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REST with Sinatra
  Emanuele DelBono
      @emadb
Thanks to the sponsors
About me
I’m a software developer in
CodicePlastico.
I write Web applications in C# with
ASP.NET MVC. I’m a member of
<WEBdeBS/> a local web
community.
...and I’m a wannabe Ruby
developer ;-)
Agenda
‣ Philosophy.
 Sweet and easy.
‣ REST.
 Yet another boring introduction.
‣ Hello world.
 Show some magic.
‣ Features.
 Amazing!
‣ Inside.
 How it works?
‣ Q&A.
 ...and thanks.
Sinatra as a REST server
What is isn’t
‣ Sinatra is not
 -another MV* framework
 -a full framework like Rails
 -an ORM
 -a game project
Sinatra is just a DSL
   written in ruby
Hello world
Hello world
~$ gem install sinatra
~$ vi app.rb
Hello world
~$ gem install sinatra
~$ vi app.rb

require 'sinatra'
get '/' do
 'hello world!'
end
Hello world
~$ gem install sinatra
~$ vi app.rb

require 'sinatra'
get '/' do
 'hello world!'
end

~$ ruby app.rb
Is it really so easy?
‣ Yep! (special thanks to Ruby
  sweeties)
  - get is a just a method (more later)
  - the route is the parameter
  - the block is what should be
    executed
  - the block returns the result
  - the server is built in (based on Rack)
Let’s go REST


What? Yet another REST introduction?
5 REST principles
‣ Uniform Interface
    ‣ HATEAOS
‣   Stateless
‣   Cacheable
‣   Client-Server
‣   Layered System
Sinatra and REST
‣ Sinatra supports
  - All HTTP verbs
  - Caching
  - Content types
  - Routes
  - ....and all you need to build a rest server
Give a look at the
Verbs
‣ Support for all verbs
  - Get, Post, Put, Delete, Head, Options,
    Patch


‣ They are just methods
Routing
‣ No need of route files or route
  maps
‣ The verb method takes the route
  as parameter
Routing


get ( ‘/todos’ ) {...}
get ( ‘/todo/:id’ ) {...}
get ( ‘/*’ ) {...}
Routing Conditions
get '/foo', :agent => /Mozilla/(d.d)s
w?/ do
 "You're using Mozilla version
#{params[:agent][0]}"
end
get '/foo' do
 # Matches non-Mozilla browsers
end
Routing Custom
set(:prob) { |v| condition { rand <= v } }

get '/win_a_car', :prob => 0.1 do
 "You won!"
end

get '/win_a_car' {"Sorry, you lost."}
Xml or Json
‣ You can set the content_type to
  whatever you need



content_type :json
content_type :xml
Status codes
‣ Set the HTTP status code is


  status 200
  status 403
Http Headers
‣ You can add your own headers


headers "X-My-Value" => "this is my
header"
Redirect


redirect to ‘/todos’
Cache
‣ You can set your cache information
  using the headers method

headers "Cache-Control" => "public,
must-revalidate, max-age=3600",
"Expires" => Time.at(Time.now.to_i + (60
Cache
‣ Or better, you can use the expires


expires 3600, :public
Filters
before do
 #...
end
after do
 #...
Authentication


‣ Basic authentication support through
  Rack
‣ Key-based authentication
Basic Authentication

use Rack::Auth::Basic, "Private area" do
|usr, pwd|
 [usr, pwd] == ['admin', 'admin']
end
Token authentication
before do
 if env[‘HTTP_MY_KEY’] ==’rubyrocks‘
   error 401
 end
end
Demo
Stream
‣ Supports streamed content
‣ Streamed responses have no Content-
  Length header
‣ But have Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Inside
Inside
‣ Sinatra source code is on github:
    http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra
‣ Less than 2k lines of code
‣ Based on Rack
Application style


Classic application
         vs
Modular application
Classic App

  Single file
 Standalone
Modular Apps


         Multi file
Subclassing Sinatra::Base
  Distributed as library
The code
What happen when a request arrives?


get (‘/hello’) do { ‘hello world’ }
Where do get come from?
require "sinatra"
outer_self = self
get '/' do
 "outer self: #{outer_self}, inner self: #{self}"
end


 outer self: main, inner self: #<Sinatra::Application:

        closures in ruby are “scope gate”
$ irb
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
=> [:delegate, :target, :target=]
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
=> [:delegate, :target, :target=]
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
=> [:delegate, :target, :target=]
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target
=> Sinatra::Application
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
=> [:delegate, :target, :target=]
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target
=> Sinatra::Application
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Application.method(:get)
$ irb
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
=> true
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
=> #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
=> [:delegate, :target, :target=]
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target
=> Sinatra::Application
ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Application.method(:get)
=> #<Method:
Sinatra::Application(Sinatra::Base).get>
Where do get come from?
‣ get is defined twice:
  – Once in Sinatra::Delegator a mixin
    extending Object
  – Once in Sinatra::Application
‣ The Delegator implementation simply
  delegate to Application
‣ That’s why we have get/post/...
  methods on main
How the block is invoked?
‣ The route! method finds the correct
  route

def route_eval
 throw :halt, yield
end

‣ throw is used to go back to the invoker
In base.rb

‣ The invoker


def invoke
 res = catch(:halt) { yield }
 # .... other code...
end
It’s a kind of magic!
Sinatra has ended his set
    (crowd applauds)
Questions?
demos at:
http://github.com/emadb/
     webnetconf_demo
Please rate this session
Scan the code, go online, rate this session

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Sinatra for REST services

  • 1. REST with Sinatra Emanuele DelBono @emadb
  • 2. Thanks to the sponsors
  • 3. About me I’m a software developer in CodicePlastico. I write Web applications in C# with ASP.NET MVC. I’m a member of <WEBdeBS/> a local web community. ...and I’m a wannabe Ruby developer ;-)
  • 4. Agenda ‣ Philosophy. Sweet and easy. ‣ REST. Yet another boring introduction. ‣ Hello world. Show some magic. ‣ Features. Amazing! ‣ Inside. How it works? ‣ Q&A. ...and thanks.
  • 5. Sinatra as a REST server
  • 6. What is isn’t ‣ Sinatra is not -another MV* framework -a full framework like Rails -an ORM -a game project
  • 7. Sinatra is just a DSL written in ruby
  • 9. Hello world ~$ gem install sinatra ~$ vi app.rb
  • 10. Hello world ~$ gem install sinatra ~$ vi app.rb require 'sinatra' get '/' do 'hello world!' end
  • 11. Hello world ~$ gem install sinatra ~$ vi app.rb require 'sinatra' get '/' do 'hello world!' end ~$ ruby app.rb
  • 12.
  • 13. Is it really so easy? ‣ Yep! (special thanks to Ruby sweeties) - get is a just a method (more later) - the route is the parameter - the block is what should be executed - the block returns the result - the server is built in (based on Rack)
  • 14. Let’s go REST What? Yet another REST introduction?
  • 15.
  • 16. 5 REST principles ‣ Uniform Interface ‣ HATEAOS ‣ Stateless ‣ Cacheable ‣ Client-Server ‣ Layered System
  • 17. Sinatra and REST ‣ Sinatra supports - All HTTP verbs - Caching - Content types - Routes - ....and all you need to build a rest server
  • 18. Give a look at the
  • 19. Verbs ‣ Support for all verbs - Get, Post, Put, Delete, Head, Options, Patch ‣ They are just methods
  • 20. Routing ‣ No need of route files or route maps ‣ The verb method takes the route as parameter
  • 21. Routing get ( ‘/todos’ ) {...} get ( ‘/todo/:id’ ) {...} get ( ‘/*’ ) {...}
  • 22. Routing Conditions get '/foo', :agent => /Mozilla/(d.d)s w?/ do "You're using Mozilla version #{params[:agent][0]}" end get '/foo' do # Matches non-Mozilla browsers end
  • 23. Routing Custom set(:prob) { |v| condition { rand <= v } } get '/win_a_car', :prob => 0.1 do "You won!" end get '/win_a_car' {"Sorry, you lost."}
  • 24. Xml or Json ‣ You can set the content_type to whatever you need content_type :json content_type :xml
  • 25. Status codes ‣ Set the HTTP status code is status 200 status 403
  • 26. Http Headers ‣ You can add your own headers headers "X-My-Value" => "this is my header"
  • 28. Cache ‣ You can set your cache information using the headers method headers "Cache-Control" => "public, must-revalidate, max-age=3600", "Expires" => Time.at(Time.now.to_i + (60
  • 29. Cache ‣ Or better, you can use the expires expires 3600, :public
  • 31. Authentication ‣ Basic authentication support through Rack ‣ Key-based authentication
  • 32. Basic Authentication use Rack::Auth::Basic, "Private area" do |usr, pwd| [usr, pwd] == ['admin', 'admin'] end
  • 33. Token authentication before do if env[‘HTTP_MY_KEY’] ==’rubyrocks‘ error 401 end end
  • 34. Demo
  • 35. Stream ‣ Supports streamed content ‣ Streamed responses have no Content- Length header ‣ But have Transfer-Encoding: chunked
  • 37. Inside ‣ Sinatra source code is on github: http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra ‣ Less than 2k lines of code ‣ Based on Rack
  • 38. Application style Classic application vs Modular application
  • 39. Classic App Single file Standalone
  • 40. Modular Apps Multi file Subclassing Sinatra::Base Distributed as library
  • 41. The code What happen when a request arrives? get (‘/hello’) do { ‘hello world’ }
  • 42. Where do get come from? require "sinatra" outer_self = self get '/' do "outer self: #{outer_self}, inner self: #{self}" end outer self: main, inner self: #<Sinatra::Application: closures in ruby are “scope gate”
  • 43.
  • 44. $ irb
  • 45. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra'
  • 46. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true
  • 47. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get)
  • 48. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get>
  • 49. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false)
  • 50. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false) => [:delegate, :target, :target=]
  • 51. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false) => [:delegate, :target, :target=] ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target
  • 52. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false) => [:delegate, :target, :target=] ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target => Sinatra::Application
  • 53. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false) => [:delegate, :target, :target=] ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target => Sinatra::Application ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Application.method(:get)
  • 54. $ irb ruby-1.9.2-p180 > require 'sinatra' => true ruby-1.9.2-p180 > method(:get) => #<Method: Object(Sinatra::Delegator)#get> ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.methods(false) => [:delegate, :target, :target=] ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Delegator.target => Sinatra::Application ruby-1.9.2-p180 > Sinatra::Application.method(:get) => #<Method: Sinatra::Application(Sinatra::Base).get>
  • 55. Where do get come from? ‣ get is defined twice: – Once in Sinatra::Delegator a mixin extending Object – Once in Sinatra::Application ‣ The Delegator implementation simply delegate to Application ‣ That’s why we have get/post/... methods on main
  • 56. How the block is invoked? ‣ The route! method finds the correct route def route_eval throw :halt, yield end ‣ throw is used to go back to the invoker
  • 57. In base.rb ‣ The invoker def invoke res = catch(:halt) { yield } # .... other code... end
  • 58. It’s a kind of magic!
  • 59. Sinatra has ended his set (crowd applauds)
  • 62. Please rate this session Scan the code, go online, rate this session

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