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Many clinical methods have been proposed to reduce shrinkage stress, such as the control of curing light
irradiance , flowable resin liner application , & incremental layering techniques .
However, no method has been shown to be totally effective in abating the effects of polymerization
shrinkage.
Since difficulties imposed by the cavity configuration (C-factor) play an important role in stress
development , many researchers have suggested the use of “incremental layering techniques” for resin-
composite restoration to reduce the polymerization shrinkage stress and cusp deflection.
The rationale is that shrinkage may be less detrimental when there are fewer bonded cavity walls involved at
each stage of the restoration procedures. Incremental curing also enhances the degree of cure as thin
sections undergo higher degree of cure due to lower light attenuation, thus the net degree of conversion is
greater. This yields better mechanical properties but higher shrinkage as well; however, the C-factor
changes as well.
In class I cavity, for example, by using a single increment, the resin composite would polymerize within five
bonding surfaces (one base and four surrounding walls) while free shrinkage would only occur at the upper
surface, producing a very high level of stress between the bonded surfaces. However, by using an
incremental technique, the bonded/unbonded ratio would be reduced and, consequently, the stress level
within the cavity might be lower, preserving the bonded area.
According to Park et al. the bulk filling technique yielded significantly more cuspal deflection than the
incremental filling techniques, concluding that cuspal deflection resulting from polymerization shrinkage
can be reduced by incremental filling techniques to obtain optimal outcomes in clinical situations.
Lee et al. observed that cusp deflection increased with increasing cavity dimension and C-factor, thus the
use of an incremental filling technique or an indirect composite inlay restoration could reduce the cuspal
strain. C-factor was shown to be an influencing factor for dentin adhesion , however, using an appropriate
layering technique , high bond strengths to deep cavity floors can be achieved.
It was concluded that the incremental filling technique increased the deformation of the restored tooth
and could produce higher polymerization stresses at the restoration interface compared with bulk filling.
Multiple increments showed to induce greater cuspal movement than a bulk increment in cuspal deflection
measurements of premolars .
According to Loguercio et al. some evaluated effects of polymerization shrinkage such as gap width,
adhesive bond, strength and the cohesive strength of the resin composite were not reduced by the filling
technique under the different C-factor cavities.
Despite the controversy over the advantages of incremental build-up of resin composites, this technique has
been broadly recommended in direct resin-composite restoration, because it is expected to decrease the
C-factor, allowing a certain amount of flow to partially dissipate the shrinkage stress.
2- Stress Absorbing Layers With Low Elastic Liners
Flowable composites are low viscosity resin-based restorative materials, less rigid and could have a
modulus of elasticity 20–30% lower than conventional hybrid composites .
The use of a flowable resin composite as an intermediate thin layer has been suggested as a mean of
overcoming polymerization shrinkage stress based on the concept of an “elastic cavity wall” suggested for
filled adhesives.
Clinical methods to compensate polymerization shrinkage
1/4/2014
1. Incremental Layering Technique
According to the “elastic cavity wall concept” the shrinkage stress generated by a subsequent layer of
higher modulus resin composite can be absorbed by an elastic intermediary layer, thereby reducing the
stress at the tooth restoration interface manifested clinically as a reduction in cuspal deflection .
However, actual implementation of such a “stress absorbing ” material is problematic. Restorative
materials encompass a wide variety of shrinkage and elastic modulus values. Flowable resin composites have
shown shrinkage stress comparable to conventional resin composites, supporting the hypothesis that the
use of flowable materials does not lead to marked stress reduction and the risk of debonding at the
adhesive interface as a result of polymerization contraction is similar for both type of materials .
3. Light Curing Procedures
Diverse photoactivation protocols have been advocated to reduce the polymerization stress . In theory,
stress release by viscous flow before the vitrification stage would be allowed to occur without compromising
the final polymer properties . Therefore, initial light exposure at lower irradiance values might lead to the
formation of a reduced number of polymer growth centers, reducing the reaction rate and decreasing
stress development due to the increased opportunity for resin flow before the vitrification stage .
There are many types of alternative light-curing methods. The “soft-start” protocol consists of initial light
exposure with reduced irradiance for a certain period of time, followed by full irradiance.
Another protocol is “pulse-delay” method, consists of initial exposure with reduced light irradiance for a
very short period of time of a few seconds and follows a waiting period without irradiance (seconds or
even minutes) and fully irradiate later.
One important consideration is that some different outcomes may appear among different studies, and
these differences may be related with the light curing type used, the irradiance used at the beginning of
the light curing procedure, and/or the period without irradiance.
Although the alternative light-curing protocols may not significantly affect final properties of the hardened
material,
some considerations should be noted.
(i) The flowability of a material, during an extended preset stage, may have minimal consequences, because
most shrinkage stress is developed during and after the vitrification stage. Therefore, opportunities for
polymer relaxation would be restricted during the short period of light activation.
(ii) Concurrent experiments on degree of C=C conversion (DC) and stress development show that soft-start
irradiation procedures give somewhat lower DC levels, associated with reduced stress.
(iii) A reduced polymerization rate is associated with decreased cross-link density (CLD), manifest as
greater solvent-softening and/or lower final elastic modulus .
Recently, preheating resin composites have been advocated as a method to increase composite flow,
improve marginal adaptation and monomer conversion. The benefits of preheating composites may have
an impact on daily restorative procedures as well, with the application of shorter light exposure to provide
conversion values similar to those seen in unheated conditions .
The reasons for increased conversion are based on many factors; Increased temperature, decreases system
viscosity and enhances radical mobility, resulting in additional polymerization and higher conversion. The
collision frequency of unreacted active groups and radicals could increases with elevated curing
temperature when below the glass transition temperature . Therefore, at raised temperatures, in theory, it
would be possible to obtain higher degree of conversion before the vitrification point, decreasing the
magnitude of stress.
4. Preheating
5. Novel Formulations for Reducing Shrinkage Stress
The development of resin composite has mainly focused on filler technology, while the composition of the
polymer matrix remained principally unchanged since the introduction of Bis-GMA resin . Shrinkage is an
inherent property of dimethacrylate-based formulations. However, recently, novel monomer combinations
and alterations of the resin-composite formulation have been developed and evaluated with the goal of
decreasing polymerization shrinkage stress.
The most recent modification on the polymer matrix is based on using ring opening polymerization of the
silorane molecules, instead of free radical polymerization of dimethacrylate monomers . Silorane resin
reveals lower polymerization shrinkage compared to the dimethacrylates. These “cyclic” monomers have
provided particularly interesting and commercially viable results. Such monomers “open” their molecular
structures with local volumetric expansion and this may partly or totally compensate for volumetric
shrinkage from C=C or similar polymerization .
Changes in the photoinitiator systems and polymerization inhibitors have also been reported.
Braga and Ferracane tested experimental materials with different concentrations of inhibitor (2,6-Di-tert-
butyl-4-methyl-phenol = BHT) and showed that increased inhibitor concentrations , reduced the rate of
polymerization and the shrinkage stress without significantly compromising the final degree of conversion.
Schneider et al. found that phenyl-propanedione, substituting for part of the camphorquinone content,
reduced the stress development rate without compromising the final degree of conversion and degradation
resistance of the composite.
Besides change in the resin matrix composition, studies have demonstrated reduced shrinkage stress
through alterations in filler content.
Condon and Ferracane suggested that addition of nonbonded 40 nm colloidal silica might act as stress-
relieving sites through plastic deformation. They also verified that composites with nanofiller particles
treated with a nonfunctional silane developed 50% less stress than composites fully treated with the
functional coupling agent.
Another possible approach is inclusion of a component readily allowing plastic deformation during stress
development, such as ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres.
The current dental resin composites based on dimethacrylates are inevitably linked with shrinkage that can
compromise the success and longevity of the restoration and, consequently, clinicians have to coexist with the
polymerization shrinkage-stress phenomena. On the other hand, methods for shrinkage stress evaluation are
bringing important contributions and the outcomes are being applied to novel formulations and clinical techniques.
The End
Conclusions
Faisal Moteq Al-Qahtani
431803127

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Clinical methods to compensate polymerization shrinkage

  • 1. Many clinical methods have been proposed to reduce shrinkage stress, such as the control of curing light irradiance , flowable resin liner application , & incremental layering techniques . However, no method has been shown to be totally effective in abating the effects of polymerization shrinkage. Since difficulties imposed by the cavity configuration (C-factor) play an important role in stress development , many researchers have suggested the use of “incremental layering techniques” for resin- composite restoration to reduce the polymerization shrinkage stress and cusp deflection. The rationale is that shrinkage may be less detrimental when there are fewer bonded cavity walls involved at each stage of the restoration procedures. Incremental curing also enhances the degree of cure as thin sections undergo higher degree of cure due to lower light attenuation, thus the net degree of conversion is greater. This yields better mechanical properties but higher shrinkage as well; however, the C-factor changes as well. In class I cavity, for example, by using a single increment, the resin composite would polymerize within five bonding surfaces (one base and four surrounding walls) while free shrinkage would only occur at the upper surface, producing a very high level of stress between the bonded surfaces. However, by using an incremental technique, the bonded/unbonded ratio would be reduced and, consequently, the stress level within the cavity might be lower, preserving the bonded area. According to Park et al. the bulk filling technique yielded significantly more cuspal deflection than the incremental filling techniques, concluding that cuspal deflection resulting from polymerization shrinkage can be reduced by incremental filling techniques to obtain optimal outcomes in clinical situations. Lee et al. observed that cusp deflection increased with increasing cavity dimension and C-factor, thus the use of an incremental filling technique or an indirect composite inlay restoration could reduce the cuspal strain. C-factor was shown to be an influencing factor for dentin adhesion , however, using an appropriate layering technique , high bond strengths to deep cavity floors can be achieved. It was concluded that the incremental filling technique increased the deformation of the restored tooth and could produce higher polymerization stresses at the restoration interface compared with bulk filling. Multiple increments showed to induce greater cuspal movement than a bulk increment in cuspal deflection measurements of premolars . According to Loguercio et al. some evaluated effects of polymerization shrinkage such as gap width, adhesive bond, strength and the cohesive strength of the resin composite were not reduced by the filling technique under the different C-factor cavities. Despite the controversy over the advantages of incremental build-up of resin composites, this technique has been broadly recommended in direct resin-composite restoration, because it is expected to decrease the C-factor, allowing a certain amount of flow to partially dissipate the shrinkage stress. 2- Stress Absorbing Layers With Low Elastic Liners Flowable composites are low viscosity resin-based restorative materials, less rigid and could have a modulus of elasticity 20–30% lower than conventional hybrid composites . The use of a flowable resin composite as an intermediate thin layer has been suggested as a mean of overcoming polymerization shrinkage stress based on the concept of an “elastic cavity wall” suggested for filled adhesives. Clinical methods to compensate polymerization shrinkage 1/4/2014 1. Incremental Layering Technique
  • 2. According to the “elastic cavity wall concept” the shrinkage stress generated by a subsequent layer of higher modulus resin composite can be absorbed by an elastic intermediary layer, thereby reducing the stress at the tooth restoration interface manifested clinically as a reduction in cuspal deflection . However, actual implementation of such a “stress absorbing ” material is problematic. Restorative materials encompass a wide variety of shrinkage and elastic modulus values. Flowable resin composites have shown shrinkage stress comparable to conventional resin composites, supporting the hypothesis that the use of flowable materials does not lead to marked stress reduction and the risk of debonding at the adhesive interface as a result of polymerization contraction is similar for both type of materials . 3. Light Curing Procedures Diverse photoactivation protocols have been advocated to reduce the polymerization stress . In theory, stress release by viscous flow before the vitrification stage would be allowed to occur without compromising the final polymer properties . Therefore, initial light exposure at lower irradiance values might lead to the formation of a reduced number of polymer growth centers, reducing the reaction rate and decreasing stress development due to the increased opportunity for resin flow before the vitrification stage . There are many types of alternative light-curing methods. The “soft-start” protocol consists of initial light exposure with reduced irradiance for a certain period of time, followed by full irradiance. Another protocol is “pulse-delay” method, consists of initial exposure with reduced light irradiance for a very short period of time of a few seconds and follows a waiting period without irradiance (seconds or even minutes) and fully irradiate later. One important consideration is that some different outcomes may appear among different studies, and these differences may be related with the light curing type used, the irradiance used at the beginning of the light curing procedure, and/or the period without irradiance. Although the alternative light-curing protocols may not significantly affect final properties of the hardened material, some considerations should be noted. (i) The flowability of a material, during an extended preset stage, may have minimal consequences, because most shrinkage stress is developed during and after the vitrification stage. Therefore, opportunities for polymer relaxation would be restricted during the short period of light activation. (ii) Concurrent experiments on degree of C=C conversion (DC) and stress development show that soft-start irradiation procedures give somewhat lower DC levels, associated with reduced stress. (iii) A reduced polymerization rate is associated with decreased cross-link density (CLD), manifest as greater solvent-softening and/or lower final elastic modulus . Recently, preheating resin composites have been advocated as a method to increase composite flow, improve marginal adaptation and monomer conversion. The benefits of preheating composites may have an impact on daily restorative procedures as well, with the application of shorter light exposure to provide conversion values similar to those seen in unheated conditions . The reasons for increased conversion are based on many factors; Increased temperature, decreases system viscosity and enhances radical mobility, resulting in additional polymerization and higher conversion. The collision frequency of unreacted active groups and radicals could increases with elevated curing temperature when below the glass transition temperature . Therefore, at raised temperatures, in theory, it would be possible to obtain higher degree of conversion before the vitrification point, decreasing the magnitude of stress. 4. Preheating
  • 3. 5. Novel Formulations for Reducing Shrinkage Stress The development of resin composite has mainly focused on filler technology, while the composition of the polymer matrix remained principally unchanged since the introduction of Bis-GMA resin . Shrinkage is an inherent property of dimethacrylate-based formulations. However, recently, novel monomer combinations and alterations of the resin-composite formulation have been developed and evaluated with the goal of decreasing polymerization shrinkage stress. The most recent modification on the polymer matrix is based on using ring opening polymerization of the silorane molecules, instead of free radical polymerization of dimethacrylate monomers . Silorane resin reveals lower polymerization shrinkage compared to the dimethacrylates. These “cyclic” monomers have provided particularly interesting and commercially viable results. Such monomers “open” their molecular structures with local volumetric expansion and this may partly or totally compensate for volumetric shrinkage from C=C or similar polymerization . Changes in the photoinitiator systems and polymerization inhibitors have also been reported. Braga and Ferracane tested experimental materials with different concentrations of inhibitor (2,6-Di-tert- butyl-4-methyl-phenol = BHT) and showed that increased inhibitor concentrations , reduced the rate of polymerization and the shrinkage stress without significantly compromising the final degree of conversion. Schneider et al. found that phenyl-propanedione, substituting for part of the camphorquinone content, reduced the stress development rate without compromising the final degree of conversion and degradation resistance of the composite. Besides change in the resin matrix composition, studies have demonstrated reduced shrinkage stress through alterations in filler content. Condon and Ferracane suggested that addition of nonbonded 40 nm colloidal silica might act as stress- relieving sites through plastic deformation. They also verified that composites with nanofiller particles treated with a nonfunctional silane developed 50% less stress than composites fully treated with the functional coupling agent. Another possible approach is inclusion of a component readily allowing plastic deformation during stress development, such as ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres. The current dental resin composites based on dimethacrylates are inevitably linked with shrinkage that can compromise the success and longevity of the restoration and, consequently, clinicians have to coexist with the polymerization shrinkage-stress phenomena. On the other hand, methods for shrinkage stress evaluation are bringing important contributions and the outcomes are being applied to novel formulations and clinical techniques. The End Conclusions Faisal Moteq Al-Qahtani 431803127