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Silvo-fishery & Carbon
Oleh
Nyoman N. Suryadiputra
(Wetlands International Indonesia Programme)
What is silvo-fishery ?
Can silvo-fishery practices gain carbon
How is the results ? Any lessons can be learned ?
How Aquaculture Certification related to mangroves ?
What is sylvo-fishery ??
a fish/shrimp pond combined with mangrove trees- a
constructed wetland
How many percent of pond area covered by trees ??
What is the trees’ density ?? 2000 – 20,000 trees /ha
Where the trees should be planted (type of sylvo-fishery pond) ?
Why sylvo-fishery ? And what are the benefits ?
Single type
Mangroves + water
Farm land
Aquaculture
media
Treated water for aquaculture media
effluent
Parallel type
Sylvo-fishery: DRR + Livelihood + Mitigate CC
A model being promoted
in Banten Bay
DRR
• Vegetation surrounding pond (eg mangrove)
• Artificial Feed (pellet)
• Phytoplankton, algae & aquatic plants
• Water (intake)
• Diffusion from air
• Respiration & decomposition , etc
• Sediment removal (keduk teplok) from pond
bottom release GHG
Roles of mangrove trees in pond area
prevent soil slides from dykes (water quality control), biodiversity, shade, organic
fertilizer, support green belt, climate mitigation & adaptation etc.
Silvo-fishery pond - Pemalang, Central Java
CAGARBUDAYAMARINA CULTURALPARKRESORTWISATAKULINERREKREASIAIRPELABUANHUNIANMIX-USE
Masterplan Banten Waterfront City
Bio Rights in Banten Bay : to protect water bird reserve & restored degraded ponds
500 Ha of re-greening area will
potentially sequester
511,500 ton carbon
Or 1,877,205 ton CO2
Eroded area
Mangrove Rehabilitation behind Pulau Dua Nature Reserve by
WIIP 2009 – 2023 (Photo taken in March 2013)
Sediment trapping in front of Pulau Dua Reserve (photo 2012)
Accretion Land (sediment trapped using sand bags)
colonized by Avicennia spp. in Banten Bay in 2014
Mangrove role in CCA & DRR & CC Mitigation
Mangroves roles from the certification perspective and land
cover changes in relation to the release of carbon
A case study on farm’s environmental impact in Banyuwangi (East Java),
Delta Mahakam (East Kalimantan) and Bone (South Sulawesi)
Back ground :
• Consumers demand safer product: (1) food safety; (2) farm’s
environmental impact; (3) farm’s social impact
• 385 existing certification systems, incl. FT, organic, eco- , etc.
• In aquaculture there are 27 (..we have identified so far)
• Two of these were selected in our study :
1. Global GAP: non-Multi Stakeholder, third party (assessor), no
label, food safety oriented
2. Aquaculture Stewardship Council: Multi Stakeholder, third
party (assessor), label, environment and social impact
oriented
Mangrove Relevancy to ASC – Global GAP.
Open Sea
River
River
River
ponds
ponds
ponds
ponds
ponds
ponds
ponds
ponds
Mandatory green belt (Presidential
Decree no 32 year 1990). Total 70
ha, existing forest < 2 ha, 70 ha
need to be (manually) rehabilitated
by planting mangrove
Mandatory riparian (Ministry of Public Works
Decree no 63, year 1993 ). Total 270 ha,
existing forest cover 105 ha around 165 ha
need to be (manually) rehabilitated.
Existing forested
area inside farms,
around 75 ha
ASC Principles:
2.2 Protected Area and Critical Habitat
2.4 Ecological Buffer, Barrier, and Corridors.
Global GAP Principles:
5.8 Pond Management: vegetative buffer
and habitat corridor
10.4 High conservation value area:
sitting of farm and mangrove reforestation
Area of mangrove need to be maintained/rehabilitated according to ASC
Area
Site
Mahakam Delta Bone Banyuwangi
Total area of cluster (ha) 1318 630 477
% Original area of mangrove 80% 80% 60%
Total original area of mangrove (ha) 1055 504 286
Total area of mangrove need to be maintained/rehabilitated
according to ASC (50% original area of mangrove) (ha)
527 252 143
Areas still covered by mangrove (ha) 152 99 116
Remaining damage areas need Rehabilitation (ha) 376 153 27
Land cover change and carbon implication within 1990 - 2010
Land
cover
C stok
(ton/ha)
1990 2000 2010
Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C
Mangr
ove
252 - - 8 2,134 121.0 30,512
Pond
area
33 410 13,619 339 11,257 333.2 11,076
Land
cover
C stok
(ton/ha)
1990 2000 2010
Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C
Mangr
ove
264 204 53,985 141 37,199 99 26,180
Pond
area
40 487 19,496 512 20,488 515 20,613
Land
cover
C stok
(ton/ha)
1990 2000 2010
Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C
Mangr
ove
298 1,274 379,513 370 110,266 221 65,763
Pond
area
40 - - 948 37,941 1097 43,922
Site Banyuwangi
5 ton C gain /ha/year
Site Bone, Sulawesi
2 ton C loss/Ha/yr
Site Delta Mahakam, Kalimantan
11 ton C loss/Ha/Yr
Cassuarina , 3 years old : 18.7 ton C/Ha in 3 years).
Mangrove, 3 years old: 1.26 ton C/ Ha in 3 years
Photo taken Nov
2013 (9 Yrs old
mangrove trees)
3 Yrs old Cassuarina
3 Yrs old mangroves
C-Sequestration: What plant species need to plant ??
Measuring Carbon in Lham Ujong - Aceh
Total amount of carbon gained = 73 ton C or 268 t CO2 (3 years)

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Silvo-fishery & Carbon

  • 1. Silvo-fishery & Carbon Oleh Nyoman N. Suryadiputra (Wetlands International Indonesia Programme) What is silvo-fishery ? Can silvo-fishery practices gain carbon How is the results ? Any lessons can be learned ? How Aquaculture Certification related to mangroves ?
  • 2. What is sylvo-fishery ?? a fish/shrimp pond combined with mangrove trees- a constructed wetland How many percent of pond area covered by trees ?? What is the trees’ density ?? 2000 – 20,000 trees /ha Where the trees should be planted (type of sylvo-fishery pond) ? Why sylvo-fishery ? And what are the benefits ? Single type Mangroves + water Farm land Aquaculture media Treated water for aquaculture media effluent Parallel type
  • 3. Sylvo-fishery: DRR + Livelihood + Mitigate CC A model being promoted in Banten Bay DRR
  • 4. • Vegetation surrounding pond (eg mangrove) • Artificial Feed (pellet) • Phytoplankton, algae & aquatic plants • Water (intake) • Diffusion from air • Respiration & decomposition , etc • Sediment removal (keduk teplok) from pond bottom release GHG
  • 5. Roles of mangrove trees in pond area prevent soil slides from dykes (water quality control), biodiversity, shade, organic fertilizer, support green belt, climate mitigation & adaptation etc. Silvo-fishery pond - Pemalang, Central Java
  • 6. CAGARBUDAYAMARINA CULTURALPARKRESORTWISATAKULINERREKREASIAIRPELABUANHUNIANMIX-USE Masterplan Banten Waterfront City Bio Rights in Banten Bay : to protect water bird reserve & restored degraded ponds 500 Ha of re-greening area will potentially sequester 511,500 ton carbon Or 1,877,205 ton CO2 Eroded area
  • 7. Mangrove Rehabilitation behind Pulau Dua Nature Reserve by WIIP 2009 – 2023 (Photo taken in March 2013)
  • 8. Sediment trapping in front of Pulau Dua Reserve (photo 2012) Accretion Land (sediment trapped using sand bags) colonized by Avicennia spp. in Banten Bay in 2014 Mangrove role in CCA & DRR & CC Mitigation
  • 9. Mangroves roles from the certification perspective and land cover changes in relation to the release of carbon A case study on farm’s environmental impact in Banyuwangi (East Java), Delta Mahakam (East Kalimantan) and Bone (South Sulawesi) Back ground : • Consumers demand safer product: (1) food safety; (2) farm’s environmental impact; (3) farm’s social impact • 385 existing certification systems, incl. FT, organic, eco- , etc. • In aquaculture there are 27 (..we have identified so far) • Two of these were selected in our study : 1. Global GAP: non-Multi Stakeholder, third party (assessor), no label, food safety oriented 2. Aquaculture Stewardship Council: Multi Stakeholder, third party (assessor), label, environment and social impact oriented
  • 10. Mangrove Relevancy to ASC – Global GAP. Open Sea River River River ponds ponds ponds ponds ponds ponds ponds ponds Mandatory green belt (Presidential Decree no 32 year 1990). Total 70 ha, existing forest < 2 ha, 70 ha need to be (manually) rehabilitated by planting mangrove Mandatory riparian (Ministry of Public Works Decree no 63, year 1993 ). Total 270 ha, existing forest cover 105 ha around 165 ha need to be (manually) rehabilitated. Existing forested area inside farms, around 75 ha ASC Principles: 2.2 Protected Area and Critical Habitat 2.4 Ecological Buffer, Barrier, and Corridors. Global GAP Principles: 5.8 Pond Management: vegetative buffer and habitat corridor 10.4 High conservation value area: sitting of farm and mangrove reforestation
  • 11. Area of mangrove need to be maintained/rehabilitated according to ASC Area Site Mahakam Delta Bone Banyuwangi Total area of cluster (ha) 1318 630 477 % Original area of mangrove 80% 80% 60% Total original area of mangrove (ha) 1055 504 286 Total area of mangrove need to be maintained/rehabilitated according to ASC (50% original area of mangrove) (ha) 527 252 143 Areas still covered by mangrove (ha) 152 99 116 Remaining damage areas need Rehabilitation (ha) 376 153 27
  • 12. Land cover change and carbon implication within 1990 - 2010 Land cover C stok (ton/ha) 1990 2000 2010 Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Mangr ove 252 - - 8 2,134 121.0 30,512 Pond area 33 410 13,619 339 11,257 333.2 11,076 Land cover C stok (ton/ha) 1990 2000 2010 Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Mangr ove 264 204 53,985 141 37,199 99 26,180 Pond area 40 487 19,496 512 20,488 515 20,613 Land cover C stok (ton/ha) 1990 2000 2010 Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Ha Ton C Mangr ove 298 1,274 379,513 370 110,266 221 65,763 Pond area 40 - - 948 37,941 1097 43,922 Site Banyuwangi 5 ton C gain /ha/year Site Bone, Sulawesi 2 ton C loss/Ha/yr Site Delta Mahakam, Kalimantan 11 ton C loss/Ha/Yr
  • 13. Cassuarina , 3 years old : 18.7 ton C/Ha in 3 years). Mangrove, 3 years old: 1.26 ton C/ Ha in 3 years Photo taken Nov 2013 (9 Yrs old mangrove trees) 3 Yrs old Cassuarina 3 Yrs old mangroves C-Sequestration: What plant species need to plant ??
  • 14. Measuring Carbon in Lham Ujong - Aceh Total amount of carbon gained = 73 ton C or 268 t CO2 (3 years)