate of openness and trust. Allowing individuals
who are upset about an
aspect of the organisation to voice displeasures without
retribution or repercussions.
C2 Instituting and Following Fair Procedures:
Instituting and applying rules and procedures in a consistent,
unbiased, accurate, and
correctable fashion to ensure that subordinates know that fair
rules are being used.
C3 Explaining Decisions in a Respectful Manner:
Explaining decisions that affect subordinates thoroughly and in
a manner that
demonstrates dignity and respect for the subordinates.
C4 Ensuring Ethical Behavior of Subordinates:
Instituting, training, and reinforcing policies to ensure that
subordinates treat each
other and the organisation fairly and with respect and dignity.
Disseminating
information about laws and regulations to subordinates and
make sure that they follow
laws and regulations by overseeing, monitoring, and auditing
behaviour. Disciplinary
action should be taken against those who do not comply with
laws and regulations.
D Leading others ethically
D1 Servant Leadership:
Being attentive to the needs of followers, empathising with their
concerns, and serving
their best interests
D2 Valuing Diversity:
Encouraging a wide range of viewpoints among team members
in order to avoid
groupthink and create more culturally sensitive solutions.
D3 Distributing Rewards Fairly:
Ensuring that pay, recognition, and other rewards are
distributed in a fair manner, with
clear guidelines and enforcement of those guidelines.
D4 Responsibility for Others:
Willingness to be responsible for the behavior of subordinates
in your organisation and
correct their unethical behaviours.
D5 Avoiding Exploitative Mentality:
Not sacrificing concern for others or using people and
exploiting them to achieve goals
for the organisation.
E Acting with integrity
E1 Financial Ethics:
Understanding and following ethical financial management and
accounting principles.
E2 Work-Place Ethics:
Understanding and following ethical guidelines at your work
place.
E3 Honesty and Integrity:
Behaving in an honest and ethical manner.
E4 Being Accountable:
Accepting responsibility for the effects of your own actions.
E5 Courage of Convictions:
Avoiding behaviour that is unethical even if it may appear
ethical to the public or may
be consistent with the public opinion. Upholding decisions that
are ethical yet
unpopular.
Components of the innovation element of the CMU LDP
-Taking
Leaders must be able to think creatively while taking initiative
and calculated risks. Effective leaders have a vision
beyond the immediate work of the group. This involves
exploring and integrating diverse perspectives and recognising
unexpected opportunities.
Forecasting
(I)
Creativity (F)
Enterprising
(G)
Integrating
perspective
(H)
Managing
Change
(J)
ollaborating
-Work Interests
Innovation
Task Management Dimension
F Creativity
F1 Generating Ideas:
Coming up with a variety of approaches to problem solving.
F2 Critical Thinking:
Logically identifying how different possible approaches are
strong and weak, and
analyzing these judgments.
F3 Synthesis / Reorganization:
Finding a better way to approach problems through synthesising
and reorganising
the information.
F4 Creative Problem Solving:
Using novel ideas to solve problems as a leader.
G Enterprising
G1 Identifying Problem:
Pinpointing the actual nature and cause of problems and the
dynamics that underlie
them.
G2 Seeking Improvement:
Constantly looking for ways to improve the organisation.
G3 Gathering Information:
Identifying useful sources of information and gathering and
utilizing only that
information which is essential.
G4 Independent Thinking:
Thinking ‘outside the box’ even if this sometimes may go
against popular opinion.
G5 Technological Savvy:
Understanding and utilising technology to improve work
processes.
H Integrating perspectives
H1 Openness to Ideas:
A willingness to listen to suggestions from others and to try
new ideas.
H2 Research Orientation:
Observing the behavior of others, reading extensively, and
keeping your mind open to
ideas and solutions from others. Reading and talking to people
in related fields to
discover innovations or current trends in the field.
H3 Collaborating:
Working with others and seeking the opinions of others to reach
a creative solution.
H4 Engaging in Non-Work Related Interests:
Being well-rounded and seeking information from other fields
and areas of life to find
novel approaches to situations.
I Forecasting
I1 Perceiving Systems:
Acknowledging important changes that occur in a system or
predicting accurately
when they might occur.
I2 Evaluating Long-Term Consequences:
Concluding what a change in systems will result in long-term
I3 Visioning:
Developing an image of an ideal working state of an
organisation
I4
Managing the Future:
Evaluating future directions and risks based on current and
future strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
J Managing change
J1 Sensitivity to Situations:
Assessing situational forces that are promoting and inhibiting
an idea for change.
J2 Challenging the Status Quo:
Willingness to act against the way things have traditionally
been done when tradition
impedes performance improvements.
J3 Intelligent Risk-Taking:
Being willing and able to take calculated risks when necessary.
J4 Reinforcing Change:
Encouraging subordinates to come up with innovative solutions.
Recognising and
rewarding those who take initiative and act in a creative
manner. Facilitating the
institutionalisation of change initiatives.
Components of the leading others element of the CMU LDP
ring
Leaders must maximize the potential of others and motivate
them to attain shared goals. They must be able to manage
individual and group performance with an understanding of
group dynamics and team building. Leaders must actively
listen and communicate effectively to persuade others and build
consensus and trust. They should understand and be
empathic toward individual’s emotions and needs and be able to
resolve conflicts in a respectful manner.
Developing
Others (N)
Communicating
(K)
Interpersonal
Awareness (L)
Motivating
Others (M)
Influencing (O)
Others
rnal Contacts
Leading
Others
Singapore HighlightsGlobal Leadership Forecast 2011Jazmi.docx
Singapore HighlightsGlobal Leadership Forecast 2011Jazmi.docx
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Singapore HighlightsGlobal Leadership Forecast 2011Jazmi.docx
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Singapore HighlightsGlobal Leadership Forecast 2011Jazmi.docx

  • 1. Singapore Highlights Global Leadership Forecast 2011 Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D., and Ian Till The Talent Management Expert Revolutionize leadership, revolutionize your business. Singapore Highlights Global Leadership Forecast 2011 Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., and Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D. A WELCOME FROM DDI © Development Dimensions International, Inc., MMXI. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. All rights reserved under U.S., International, and Universal Copyright Conventions. Reproduction in whole or part without prior written permission
  • 2. from DDI is prohibited. We are pleased to present this report outlining the current state of leadership and its practices in the Singapore business community. This report is part of a larger study, Global Leadership Forecast 2011, the sixth in DDI’s research series on global leadership issues and practices. The results presented here contrast the responses from HR professionals and leaders in Singapore organizations with other organizations around the globe. We heard one overarching theme from thousands of leaders while conducting this research: The only thing constant is change itself. Today’s business landscape continues to evolve at a blistering pace. Competition continues to grow, and having appropriate talent remains the key competitive advantage for organizations. The big question we
  • 3. wanted to answer is whether today’s leaders are prepared for the rapid growth and change that they will face. Are they keeping up or falling behind? This report addresses several issues related to today’s most valuable commodity: • What is the overall quality of leadership in Singapore organizations today? • Do Singapore organizations have a sufficient supply of capable leaders to meet tomorrow’s unknown business challenges? • What can we do to radically change how we accelerate the development of our leaders? • Is it time to radically innovate not only our products and business models but also how we manage them? While we are unable to include all the findings, we are confident that this report will offer you new insights into leadership practices in Singapore.
  • 4. Additional information can be found in our global report. We hope these reports will stimulate your thinking about how you can institute real change that will enhance the capabilities of your leaders and your business. Ian Till General Manager, Singapore ABOUT DDI For more than 40 years, DDI has helped the most successful companies around the world close the gap between where their businesses need to go and the talent required to take them there. Our areas of expertise span every staffing level, from the executive suite to individual contributors. We excel in: • Competency and success profile management. • Selection and assessment. • Leadership and workforce development. • Succession management.
  • 5. • Performance management. Since 1990 DDI has worked with some of the most successful local and multinational organizations in Singapore on their talent management strategies. Based in our Leadership Acceleration Centre at Changi Business Park, the DDI team helps to deliver results through the profiling, selection, assessment, and development of talent, particularly leadership talent. DDI Singapore has consistently been recognized as one of the top succession planning and management training companies in Human Resources magazine’s Top HR Vendors of the Year Awards, as voted by its readership of more than 12,000 senior HR professionals. DDI’s comprehensive, practical approach to talent management starts by ensuring a close connection between solutions and business strategies, and ends when you achieve the results you require. DDI is an
  • 6. essential partner wherever you are on your journey to building extraordinary talent. 2 Singapore Highlights G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1
  • 7. 3 Singapore Highlights TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 STUDY PARTICIPANTS 6 STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY 9 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 10 Critical Skills: The Whats 14 Effective Development Methods: The Hows 16 TALENT MANAGEMENT 17 Selection Systems 18 Performance Management Systems 20 Succession Management Systems 23 MANAGEMENT CULTURE 25 CONCLUSION 27 APPENDIX 27 Demographics 28 About the Authors 28 Partners
  • 8. STUDY PARTICIPANTS DDI’s Global Leadership Forecast 2011 is the largest global study of its kind. More than 2,600 organizations provided perspectives on their current state of leadership and their future talent-related needs. Participating in the study were 1,897 HR professionals and 12,423 leaders from 74 countries. This report is based on survey responses from HR professionals and leaders based in Singapore. An HR professional completed a survey for each organization or major business unit. The HR professionals then invited representative samples of their organization’s leaders to complete leader surveys. The Singapore respondents are compared in this report to the total group of HR professionals and leaders in the global sample (see Table 1). To ensure that no individual organization dominated the results, we selected a random sample from organizations with more than 100 leaders.
  • 9. The sample of Singapore organizations was very similar to those in the global sample; that is, the percentages of small (1,000 employees or less), medium- sized (1,001 to 10,000 employees), and large organizations (more than 10,000 employees) in the sample were similar (see Figure 1). However, fully 88 percent of the Singapore organizations were multinationals (i.e., owned, operated, or had affiliate offices in multiple countries), whereas 60 percent of those in the global sample were multinationals. 4 Singapore Highlights Singapore Global HR Professionals 32 1,897 Leaders 321 12,423 TOTAL 353 14,320 TABLE 1 SAMPLE SIZE G
  • 10. LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 5 Singapore Highlights Singapore’s organizations also were very similar to those in the global sample with respect to leadership levels (see Figure 2). Additional information about participating Singapore organizations and leaders is in the Demographics
  • 11. section of this report. 28% 10,001 or more 41% 1 to 1,000 31% 1,001 to 10,000 23% 10,001 or more 40% 1 to 1,000 37% 1,001 to 10,000 Singapore Global FIGURE 1 ORGANIZATION SIZE 28% Senior-Level Leader 38% First-Level Leader
  • 13. STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY Most would agree that the past few years have been challenging ones for businesses worldwide. The economic crisis forced organizations to make tough decisions and left many suffering in a multitude of ways. However, as the world economy starts to show signs of improvement, fear is beginning to be replaced by optimism, and organizations are starting to look toward the future. While Singapore avoided the brunt of the global financial crisis and is enjoying strong economic growth, the reality is that leaders globally and in Singapore are ill-equipped to handle the challenges organizations face in the new business environment (see Figure 3). Only 38 percent of leaders in the global sample reported that leadership quality in their organization is very good or excellent; at 39 percent, Singapore leaders felt very much the same way. The latter rating may reflect the fact that Singapore’s sample consisted mostly of multinational
  • 14. organizations. On the other hand, HR professionals in Singapore had a more optimistic view of leadership quality in their organizations compared to others around the world. Still, they considered only about one of three Singapore organizations had high-quality leaders. 6 Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 31% 26% HR 39%38% LDR
  • 17. ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 The quality of leadership can make or break an organization. In fact, this research demonstrated that organizations with the highest quality leaders were 13 times more likely to outperform their competition in key bottom-line metrics such as financial performance, quality of products and services, employee engagement, and customer satisfaction (see Figure 4). Specifically, when leaders reported their organization’s current leadership quality as poor, only
  • 18. 6 percent were in organizations that outperformed their competition. Compare that with those who rated their organization’s leadership quality as excellent. There, more than three-quarters (78 percent) of leaders are in organizations that are outperforming their competition in key bottom-line metrics. 7 Singapore Highlights 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 6% Poor 9% Fair 27%
  • 19. Good 53% Very Good 78% Excellent Pe rc en t o f L ea de rs R at in g Th ei r O rg an iz
  • 21. ’s Leadership Quality FIGURE 4 LEADERSHIP QUALITY RELATED TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE Leadership quality doesn’t just affect the bottom line; it also affects the retention of the organization’s employees as well as its leaders’ engagement and passion. Organizations with higher quality leadership retained more employees than their competition, and they also had more engaged and passionate leaders (see the global report for more details). Given the importance of leadership for ensuring business success, this question needs to be answered: What can organizations do to improve leadership quality? The Global Leadership Forecast 2011 uncovered three key drivers of leadership quality (see Figure 5): 1. Leadership development
  • 22. 2. Talent management systems and practices 3. Management culture To achieve high-quality leadership, organizations need effective leadership development and talent management systems in the areas of selection, performance management, and succession management. Also, for leaders to fulfill their potential to drive the business, management needs to ensure that the organization’s culture gives people the freedom and opportunities they need to be effective. These three key drivers provide the structure for the remainder of this report. 8 Singapore Highlights Leadership Development Talent Systems & Practices Management Culture
  • 24. ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT According to the leaders who participated in the global study, leadership development programs were the primary determinant of leadership quality in organizations. Based on the global sample, leaders in organizations with more effective leadership development programs were eight times more likely to rate the quality of their leaders as very good or excellent. What, then, is happening now with organizations’ leadership development efforts? The percentage of Singapore organizations that increased their
  • 25. leadership development budgets in 2011 (38 percent) was comparable to organizations worldwide (40 percent). However, significantly more Singapore organizations plan to ramp up spending in the coming year (74 percent) than do their global counterparts (see Figure 6). This is not surprising because Singapore organizations were less affected by the financial crisis and are adding new leaders at a record pace. (This may be due to the fact that many large global multinationals have established regional or international headquarters in this cosmopolitan global business city.) Also, organizations in Singapore appear to be prioritizing development by increasing their spending more than other regions of the world. This probably reflects long-standing, strong government support for workforce training plus related initiatives and programs that promote training and development.
  • 26. 9 Singapore Highlights 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Singapore Global Increase by more than 10% 3% 4% 38% 26% 29% 26% 35% 39% Stay the same Increase by less than 10% Decrease by more than 10% Decrease by less than 10% Ex pe ct ed 2 01 2 Singapore
  • 27. Global 13% 6% 42% 17% 23% 3%6% 52% 19% 19% Ac tu al 2 01 1 FIGURE 6 2011 AND 2012 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT BUDGET CHANGES LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Talent Systems & Practices Management Culture High- Quality Leadership Enhanced People Outcomes
  • 28. (e.g., retention, engagement) Enhanced Business Impact (e.g., financial performance, customer satisfaction) With millions spent on leadership development initiatives each year, it is unfortunate that only about one-third of HR professionals and leaders in Singapore rated their organization’s leadership development efforts as highly effective (see Figure 7). Without effective leadership development, Singapore organizations may find their leaders unprepared to manage effectively in a constantly changing business environment. CRITICAL SKILLS: THE WHATS To make the most of leadership development efforts, organizations must answer
  • 29. two questions: (1) Are we investing in developing the right skills, and (2) Are we developing the right skills for today and for tomorrow? To begin to answer those questions, leaders were asked to identify the most critical leadership skills needed in the past three years and those needed for the next three years. Those in Singapore identified the following three skills as the most critical for leadership in the past: 1. Driving and managing change 2. Coaching and developing others 3. Executing organizational strategy Those priorities reflect a focus on business and organizational strategy. When asked about the top three skills needed for the future, Singapore leaders shifted their focus (see Figure 8). The skills they identified as the most critical for success in the next three years focus less on organizational strategy and more 10
  • 31. 36% Global 19% 44% 37% Very low or low High or very high Moderate HR LDR FIGURE 7 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F
  • 32. O RE CA ST 2 01 1 on growing organizational talent. This aligns with Singapore’s strategy of positioning itself as a regional talent hub that offers value to global as well as Asian organizations, which is reflected in the Singapore government’s creation of the Human Capital Leadership Institute. The top three skills required for the future from Singapore leaders were: 1. Driving and managing change 2. Identifying and developing future talent 3. Coaching and developing others The two most critical skills (driving and managing change and identifying and developing future talent) also were ranked first and second by
  • 33. leaders around the world. These two skills are geared toward organizational growth rather than preservation. Singapore leaders also felt that skills in coaching and developing others would continue to be needed in the future; globally, fostering creativity and innovation was the third most critical leadership skill. According to a Boston Consulting Group report (2010), 72 percent of executives around the world list innovation as a top priority. Leaders in Singapore ranked fostering creativity and innovation in their business as fourth on their list of skills needed in the future. This aligns well with Singapore’s strategy to propel its creative economy, establish a reputation as a regional creative hub, and double the percentage of GDP contributions by the creative cluster (i.e., arts and culture and design and media). 11 Singapore Highlights
  • 34. But this question remains to be answered: Are leaders ready to take on the challenges of the future? Leaders were asked to rate their own effectiveness in the leadership skills. Unfortunately, leaders in Singapore rated their effectiveness as lower than their global counterparts in every critical leadership skill (see Figure 9). Singapore leaders rated themselves as least effective in the area of fostering creativity and innovation, identified by both the global and local samples as one of the most critical leadership skills for the future. Also, compared to the other leadership skills, leaders in Singapore rated themselves relatively less effective in the three areas they identified as most critical for future success (managing change, developing future talent, and coaching others). 12 Singapore Highlights
  • 35. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Singapore 36% 5. Executing organizational strategy 32% 32% 6. Building customer satisfaction and loyalty 26% 43% 4. Coaching and developing others 32% 38% 3. Fostering creativity and innovation 35% 46% 2. Identifying and developing future talent 36% 49% 1. Driving and managing change 48% 34% 7. Improving employee engagement
  • 36. 24% 34% 8. Making difficult decisions 23% Global Percent of Leaders Who Report the Skill as Most Critical (order based on the global findings) FIGURE 8 CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED IN THE NEXT THREE YEARS G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE
  • 37. CA ST 2 01 1 This last finding indicates that the largest skill gaps for Singapore’s leaders are in those areas that are most critical to their future success. This aligns with data from hundreds of Singapore-based leaders assessed in our assessment centers and through our 360-degree feedback tool, the results of which will be detailed in a soon-to-be-released research paper on the readiness of leaders in Singapore. To improve leadership quality and effectiveness, development efforts should focus on these skills—where the pain from failure will be felt the most in the coming years. 13 Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
  • 38. Singapore 47% 5. Executing organizational strategy 60% 53% 6. Building customer satisfaction and loyalty 65% 44% 4. Coaching and developing others 57% 43% 3. Fostering creativity and innovation 50% 44% 2. Identifying and developing future talent 57% 46% 1. Driving and managing change 57% 51% 7. Improving employee engagement 56%
  • 39. 46% 8. Making difficult decisions 55% Global Percent of Leaders Who Are Effective FIGURE 9 LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IN SKILLS EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT METHODS: THE HOWS HR professionals reported how frequently each method was used in their organization (see Figure 10), and the leaders reported on the effectiveness of each method (see Figure 11). Singapore HR professionals, like those around the world, reported using formal workshops, special projects, and manager coaching most often to develop their leaders. This finding is gratifying, as Singapore has often been perceived as having a “send them to a training course to fix it” mind-set. While formal training courses are still the preferred approach, the finding indicates that Singapore organizations are becoming
  • 40. increasingly aware that training alone is not a silver bullet. However, one caveat needs to be noted: As previously stated, the majority of Singapore organizations were multinationals; thus, the prominence of special assignments might be related to these organizations’ frequent use of Singapore as a place for short-term development assignments for their employees. 14 Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Singapore 13% Virtual classroom 27% 22% Coaching with external coaches 27% 31% Coaching with internal coaches (other than your manager)
  • 41. 39% 23% Web-based learning (online, self-study courses) 43% 56% Movement to a different position to develop targeted skills 47% 71% Special projects or assignments 68% 66% Coaching from managers 68% 91% Formal workshops, courses, seminars 81% Global Percent of HR Professionals Reporting Method is Used Moderately or Extensively FIGURE 10 FREQUENCY OF USE OF DEVELOPMENT METHODS
  • 42. G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 Leaders around the world tended to find the methods most used (formal workshops, special projects, and manager coaching) as the most effective for development (Figure 11), suggesting that the methods that organizations put their efforts behind pay off. Additionally, leaders in Singapore
  • 43. indicated that internal and external coaches are effective development methods; however, less than one out of every three leaders use these two methods (Figure 10). It’s unclear whether this is a result of inadequate time, a lack of suitable training to feel that they would be effective, or the costs associated with adopting such approaches. When creating a comprehensive development program for leaders, organizations should remember that leaders need multiple ways to develop their skills and that a blended approach, with a strategic mix of skills and methods, will yield the best results. See the global report for information on creating more effective leadership development programs. 15 Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Singapore 32%
  • 44. Virtual classroom 28% 47% Coaching with external coaches 37% 44% Coaching with internal coaches (other than your manager) 44% 53% Web-based learning (online, self-study courses) 45% 60% Movement to a different position to develop targeted skills 47% 64% Special projects or assignments 63% 70% Coaching from managers
  • 45. 66% 85% Formal workshops, courses, seminars 73% Global Percent of Leaders Reporting Method is Effective FIGURE 11 EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT METHODS TALENT MANAGEMENT Development alone cannot ensure that organizations have a ready supply of capable leaders; it’s just one of the critical components of an end-to-end talent management process. DDI defines talent management as a mission-critical process that ensures organizations have the quantity and quality of people in place to meet current and future business priorities. The process covers all key aspects of an employee’s life cycle, starting when the organization selects the right leaders then continuing as the person’s performance is aligned with an
  • 46. effective performance management system. It’s fueled with effective development and leadership succession efforts. Improving the quality of leadership involves doing all of these things well. HR professionals around the world were asked to rate the importance of their talent systems in terms of their impact on organizational success in the next three years. Although the majority said that development was important, more HR professionals cited other systems (i.e., selection, performance management, and succession management) as having a more critical impact on organizational performance. On the whole, these systems, which constitute talent management, appeared to be clear drivers of organizational success. Unfortunately, HR professionals worldwide rated the current effectiveness of most of these systems as dismal (see Figure 12). 16
  • 47. Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Singapore 19% Leadership succession 22% 38% Performance management 42% 38% Development programs and learning opportunities for senior leaders 33% 41% Development programs and learning opportunities for mid-level leaders 30% 34% Development programs and learning opportunities for frontline leaders 31% 21% Leadership selection
  • 48. 31% Global Percent of HR Professionals Reporting System is Effective FIGURE 12 EFFECTIVENESS OF TALENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Leadership Development TALENT SYSTEMS & PRACTICES Management Culture High- Quality Leadership Enhanced People Outcomes (e.g., retention, engagement) Enhanced Business Impact (e.g., financial performance,
  • 49. customer satisfaction) G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 Organizations around the world reported that performance management systems were the most effective of all the talent systems. While
  • 50. HR professionals in Singapore also rated performance management systems as effective, they rated development programs for mid-level and senior leaders even more effective than did their global counterparts. Leadership selection and succession were found to be the least effective talent systems in Singapore as well as globally, with less than one in four HR professionals rating these systems as effective. The following section discusses each of the talent systems in more detail, with the exception of leadership development, which was covered in the previous section. SELECTION SYSTEMS Selection is arguably the most critical step in talent management because there are some things that no amount of development or performance management will fix. In fact, in our study, effective selection was the talent management system with the strongest relationship to leaders’ ratings of
  • 51. organizational performance. However, according to Singapore-based organizations surveyed, only 25 percent are using proven, validated tools for making critical leadership selection and promotion decisions (see Figure 13). 17 Singapore Highlights 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Singapore 25% Validated tests and simulations are used for making leadership selection and promotion decisions. 32% Global Percent Agree or Strongly Agree FIGURE 13 PERCENT OF ORGANIZATIONS USING VALIDATED TOOLS FOR LEADERSHIP SELECTION DECISIONS Because so few Singapore organizations have used validated tools, their HR
  • 52. professionals inevitably reported that up to 36 percent of leadership hires are failures (see Figure 14). Given the higher failure rate of leaders hired externally compared to those hired internally as well as their significant costs, grow-your- own tactics would be a key talent strategy to leverage for the future. The data indicates that this would be a more effective strategy. Regardless of internal or external hiring, using selection tools that have been proven to work is important for gathering objective data to make the right hiring decisions. Otherwise, organizations are leaving these critical decisions to chance. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS It’s critical that organizations effectively manage leader performance because accomplishing organizational objectives is so closely linked to and dependent on leaders achieving their objectives. In our study, leaders were asked to rate specific aspects of their performance management system (see Figure 15). In
  • 53. Singapore 72 percent of leaders reported that their individual performance expectations were tied to corporate goals and strategies. Also, 68 percent reported that their performance management systems accounted for objectives (the whats) as well as the behaviors (the hows) that help achieve those objectives. Both of these components are critical to effective performance management because leaders who achieve their objectives without regard for others are not effective. 18 Singapore Highlights 64%Singapore 36% 63%Global 37% 71%Singapore 29% 72%Global 28% Success Failure Ex te
  • 54. rn al Hi re s In te rn al Hi re s FIGURE 14 LEADERSHIP HIRING SUCCESSES AND FAILURES Ian new VAIO Highlight G LO BA L LE AD
  • 55. ER SH IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 19 Singapore Highlights Organizations around the world were not as successful when ensuring that performance review discussions provided leaders with clear direction for enhancing their performance. This indicates that most are using performance management more as a way to monitor leaders’ performance instead of an opportunity to improve their future performance. Just over half the leaders in Singapore (59 percent) felt that their performance review
  • 56. discussions provided them with clear direction, a finding similar to that around the world. Performance management should not be a once-a-year event. It should be a process that monitors, inspires, and improves performance over time. Managers of leaders need to drive this process by ensuring that performance discussions provide their leaders with clear accountabilities, timely feedback about their performance, and guidance for helping them capitalize on their strengths and take advantage of developmental opportunities. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Singapore 72% My performance expectations are tied to business unit and/or corporate goals/strategies. 81% 68% My performance appraisal is balanced
  • 57. between whats (objectives) and hows (behaviors used to achieve objectives). 69% 59% My performance review discussions provide me with clear direction about how to enhance my performance. 56% Global Percent of Leaders Who Agree or Strongly Agree FIGURE 15 ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SUCCESSION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Succession management tended to be the least effective talent system in Singapore organizations as well as those around the world. Succession management is future oriented; it is about ensuring that organizations have the right quantity and quality of leaders—at all levels—to meet unpredictable future business needs. Since the onset of the global economic crisis, organizations
  • 58. have refocused on the role succession management plays in talent management. Most organizations suffered greatly from a lack of focus on the future and succession planning, and bench strength was weaker than they had anticipated. Singapore organizations were no exception, with only 22 percent of HR professionals rating their bench strength as strong or very strong (see Figure 16). With an aging senior-level workforce in Singapore, grooming future successors will be an important talent strategy. This study focused on three of the many practices required for successful succession management: identifying and growing high potentials and moving leaders up the pipeline. In Singapore, 53 percent of organizations have a formal process for early identification of high-potential talent as well as processes for early growth of high-potential talent, a significantly higher percentage than
  • 59. organizations around the world (see Figure 17). With one out of every three external hires in Singapore failing, identifying and nurturing internal talent would be well worth the focus. 20 Singapore Highlights Weak or Very Weak Mixed Strong or Very Strong 25% 53% 22% Weak or Very Weak Mixed Strong or Very Strong 25% 57% 18% Singapore Global FIGURE 16 BENCH STRENGTH TO MEET FUTURE NEEDS G LO BA L LE AD ER SH
  • 60. IP F O RE CA ST 2 01 1 Another important aspect of succession management is leader promotion. With 70 percent of Singapore leaders in this research making a leadership transition in the past five years, it’s unfortunate that only one-third of organizations have programs to ensure that employees make smooth leadership transitions. This likely explains why the majority of leaders still report their leadership transitions as being difficult. The lack of formality leaves much to chance in terms of filling the leadership pipeline and building bench strength. When asked to explain
  • 61. the low ratings of their organization’s bench strength, HR professionals repeatedly pointed to a lack of focus, strategy, and formality of succession planning as the reasons for not having enough prepared leaders. Although it can be all too easy to forego planning for the future while the economy is growing, Singapore organizations need to start prioritizing succession management now if they expect to effectively manage their future. 21 Singapore Highlights 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Singapore 53% We have a formal process for early identification of high-potential talent. 44% 53% We have a formal process for early
  • 62. growth of high-potential talent. 37% 32% We have effective programs to ensure smooth leadership transitions at all levels. 25% Global Percent of HR Professionals Who Agree or Strongly Agree FIGURE 17 ASPECTS OF LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 22 Singapore Highlights 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Singapore 40% We have open, vigorous, and uncensored discussions around strategy and key business decisions 39% 46% Organizational structure is fluid, flexible, and nimble 46%
  • 63. 60% Our management processes (e.g., strategic planning) are a source of major competitive advantage 56% 52% Employees/Leaders have the opportunity to innovate/create 57% 53% We balance our focus on growth with a commitment to sustainability and socially significant goals 59% 52% Power and influence are held by those who value innovation and change 62% 62% Status and influence are based on ability to lead, contributions, and performance 63% 63% Our company has shared values and aspirations that are meaningful to our employees 68%
  • 64. Global Percent of Leaders Who Agree with Statement FIGURE 18 EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CULTURE Ineffective Management Culture Effective Management Culture STRUCTURE Organizational structure is siloed, rigid, and hierarchical. Organizational structure is fluid, flexible, and nimble. BUREAUCRACY Our management processes (e.g., budgeting, Our management processes (e.g., budgeting, strategic planning, risk management, business review) strategic planning, risk management, business review) are highly bureaucratic and often a nuisance. are a source of major competitive advantage. POWER Power and influence are held by those who value the Power and influence are held by those who value innovation status quo. and change. INFLUENCE Status and influence are based on a person’s formal Status and influence are based on ability to lead, position and accumulated power. contributions, and performance. DECISIONS Strategic and key business decisions are made mostly We have open, vigorous, and uncensored discussions by those in positions of power, with very few opportunities around strategy and key business decisions. for open discussion.
  • 65. INNOVATION Senior leaders are the primary visionaries and creators. Employees/Leaders have the opportunity to innovate/create. VALUES Our company has a set of values and aspirations, but they Our company has shared values and aspirations that are hold little meaning to most employees. meaningful to our employees. GOALS We almost exclusively focus on top/bottom-line growth. We balance our focus on growth with a commitment to sustainability and socially significant goals. TABLE 2 MANAGEMENT CULTURE STATEMENTS BY FACTOR G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O
  • 66. RE CA ST 2 01 1 MANAGEMENT CULTURE To this point, we have established leadership development and strategic talent management as major drivers for building leadership capability in organizations. But talent doesn’t work in a vacuum. An organization’s culture plays a large role in creating an environment that allows all leaders and employees to live up to their fullest potential. Even the most capable people cannot thrive in a culture that does not allow them to make decisions, influence others, and do their jobs effectively. We partnered with influential business thinker and professor Gary Hamel, author of The Future of Management, and his Management Lab to identify the key
  • 67. factors that either facilitate or hinder how the work of management is carried out. The factors that impede leaders from being effective include, but are not limited to, the bureaucracy of processes in organizations, leaders’ level of influence, and the extent to which values are shared throughout the organization. These factors affect an organization’s culture and can serve to either allow leaders to thrive or to stifle them. Leaders around the world were asked to rate their organization’s management culture by choosing one of two statements. For example, they were asked to choose which statement best describes their organization: “Organizational structure is fluid, flexible, and nimble” or “Organizational structure is siloed, rigid, and hierarchical” (see Table 2 for a complete list of statements and factors). Only the more effective of the two statements is presented in Figure 18.
  • 68. Leaders in Singapore report that their organization stands behind shared values and aspirations that are meaningful across the company and that management processes are a major competitive advantage compared to other organizations around the globe. However, similar to other organizations, a major pain point for Singapore organizations was opening up decision making to have more open discussions about key strategic decisions (only 40 percent of Singapore leaders described their organization as doing this). This probably reflects the fact that decision making is often pushed to senior levels in organizations, and while there is a strong execution focus, there is also a strong risk- averse nature amongst leaders in Singapore organizations. 23 Singapore Highlights Leadership Development Talent Systems
  • 69. & Practices MANAGEMENT CULTURE High- Quality Leadership Enhanced People Outcomes (e.g., retention, engagement) Enhanced Business Impact (e.g., financial performance, customer satisfaction) Ian new VAIO Highlight Organizations were split into three groups based on their leaders’ ratings of management culture. Leader scores for management culture
  • 70. statements were aggregated by organization, and organizations were labeled as low (leaders choosing the more effective statement 0–2 times), medium (3–5 times), or high (6–8 times) in terms of management culture effectiveness. Figure 19 demonstrates that there is still a lot of work to do in this area: Less than one- third of organizations in Singapore have a highly effective management culture. Generally, Singapore organizations did not fare much worse than organizations around the world in terms of management culture, possibly because most organizations responding in the Singapore sample were multinationals, which have a global understanding of common business practices. According to the global sample, organizations with a highly effective management culture were three times more likely to outperform their competition in terms of bottom-line metrics such as financial performance, productivity, quality of
  • 71. products or services, and customer satisfaction, proving that instituting more effective management practices has a profound impact on organizational success. 24 Singapore Highlights 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Singapore 34% 36% 30% Global 27% 36%
  • 72. 37% Low Effectiveness (Score of 0–2) High Effectiveness (Score of 6–8) Medium Effectiveness (Score of 3–5) FIGURE 19 CURRENT STATE OF MANAGEMENT CULTURE G LO BA L LE AD ER SH IP F O RE CA ST
  • 73. 2 01 1 CONCLUSION Times have changed. Business processes are evolving at a rapid pace, and given its importance to organizational success, leadership cannot afford to be left behind. Unfortunately, the state of leadership today calls for drastic measures (see Table 3). The majority of leaders in Singapore as well as the rest of the world don’t have the skills they need to be effective in this new landscape. Talent strategies have been neglected, with only about one-third of the leaders in Singapore reporting that their organization’s leadership development program was effective. Singapore organizations need to improve the effectiveness of most of their development methods, but a special focus on increasing the use of mentors and coaches other than one’s manager was
  • 74. evident because these development methods were rated as highly effective but infrequently utilized. Furthermore, organizations need to focus leadership development efforts in the skills that will be critical for the future: driving and managing change, identifying and developing future talent, coaching and developing others, and fostering innovation. This lack of effective talent strategies has not only affected current leadership quality, but also has implications for the future, with just 22 percent of HR professionals in Singapore rating their bench strength highly. Talent systems, which support leaders throughout their careers, will play a critical role in improving leadership quality, yet they can be improved too. Singapore organizations seem to be focusing on leadership development (the effectiveness of development was higher than their global counterparts), especially for mid-level leaders. However,
  • 75. the vast majority of organizations in Singapore have ineffective selection and succession management systems. Because many Singapore organizations are experiencing growth, effectively managing talent throughout their employees’ life cycles needs to be prioritized to ensure future viability. 25 Singapore Highlights Effectiveness of Current Quality of Bench Strength Development (LDR) Leadership (LDR) (HR) Global 37% 38% 18% Singapore 36% 39% 22% Note: Figures reflect percent of leaders (LDR) or HR professionals rating the factor highly. TABLE 3 STATE OF LEADERSHIP TODAY How organizations manage people also should not be overlooked. With only one in three Singapore organizations having a highly effective culture, talent management efforts alone cannot be expected to bridge the current gap in
  • 76. leadership quality. An organization’s management culture has a tremendous bearing on whether leadership capabilities can be leveraged to their fullest potential. Singapore organizations, like those elsewhere, should focus on opening up decision making and creating a set of shared and meaningful values for their employees. Considering the state of leadership and business today in Singapore, organizations need to reevaluate which talent and management strategies they should take with them into the future. Global Leadership Forecast 2011 demonstrates that focusing on leadership development, talent management, and management culture will have a marked impact on leadership quality. This research shows a direct relationship between the quality of leadership and people and business outcomes. Transforming talent management and
  • 77. management culture will have major payoffs. If leaders will be executing and creating organizational priorities for years to come, shouldn’t their organizations ensure that they are prepared to do that? 26 Singapore Highlights AP PE ND IX 27 Singapore Highlights APPENDIX DEMOGRAPHICS 0% 1–10 0% 11–50 6% 51–100 6% 101–200 16% 201–500 13% 501–1,000
  • 78. 22% 1,001–5,000 9% 5,001–10,000 13% 10,001–20,000 9% 20,001–50,000 6% 50,001 or more NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 13% National 88% Multinational (own, operate, or have affiliate offices outside own country) PRESENCE IN GLOBAL MARKET 38% First-level (supervisor, team leader, foreman, etc.) 28% Mid-level (leader of first-level leaders) 28% Senior-level (leader/manager of mid-level leaders) 6% Executive-level (leader in a policy-making position) MANAGEMENT LEVEL 4% Less than 6 months 5% 6–11 months 14% 1–2 years
  • 79. 32% 3–5 years 25% 6–10 years 10% 11–15 years 10% More than 15 years ORGANIZATIONAL TENURE 9% 25 and under 39% 26–35 35% 36–45 14% 46–55 3% 56–60 1% Over 60 AGE 69% Male 31% Female GENDER NOTE: Numbers may not add up to 100 percent because of rounding. 32 Number in sample
  • 80. ORGANIZATIONS 321 Number in sample LEADERS 28 Singapore Highlights ABOUT THE AUTHORS Jazmine Boatman, Ph.D., manages DDI’s Center for Applied Behavioral Research (CABER), DDI’s hub for research to support evidence-based management. Jazmine directs research that measures the impact of selection and development programs on organizational performance and uncovers new knowledge and information about global workplace practices and issues. With special expertise in measurement and evaluation, Jazmine has consulted with organizations in a wide variety of industries. Richard S. Wellins, Ph.D., is senior vice president at DDI. Rich is responsible for leading DDI’s global research
  • 81. programs, launching new solutions, and executing DDI’s brand and marketing strategies. During his tenure at DDI, Rich has authored five books on leadership and teams and written for more than 20 publications on global talent management. Rich has helped organizations around the world develop their senior leaders. He also serves as a judge for CNBC’s ABLA, interviewing dozens of Asia’s top CEOs each year. Ian Till, general manager for DDI’s operations in Singapore, oversees the business development team, manages the Singapore branch’s operations, and promotes the DDI brand in Singapore. He manages the portfolio of strategic accounts, examines clients’ needs, and recommends the appropriate talent management solutions. Since 1996, Ian has gained extensive experience throughout Southeast Asia in leadership assessment and development, performance management, employee engagement, training and
  • 82. development, and organizational restructuring. PARTNERS This study was a true global effort, and the authors would like to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of the following people: Management Innovation Research Advisors Gary Hamel and the Management Innovation Lab DDI Project Team Project Management: Jennifer Pesci-Kelly, Aviel Selkovits Participant Recruitment: Malu Arredondo, Amit Arte, Noemi Barbosa de Luna, Monica Chen, Jesie Dieu, Nikki Dy-Liacco, Tania Fernandes-Klerx, Ramon Fontaine, Priscilla Giglio, Lisa Han, Kumiko Hashimoto, Julie Hogan, Marta Janiak, Arati Karve, Emily Kershaw, Patrycja Korczynska, Cathy Lavoie, Ellen Lee, Maggie Liu, Dorothy Lo, Victor L. Magdaraog, Yvonne McGowan, Simon Mitchell, Marisa Molnar, Stephanie Nam, See Yi
  • 83. Ngiam, Panmanee Ong-art, Joyce Qi, Julie Rautenbach, Myra Rehman, Katrina Jane L. Roxas, Retianna C. Shakina, Arunima Shrivastava, Neil Suchman, Lily Sun, Charna van der Merwe, Julie Vedrinne, Christien Winter Research: Michael Kemp, Stephanie Neal Editorial: Mike Crawmer, Shawn Garry Graphic Design: Susan Ryan, Janet Wiard Web: Mark Hamilton REFERENCES Andrew, J.P., Manget, J., Michael, D.C., Taylor, A., & Zablit, H. (2010, April). Innovation 2010: A return to prominence—and the emergence of a new world order. Boston: The Boston Consulting Group. To start your leadership revolution and learn more about DDI’s Global Leadership Forecast 2011, please visit
  • 84. www.ddiworld.com/glf2011 ^ Detroit Montreal+ Pittsburgh+ Atlanta+ Monterrey+ Mexico City+ Lima + Dallas + Santiago + London + Paris Mumbai + Kuala Lumpur + Shanghai + Beijing Tokyo + Manila +
  • 85. Joha nnesburg + Singapore + Taipei ^^ Hong Kong ^ Bangkok + Jakarta + Melbourne + Auckland Sydney + Seoul Düsseldorf + Poznań Moscow Istanbul Kuwait City * + San Francisco * Chicago Toronto+ New York City ^ ^ São Paulo ^ = Acceleration Center
  • 86. * = Training Center + = Training & Acceleration Center The Talent Management Expert CONTACT US EMAIL: [email protected] WWW.DDIWORLD.COM THE AMERICAS WORLD HEADQUARTERS PITTSBURGH 412.257.0600 MEXICO CITY 52.55.1253.9000 TORONTO 416.644.8370 EUROPE/AFRICA DÜSSELDORF 49.2159.91680 LONDON 44.1753.616000 PARIS 33.1.41.96.86.86 ASIA-PACIFIC MUMBAI 91.22.61911100 SHANGHAI 86.21.6113.2525
  • 87. SINGAPORE 65.6226.5335 SYDNEY 612.9466.0300 © Development Dimensions International, Inc., MMXI. All rights reserved. ABOUT DEVELOPMENT DIMENSIONS INTERNATIONAL: For over 40 years, DDI has helped the most successful companies around the world close the gap between where their businesses need to go and the talent required to take them there. Our areas of expertise span every level, from individual contributors to the executive suite: • Success Profile Management • Selection & Assessment • Leadership & Workforce Development • Succession Management • Performance Management DDI’s comprehensive, yet practical approach to talent management starts by ensuring a close connection of our solutions to your business strategies, and ends only when we produce the results you require.
  • 88. You’ll find that DDI is an essential partner wherever you are on your journey to building extraordinary talent. Sing study participantshow good are our leaders?the leadership logicare our leadership develoment approaches effective?what are the critical skills?skill building approacheshow effective are these approaches?few validated tool usedeffective management culturesingapore is risk averseconclusion << /ASCII85EncodePages false /AllowTransparency false /AutoPositionEPSFiles true /AutoRotatePages /None /Binding /Left /CalGrayProfile (Dot Gain 20%) /CalRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Web Coated 050SWOP051 v2) /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Warning /CompatibilityLevel 1.6 /CompressObjects /Tags /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /PassThroughJPEGImages true /CreateJobTicket false /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /DetectBlends true /DetectCurves 0.0000 /ColorConversionStrategy /CMYK /DoThumbnails false /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedOpenType false /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /EmbedJobOptions true /DSCReportingLevel 0 /EmitDSCWarnings false
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  • 96. /RemoveBackground false /ShrinkContent true /TreatColorsAs /MainMonitorColors /UseEmbeddedProfiles false /UseHTMLTitleAsMetadata true >> ] >> setdistillerparams << /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [612.000 792.000] >> setpagedevice 1 Running Head: RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE 2 RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE RACE AND SEX IN THE WORK PLACE Student Name University Affiliation
  • 97. Abstract This paper explores race gender and occupational stratification in the workplace despite the fact that stringent anti- discrimination legislations have been enacted as well as organizations having their own anti-discrimination policies. To do so I will try to understand the experiences of those who feel that they have been discriminated against by interviewing an African American woman with the aim of: I. Understanding how formal anti-discrimination policies can be used to legitimise discrimination II. How both employees and employers can consciously or unconsciously be agents of discrimination III. What coping mechanisms employees who are being discriminated upon employ to resist discrimination. Introduction The united States has come a long way from its infamous days of slavery and formal discrimination based on race and gender and has enacted a number of legislations which include the equal pay act that prohibits different pay on the basis of sex as well as the Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex or national origin (Shaw, L. B. 2012).
  • 98. Despite these efforts to move away from its ugly past, issues of discrimination in the workplace on the basis of gender and race continue to persist (Thomson, D. 2013). The purpose of this assignment is to explore race, and gender, discrimination in the workforce today Interview questions I. Have you ever been discriminated against and if yes what was the nature of the discrimination II. What actions did you take when you felt that you were being discriminated against III. If you took any action, do you think that management was responsive enough to your concerns IV. If you did not take any action why did you opt to follow this route V. Do you think that the current laws are sufficient to protect employees against discrimination Interview response When asked if she had been discriminated against in any manner and what was the nature of discrimination in her place of employment, the respondent affirmed that she had. This is based on the fact that she had worked in a medical facility for over 20 years yet she lagged behind among her peers who got into service with her in terms of pay scale and career advancement. This she believed was due to the fact that she was a black woman compared to her colleagues that were mainly white. On the question of what actions she took when she felt that she was being discriminated against, the respondent replied that she wrote a formal complaint to the facility’s administrator after she had been denied an opportunity for training that was being conducted by the facility and that this was the only action that she undertook. On whether she believes that management was responsive to her concerns, the respondent was of the opinion that though
  • 99. they were not outwardly hostile towards his claims, their positive actions were merely a way of covering up their misdeeds. She pointed out that immediately management learnt of her query, they verbally apologised for the poor judgement in living her out of the program and they immediately enrolled her in. Though this seemed like a positive step, it did not address the years she had lagged behind her colleagues. However she was just glad that she had finally stood up for herself and that someone had paid attention. On the question of whether current legislations were adequate to protect employees against discrimination, the respondent was of the view that the legislations were not enough because many people who were being discriminated against could not afford to go to court and if they could many would still be afraid of retaliation from employers especially if they lost. Analysis From this interview, it was clear that discrimination because of race or gender is still a common issue in the US job market. However the problem has evolved from the outright discrimination to a more salient one where even the victim may not be sure that they are being discriminated against in the first place. For example the respondent claims she worked at a medical facility for twenty years before she realised that she was being discriminated against and this factor is what makes bringing an end to discrimination more difficult. The respondent states that she decided to first inform the administration about her concerns something that only a few people in such situations do due to fear of reprisal as well as uncertainty on whether they are actually being discriminated upon or rather their work performance is not as good as that of their peers. The response of the management to her concerns is actually a classic example of how organizations avoid litigations without actually changing the situation when they
  • 100. feel they have been caught. Though they apologised to her verbally and enrolled her in the training program, they did not address the main issue of having lagged behind her peers due to racial discrimination. While the respondent felt that this action was not enough, the drive to pursue the matter more aggressively had been diminished since she reasoned that at least her concerns had been addressed. The half cake she had was better than the full one she did not have. Lastly, the respondent feels that the legislations that have been put in place are not sufficient to protect individuals from workplace discrimination but her reasons to these are more to do with the shortcomings of the justice system itself rather than the legislations that have been enacted. Conclusion It is clear that though the United States has come a long way in healing the racial rifts that existed in the country, it still has a long way to go in ensuring that work place discrimination on the basis of sex, religion, or race is eliminated. The current legislations is clearly not enough to deal with the problem though it is clear that the issue can no longer be dealt with from a legal perspective due to the fact that the problem has toned down to the extent that it becomes difficult to determine whether a discriminatory policy is being pursued and whether if it is it is being done consciously or unconsciously (Smith, A. R. 2009). On the other hand, a civil response to the problem can provide more long lasting solutions though this is a longer route to take. By continuing with aggressive advocacy against discrimination and educating future generations on the negative consequences of the vice, the country can truly bury its past demons. Since this is a social problem, socialization should be the main means of dealing with it.
  • 101. Refference Shaw, L. B. (2012). Examining work place discrimination, Retrieved from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd- 12212010-144838/unrestricted/Braxton_ShawnL_T_2010.pdf Smith, A. R. (2009). Race, Gender & Authority in the Work Place, Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/~snk1966/R.A.%20Smith%20- %20Race,%20Gender,%20and%20Authority%20in%20the%20W orkplace%20--%20Theory%20and%20Research.pdf Thomson, D. (2013). The Work Force is Even More Divided by Race than You Think, Retrieved from: http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/11/the- workforce-is-even-more-divided-by-race-than-you- think/281175/ Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 1 The Leadership Framework Self assessment tool Leadership in the health and care services is about delivering high quality services to patients by:
  • 102. · demonstrating personal qualities · working with others · managing services · improving services · setting direction · creating the vision, and · delivering the strategy. Staff will exhibit a range of leadership behaviours across these seven domains dependent on the context in which they operate. It is essential that all staff are competent in each of the five core leadership domains: demonstrating personal qualities, working with others, managing services, improving services and setting direction. The other two domains, creating the vision and delivering the strategy, focus more on the role and contribution of individual leaders. To help users understand and apply the Leadership Framework each domain is divided into four elements and each of these elements is further divided into four descriptive statements which describe the behaviours all staff should be able to demonstrate. The Clinical Leadership Competency Framework (CLCF) and Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF) are also available to specifically provide staff with clinically based examples and learning and development scenarios across the five core domains shared with the Leadership Framework. Please visit www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/lf to learn more about the framework and how it can
  • 103. be used and applied. Self assessment tool This self assessment tool aims to help you manage your own learning and development by allowing you to reflect on which areas of the leadership framework you would like to develop further. Please note that the information you provide is not stored anywhere on the website. We recommend you download and save this document so that you can refer back to it when reviewing your development plans. A development module is available to support your leadership development at www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module You will also find a personal action plan template starting on page 10. Leadership Academy CLCF/MLCF http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/lf http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 2 1. Demonstrating Personal Qualities
  • 104. Effective leadership requires individuals to draw upon their values, strengths and abilities to deliver high standards of service. To do so, they must demonstrate effectiveness in: • Developing self awareness by being aware of their own values, principles, and assumptions, and by being able to learn from experiences • Managing yourself by organising and managing themselves while taking account of the needs and priorities of others • Continuing personal development by learning through participating in continuing professional development and from experience and feedback • Acting with integrity by behaving in an open, honest and ethical manner. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/demonstrating-personal-qualities
  • 105. Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. DEMONSTRATING PERSONAL QUALITIES Developing Self Awareness I reflect on how my own values and principles influence my behaviour and impact on others I seek feedback from others on my strengths and limitations and modify my behaviour accordingly I remain calm and focused under pressure I plan my workload and deliver on my commitments to consistently high standards demonstrating flexibility to service requirements I actively seek opportunities to learn and develop I apply my learning to practical work I act in an open, honest and inclusive manner - respecting other people’s culture, beliefs and abilities I speak out when I see that ethics or values are being
  • 106. compromised TOTAL Managing Yourself Continuing Personal Development Acting with Integrity A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/demonstrating-personal-qualities Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 3 2. Working with Others Effective leadership requires individuals to work with others in teams and networks to deliver and improve services. To do so, they must demonstrate effectiveness in:
  • 107. • Developing networks by working in partnership with patients, carers, service users and their representatives, and colleagues within and across systems to deliver and improve services • Building and maintaining relationships by listening, supporting others, gaining trust and showing understanding • Encouraging contribution by creating an environment where others have the opportunity to contribute • Working within teams to deliver and improve services. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. WORKING WITH OTHERS
  • 108. Developing Networks I identify opportunities where working collaboratively with others will bring added value to patient care I share information and resources across networks I communicate clearly and effectively with others I listen to and take into account the needs and feelings of others I actively seek contributions and views from others I am comfortable managing conflicts of interests or differences of opinion I put myself forward to lead teams, whilst always ensuring I involve the right people at the right time I acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of others within the team and respect the team’s decision TOTAL Building and Maintaining Relationships Encouraging Contribution Working within Teams A lot of the time
  • 109. Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/working-with-others http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/working-with-others Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 4 3. Managing Services Effective leadership requires individuals to focus on the success of the organisation(s) in which they work. To do so, they must be effective in: • Planning by actively contributing to plans to achieve service goals • Managing resources by knowing what resources are available and using their influence to ensure that resources are used efficiently and safely, and reflect the diversity of needs
  • 110. • Managing people by providing direction, reviewing performance, motivating others, and promoting equality and diversity • Managing performance by holding themselves and others accountable for service outcomes. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. MANAGING SERVICES Planning I use feedback from patients, service users and colleagues when developing plans I assess the available options in terms of benefits and risks I deliver safe and effective services within the allocated
  • 111. resource I take action when resources are not being used efficiently and effectively I support team members in developing their roles and responsibilities I provide others with clear purpose and direction I analyse information from a range of sources about performance I take action to improve performance TOTAL Managing Resources Managing People Managing Performance A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain,
  • 112. go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/managing-services http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/managing-services Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 5 4. Improving Services Effective leadership requires individuals to make a real difference to people's health by delivering high quality services and by developing improvements to services. To do so, they must demonstrate effective in: • Ensuring patient safety by assessing and managing risk to patients associated with service developments, balancing economic consideration with the need for patient safety • Critically evaluating by being able to think analytically, conceptually and to identify where services can be improved, working individually or as part of a team • Encouraging improvement and innovation by creating a climate of continuous service improvement • Facilitating transformation by actively contributing to change processes
  • 113. that lead to improving healthcare. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. IMPROVING SERVICES Ensuring Patient Safety I take action when I notice shortfalls in patient safety I review practice to improve patient safety and minimise risk I use feedback from patients, carers and service users to contribute to improvements in service delivery I work with others to constructively evaluate our services I put forward ideas to improve the quality of services
  • 114. I encourage debate about new ideas with a wide range of people I articulate the need for change and its impact on people and services I focus myself and motivate others to ensure change happens TOTAL Critically Evaluating Encouraging Improvement and Innovation Facilitating Transformation A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/improving-services http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/improving-services Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool
  • 115. © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 6 5. Setting Direction Effective leadership requires individuals to contribute to the strategy and aspirations of the organisation and act in a manner consistent with its values. To do so, they must demonstrate effective in: • Identifying the contexts for change by being aware of the range of factors to be taken into account • Applying knowledge and evidence by gathering information to produce an evidence-based challenge to systems and processes in order to identify opportunities for service improvements • Making decisions using their values, and the evidence, to make good decisions • Evaluating impact by measuring and evaluating outcomes, taking corrective action where necessary and by being held to account for their decisions. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have
  • 116. scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. SETTING DIRECTION Identifying the Contexts for Change I identify the drivers of change (e.g. political, social, technical, economic, organisational, professional environment) I anticipate future challenges that will create the need for change and communicate these to others I use data and information to suggest improvements to services I influence others to use knowledge and evidence to achieve best practice I consult with key people and groups when making decisions taking into account the values and priorities of the service I actively engage in formal and informal decision-making processes about the future of services
  • 117. I take responsibility for embedding new approaches into working practices I evaluate the impact of changes on patients and service delivery TOTAL Applying Knowledge and Evidence Making Decisions Evaluating Impact A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/setting-direction http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/setting-direction Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 7
  • 118. 6. Creating the Vision Effective leadership involves creating a compelling vision for the future, and communicating this within and across organisations. This requires individuals to demonstrate effectiveness in: • Developing the vision of the organisation, looking to the future to determine the direction for the organisation • Influencing the vision of the wider healthcare system by working with partners across organisations • Communicating the vision and motivating others to work towards achieving it • Embodying the vision by behaving in ways which are consistent with the vision and values of the organisation Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular
  • 119. domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact negatively on your performance. CREATING THE VISION Developing the Vision for the Organisation I actively engage with others (including patients and public) to determine the direction of the organisation I take into account the full range of factors that will impact upon the future of health and care services I look for opportunities to engage in debate about the future of healthcare I influence key decision makers who determine future government policy that impacts the NHS and its services I communicate the vision with enthusiasm and clarity I take time to build critical support for the vision I show confidence, commitment and passion for the vision in my day to day actions I challenge behaviours, symbols & rituals which are not consistent with the vision
  • 120. TOTAL Influencing the Vision of the Wider Healthcare System Communicating the Vision Embodying the Vision A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/creating-the-vision http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/creating-the-vision Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 8 7. Delivering the Strategy Effective leadership involves delivering the strategy by developing and agreeing strategic plans that place patient care at the heart of the service,
  • 121. and ensuring that these are translated into achievable operational plans. This requires individuals to demonstrate effectiveness in: • Framing the strategy by identifying strategic options for the organisation and drawing upon a wide range of information, knowledge and experience • Developing the strategy by engaging with colleagues and key stakeholders • Implementing the strategy by organising, managing and assuming the risks of the organisation • Embedding the strategy by ensuring that strategic plans are achieved and sustained. Look at statements below: • On the scale next to each statement, choose a rating that reflects how frequently it applies to you • Total your scores after each domain and reflect on how you have scored yourself Total your scores and reflect on what you have given yourself. If you have mainly red and orange circles in any particular domain, these domains may be areas you wish to develop further. If you have green circles then check that these are not overplayed strengths. An overplayed strength could be a behaviour you over rely on and one which might impact
  • 122. negatively on your performance. DELIVERING THE STRATEGY Framing the Strategy I draw on relevant thinking and best practice to inform strategy development I use an understanding of the history and culture of the organisation to create a realistic strategy I engage with a wide range of stakeholders when formulating strategic plans I mitigate uncertainties and risks associated with strategic choices I ensure strategic plans are translated into workable operational plans I establish clear accountabilities for delivery of all elements of the strategy I help others to overcome obstacles and challenges in delivering the strategy I monitor progress of the strategic outcomes and make adjustments where necessary TOTAL Developing the Strategy
  • 123. Implementing the Strategy Embedding the Strategy A lot of the time Some of the time Very little / None of the time To work through the Leadership Development Module for this domain, go to www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/delivering-the-strategy http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module/delivering-the-strategy Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 9 Next Steps Having completed your self assessment, we would encourage you to discuss your results with your Line Manager, mentor or trusted colleague. You may find it helpful to ask your Line Manager or colleagues to also download the document and rate you against some or all of the leadership domains. Coming together and comparing their
  • 124. ratings with your self ratings can provide valuable insight into your leadership behaviour. Next, you may wish to develop a personal action plan to help you consolidate your development areas. An action plan template is available on the next page. Hints and tips on action planning • Define your action plan in SMART terms (Specific, Measurable, Action oriented, Realistic and Time bound). This will help you reach your goals. • Identify individuals you want to talk to about your action plan and who can help you make it happen. • Assess potential obstacles and how you might be able to overcome these. • Think about how you can utilise your strengths to help you reach your goals. • Identify resources that are available to you or that you will need to obtain in order to achieve your goal e.g.what resources (internal, external) can you draw upon in order to reach your goal? • Write action steps to help you reach your goal and assign a completion date to each one. • Set a date to evaluate your progress towards your goal. Resources
  • 125. For suggested reading or development advice related to the each of the domains of the Leadership Framework, please refer to the Leadership Development Module at www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module IMPORTANT! If you wish to refer back to this document at any point, please save a copy to your computer or print in the usual way. For confidentiality reasons, the information you have input will not be saved on this website. http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 10 Personal Action Plan Please read the hints and tips on action planning given on page 9 before starting your action plan. You may also find it helpful to review the Leadership Development Module at www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development-module Action Plan - part one Please choose one of the key development needs identified above that you would like to work through on the next few pages. Should you like to look at more than one development need, print out or photocopy pages 11-14 before filling them in, or save this document under a different name so that you can complete the following sections separately for each development need
  • 126. you would like to explore. Key strengths Please summarise your key strengths Max characters (750) Key priorities Please summarise your key development needs Max characters (750) http://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/leadership-development- module Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 11 Development Need: Reason for choosing Max characters (750) Goal Max characters (750) Describe the desired new behaviour in SMART terms Benefits Max characters (750)
  • 127. Describe the benefits of reaching this goal Action Plan - part one continued Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 12 Development Need Risks Max characters (750) Outline any risks that might be involved in reaching this goal Obstacles Max characters (500) Outline any potential obstacles How are you going to over come them? Max characters (500) Action Plan - part one continued Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 13 Development Need
  • 128. Resources/ support needed Max characters (750) Where available? Max characters (750) Action Plan - part one continued Leadership Framework: Self assessment tool © 2012 NHS Leadership Academy. All rights reserved. 14 Action Steps max characters (1000) Approach Target Date Experience Exposure Education Action Plan - part two Experience Exposure Education IMPORTANT! If you wish to refer back to this document at any point, please save a copy to your computer or print in the usual way. For confidentiality reasons, the information you have input will not be saved on this website.
  • 129. Review When will you review your progress towards your goals? (Please specify a date). Group1: GreenGroup2: GreenGroup3: OrangeGroup4: OrangeGroup5: GreenGroup6: GreenGroup7: GreenGroup8: GreenP2 Green Total: 6P2 Orange Total: 2P2 Red Total: 0Group9: GreenGroup10: GreenGroup11: 4Group12: 4Group13: GreenGroup14: GreenGroup15: GreenGroup16: GreenP3 Green Total: 6P3 Orange Total: 2P3 Red Total: 0Group17: GreenGroup18: GreenGroup19: 4Group20: GreenGroup21: GreenGroup22: GreenGroup23: GreenGroup24: 1P4 Green Total: 6P4 Orange Total: 2P4 Red Total: 0Group25: GreenGroup26: Group27: Group28: Group29: Group30: Group31: Group32: P5 Green Total: P5 Orange Total: P5 Red Total: Group35: Group36: Group37: Group38: Group39: Group40: Key Strengths: Key Priorities: Development Need: Reason for choosing: Goal: Benefits: Risks: Obstacles: Overcoming them: Resources / support needed: Where available: Action Seps 1: Check Box Experience 1: Check Box Exposure 1: Check Box Education 1: Target Date 1: Action Seps 2: Check Box Experience 2: Check Box Exposure 2: Check Box Education 2: Target Date 2: Review Date: P6 Green Total: P6 Orange Total: P6 Red Total: Group34: Group33: Group41: Group42: Group43: Group44: Group45: Group46: Group47: Group48: P7 Green Total: P7 Orange Total: P7 Red Total: Group49: Group50: Group51: Group52: Group53: Group54: Group55: P8 Green Total: P8 Orange Total: P8 Red Total: Group56:
  • 130. Components of the social responsibility element of the CMU LDP • Financial Ethics • Work-Place Ethics • Honesty and Integrity • Being Accountable • Courage of Convictions
  • 131. Leaders must act with integrity, honesty, and justice. They must work in the best interest of others, showing respect and empathy for unique individual and cultural differences. Good leaders create a culture that promotes high ethical standards along with personal, organizational, and civic responsibility. Ethical leaders recognise and conduct themselves in concert with universal moral principles as well as specific values, laws, and ethics relevant to their group or organisation. • Communicating with the Community • Helping the Community • Civic Action • Adopting Beneficial Values for Society • Providing a Good Example • Social Action
  • 132. Leading others ethically (D) Civic responsibility (A) Social knowledge (B) Ethical processes (C) Acting with integrity (E) • Open-Door Policy • Instituting and Following Fair Procedures • Explaining Decisions in a Respectful Manner • Ensuring Ethical Behavior of Subordinates • Servant Leadership
  • 133. • Valuing Diversity • Distributing Rewards Fairly • Responsibility for Others • Avoiding Exploitative Mentality Social Responsibility Knowledge of: • Sociology and Anthropology • History and Geography • Foreign Language • Philosophy and Theology • Organisational Justice Principles • Legal Regulations Task Management Dimension A Civic responsibility A1 Communicating with the Community: Communicating organisation’s intentions and activities to the public (e.g., local press, radio, television) and representing the organisation in community affairs and public activities to promote awareness and foster goodwill. A2 Helping the Community: Meeting the needs of the community by promoting opportunities for corporate giving of
  • 134. financial and human resources. A3 Civic Action: Supporting participation in civic duties by encouraging others to vote and engaging in other duties of the political system. A4 Adopting Beneficial Values for Society: Seeking and embracing values that benefit society rather than the organisation. A5 Providing a Good Example: Always acting in accordance with society’s and the organisation’s laws, rules, and guidelines, and behaving in fair and ethical manner. B Social knowledge B1 Sociology and Anthropology Knowledge: Knowledge of the political systems, values, beliefs, economic practices, and leadership styles of countries other than your home country, as well as knowledge of universal group dynamics, behavior, and socio-cultural history. B2 History and Geography Knowledge: Knowledge of the physical location and relationships between different land and sea regions and the historical events that have shaped the culture of
  • 135. inhabitants of these regions. B3 Foreign Language Knowledge: Understanding a non-native language in order to communicate in oral and written form with people who speak that language. B4 Philosophy and Theology Knowledge: Knowledge of ethics and the philosophical viewpoints behind various ethical models and understanding how different philosophical and religious systems affect behaviour of groups and individuals within a cultural context. B5 Knowledge of Organisational Justice Principles: Knowing and understanding distributive justice, informational justice, interpersonal justice, and procedural justice and being able to apply those principles to ensure subordinates are treated fairly. B6 Legal Regulations: Awareness of local, state, and federal laws and regulations and abiding by these regulations at all times. C Ethical processes
  • 136. C1 Open-Door Policy: Promoting a climate of openness and trust. Allowing individuals who are upset about an aspect of the organisation to voice displeasures without retribution or repercussions. C2 Instituting and Following Fair Procedures: Instituting and applying rules and procedures in a consistent, unbiased, accurate, and correctable fashion to ensure that subordinates know that fair rules are being used. C3 Explaining Decisions in a Respectful Manner: Explaining decisions that affect subordinates thoroughly and in a manner that demonstrates dignity and respect for the subordinates. C4 Ensuring Ethical Behavior of Subordinates: Instituting, training, and reinforcing policies to ensure that subordinates treat each other and the organisation fairly and with respect and dignity. Disseminating information about laws and regulations to subordinates and make sure that they follow laws and regulations by overseeing, monitoring, and auditing behaviour. Disciplinary action should be taken against those who do not comply with laws and regulations.
  • 137. D Leading others ethically D1 Servant Leadership: Being attentive to the needs of followers, empathising with their concerns, and serving their best interests D2 Valuing Diversity: Encouraging a wide range of viewpoints among team members in order to avoid groupthink and create more culturally sensitive solutions. D3 Distributing Rewards Fairly: Ensuring that pay, recognition, and other rewards are distributed in a fair manner, with clear guidelines and enforcement of those guidelines. D4 Responsibility for Others: Willingness to be responsible for the behavior of subordinates in your organisation and correct their unethical behaviours. D5 Avoiding Exploitative Mentality: Not sacrificing concern for others or using people and exploiting them to achieve goals for the organisation. E Acting with integrity
  • 138. E1 Financial Ethics: Understanding and following ethical financial management and accounting principles. E2 Work-Place Ethics: Understanding and following ethical guidelines at your work place. E3 Honesty and Integrity: Behaving in an honest and ethical manner. E4 Being Accountable: Accepting responsibility for the effects of your own actions. E5 Courage of Convictions: Avoiding behaviour that is unethical even if it may appear ethical to the public or may be consistent with the public opinion. Upholding decisions that are ethical yet unpopular. Components of the innovation element of the CMU LDP
  • 140. Leaders must be able to think creatively while taking initiative and calculated risks. Effective leaders have a vision beyond the immediate work of the group. This involves exploring and integrating diverse perspectives and recognising unexpected opportunities. Forecasting (I) Creativity (F) Enterprising (G) Integrating perspective
  • 142. Innovation Task Management Dimension F Creativity F1 Generating Ideas: Coming up with a variety of approaches to problem solving. F2 Critical Thinking: Logically identifying how different possible approaches are strong and weak, and analyzing these judgments. F3 Synthesis / Reorganization: Finding a better way to approach problems through synthesising and reorganising the information. F4 Creative Problem Solving: Using novel ideas to solve problems as a leader.
  • 143. G Enterprising G1 Identifying Problem: Pinpointing the actual nature and cause of problems and the dynamics that underlie them. G2 Seeking Improvement: Constantly looking for ways to improve the organisation. G3 Gathering Information: Identifying useful sources of information and gathering and utilizing only that information which is essential. G4 Independent Thinking: Thinking ‘outside the box’ even if this sometimes may go against popular opinion. G5 Technological Savvy: Understanding and utilising technology to improve work processes. H Integrating perspectives
  • 144. H1 Openness to Ideas: A willingness to listen to suggestions from others and to try new ideas. H2 Research Orientation: Observing the behavior of others, reading extensively, and keeping your mind open to ideas and solutions from others. Reading and talking to people in related fields to discover innovations or current trends in the field. H3 Collaborating: Working with others and seeking the opinions of others to reach a creative solution. H4 Engaging in Non-Work Related Interests: Being well-rounded and seeking information from other fields and areas of life to find novel approaches to situations. I Forecasting I1 Perceiving Systems: Acknowledging important changes that occur in a system or predicting accurately when they might occur.
  • 145. I2 Evaluating Long-Term Consequences: Concluding what a change in systems will result in long-term I3 Visioning: Developing an image of an ideal working state of an organisation I4 Managing the Future: Evaluating future directions and risks based on current and future strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. J Managing change J1 Sensitivity to Situations: Assessing situational forces that are promoting and inhibiting an idea for change. J2 Challenging the Status Quo: Willingness to act against the way things have traditionally been done when tradition impedes performance improvements. J3 Intelligent Risk-Taking:
  • 146. Being willing and able to take calculated risks when necessary. J4 Reinforcing Change: Encouraging subordinates to come up with innovative solutions. Recognising and rewarding those who take initiative and act in a creative manner. Facilitating the institutionalisation of change initiatives. Components of the leading others element of the CMU LDP
  • 147. ring Leaders must maximize the potential of others and motivate them to attain shared goals. They must be able to manage individual and group performance with an understanding of group dynamics and team building. Leaders must actively
  • 148. listen and communicate effectively to persuade others and build consensus and trust. They should understand and be empathic toward individual’s emotions and needs and be able to resolve conflicts in a respectful manner. Developing Others (N) Communicating (K) Interpersonal Awareness (L) Motivating Others (M) Influencing (O) Others