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SHEET METAL SHOP
It deals with working of thin sheets with hand
tools and simple machines into various cutting forms
by:
1. Cutting
2. Forming into shapes
3. joining

Examples: Making of canisters, boxes, funnels, pipes,
bends, cans etc.
FEATURES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Less Expensive
Lighter in weight
Good surface finish
Requires lesser force of deformation
Can easily replace the use of casting or forging
MATERIAL USED
Black Iron:
Cheapest sheet metal
Bluish black appearance
Often referred to as uncoated sheet
Corrodes rapidly
Use is limited to the articles that are to be
painted such as tanks, pans, stove pipes etc.
MATERIAL USED
Galvenised Iron:
it is a Zn coated iron
Popularly known as GI Sheets
Zn coating :
resist rusting,
improves the appearance of
metal
permit to be soldered at greater
ease
Reduce weldability by producing
toxic fumes and residues

Use to make pans, buckets,
heating ducts, gutters etc.
MATERIAL USED
Stainless Steel:
it is an alloy of steel with
chromium(min.10-12%), nickel
and some other materials.
Good corrosive resistance
Good weldability
Cost is very high
Tougher than GI sheets
Use in food processing, dairy
industry, chemical plants,
kitchenwares etc.
MATERIAL USED
Copper:
Available either as cold rolled or hot
rolled sheets
Better appearance than other
metals
Good corrosive resistance
Conducts heat and electricity
efficiently
Cost is very high
Use in automobile industries,
electric works, expansion joints,
gutters etc.
MATERIAL USED
Aluminium:
Can not be used in pure form,
but is used with a very small
amount of Cu, Si, Mn and Fe.
Whitish in color
Light in weight
Highly resistance to corrosion
Use
in
construction
of
refrigerator
trays,
lighting
fixtures,
window
panels,
airplanes , many electrical and
transport items etc.
MATERIAL USED
Tin Plates:
is a thin sheet of iron coated
with tin to prevent rusting
Very bright silvery appearance
Use in roofs, food containers,
dairy equipments, furnace
fittings, cans, pans etc.
MATERIAL USED
Lead:
Worked by hand without
using any mechanical
device
Very soft and heavy
Use in nuclear shielding,
highly corrosive acid tank
linings,
roof
flashing,
sound-proofing, vibration
absorbers, waterproofing
and x-ray shielding.
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
1. Measuring tools
i. Steel rule
ii. Folding rule
iii.Circumference
rule
iv. Vernier
Caliper
v. Micrometer
vi. Thickness
Gauge
vii. Sheet Metal
Gauge

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Straight Edge
Steel Square
Scriber
Divider
Trammel
Points
7. Punches
8. Chisel

9. Hammers
10. Snips or
shears
11. Pliers
12. Stakes
13. Groovers
14. Rivet Set
15. Soldering
Iron
1. MEASURING TOOLS
i.

Steel Rule: It is made of hardened
steel and used for taking linear
measurements of articles to an
accuracy from 1 to 0.5 mm.
ii. Folding Rule: This is very useful in
measuring and laying out larger
work with 0.5 mm accuracy.
iii. Steel Circumference Rule: It is
used to find out directly the
circumference of a cylinder.
iv. Swing Blade Protractor: used for
marking and measuring angle
1. MEASURING TOOLS
v. Vernier Caliper: used for
measuring both inside and
outside dimensions upto 0.02
mm.
vi. Micrometer Caliper: used to
measure the thickness of metal
sheets accurately upto 0.01
mm.
vii. Thickness Gauge: also called slip
gauge and used to measure the
clearance between parts during
assembly
viii. Sheet Metal Gauge: used to
measure the thickness of sheets
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
2. Straight Edge: is a flat
graduated steel bar with one
longitudinal edge bevelled. It
is useful for scribing long
straight lines.
3. Steel Square: made of
hardened steel. It is used for
marking in the perpendicular
direction to any base line.
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
Scriber: also known as metal
worker’s pencil. It has one
hardened sharp pointed edge
to scratch line on sheet metal.
5. Dividers: used for drawing
circles , arc on sheet metal and
also used to mark a desired
distance between two points.
6. Trammel Points: consist of a bar
with two movable heads. It is
used to draw large circles or
arcs that are beyond the limit
of the dividers.
4.
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
Punch: used for marking out
work, locating centers etc.
Prick punches is used to make
small marks on layout lines.
Centre punch is used to make prick
punch markers larger at the
centre holes that are to be
drilled
Hand lever punch is used for
marking holes with a punch
and die incorporated in the
tool when a large number of
holes are to be punched.
7.
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
8.

Chisel: used for
cutting sheets, rivets,
bolts and chipping
operations. The flat
chisel and round nose
chisel
are
most
widely used in sheet
metal works.

flat chisel

round nose chisel
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
9. Hammers: used for forming
shapes by raising, stretching
or throwing off.
Types:
1. Riveting hammer: used for
riveting
2. Setting hammer: used for
setting down the edge while
making a double seam
3. Raising hammer: used for
forming of a flat sheet of metal
into a curved or hollow shape like
spoon.

Riveting Hammer

Setting Hammer

Raising Hammer
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
9a. Mallet: used to strike a light
and soft blow on metal.
-this is soft hammer made of
rubber, copper, brass, wood
etc.
10. Snips or shears: used to cut thin
sheets.
11. Stakes: sheet metal worker’s
anvils ,i.e., supporting tool.

Mallet

Snips

Stakes
SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS
12. Pliers: used for holding,
bending and cutting work.
Plires

13. Hand Groover: used for grooves
and flatten a seam
14. Rivet Set: a hardened steel tool
with hollow in one end.
-used to shape the end of rivet

Groover

Rivet Set
SHEET METAL OPERATIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Shearing
Bending
Drawing
Squeezing
SHEET METAL OPERATIONS
1. Shearing: it has three
basic stagesA. Plastic Deformation
B. Fracture
C. Shear
This procedure gives a
clean edge on the piece
of metal.
1. SHEARING
Some basic shearing
operations are:
A. Cutting off: cutting off a
piece from a strip

A

B. Parting: cutting a strip
between two pieces to
part them
B
1. SHEARING
C. Blanking:
It is an operation of cutting a flat
shape from a sheet metal. The
part punched out is called the
blank and the remaining sheet is
the scrap.
D. Punching:
It is a cutting operation by which
various shaped holes are made
in the sheet metal.
In this operation, the hole is the
required operation and the
material punched out is the
scrap.
1. SHEARING
E. Notching: removing the

E

metal from the edge of
sheet metal.

F. Slitting: In this shearing
is conducted between
rotary blades.
G. Lancing: This makes a
cut part way across a
strip.
H. Trimming: cutting away
excess material or flash
from a piece.

F

G
2. BENDING
Bending is the creation of a
formed feature by angular
displacement of a sheet metal
work piece.
In this operation, the material
in the form of flat sheet or strip
is uniformly strained around a
linear axis which lies in the
neutral
place
and
perpendicular
to
the
lengthwise direction of the
sheet or metal.
3. DRAWING
It is the operation of
producing
cup
shaped
products from flat metal
sheet.
It is divided into two parts:
1. Deep Drawing: in this
the length of object is
higher than its width
2. Shallow Drawing: in this
the length of object is
lesser than its width
4. SQUEEZING
In this operation, the metal is squeezed within
the cavity of the die and the punch to attain the
desired shape.
SHEET METAL JOINTS
1.Hem:
“A hem is an edge or border
made by folding.”
Hems are commonly used
to reinforce an edge, hide
burrs and rough edges, and
improve appearance.
Types:
1. Single Hem
2. Double Hem
3. Wired Hem

Single Hem

Double Hem
SHEET METAL JOINTS
2. Seams:
“A seam joins the edges
of two materials.”
Seams are commonly
used in the food
industry on canned
goods, on amusement
park cars, and in the
automotive industry.
SHEET METAL JOINTS
Types of Seam:
A. Lap Seam: it can prepare
as lap joint by means of
soldering
B. Grooved Seam: made by
hooking two hems and
locking them by groover.
C. Single Seam: used to join
bottom
to
vertical
bodies
of
various
shapes.

LAP SEAM

GROOVED SEAM
SHEET METAL JOINTS
D. Double Seam: it is like
single seam except that
it formed edge is bent
upward against the
body.
E. Dovetail Seam: similar to
dove tail joint and used
to join flat plate to a
cylindrical piece.
F. Burred bottom Seam:
used to join bottom of
container to its body.

DOUBLE SEAM

DOVETAIL SEAM
SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE
Various machines commonly used are:
1. Shearing machine: used to cut or shear metal sheets.
SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE
2. Bar Folder: used to bend and fold the edges of metal
sheets.
SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE
3. Burring Machine: used to make burr of the edges of
the bottom for a can and on the end of cylinder
SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE
4. Turning Machine: similar to burring machine and used to
produce a rounded edge for wiring operation and for double
seaming
SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE
5. Wiring Machine: is used to press the wire inserted into
turned sheet after the hammering.
6. Forming machine: used to form stove pipes, cans etc.
It consists of three rolls between which the curves are made.
metal.

7. Brake: is a machine used for bending and folding sheet
metal.

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Sheet metal shop

  • 1.
  • 2. SHEET METAL SHOP It deals with working of thin sheets with hand tools and simple machines into various cutting forms by: 1. Cutting 2. Forming into shapes 3. joining Examples: Making of canisters, boxes, funnels, pipes, bends, cans etc.
  • 3. FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Less Expensive Lighter in weight Good surface finish Requires lesser force of deformation Can easily replace the use of casting or forging
  • 4. MATERIAL USED Black Iron: Cheapest sheet metal Bluish black appearance Often referred to as uncoated sheet Corrodes rapidly Use is limited to the articles that are to be painted such as tanks, pans, stove pipes etc.
  • 5. MATERIAL USED Galvenised Iron: it is a Zn coated iron Popularly known as GI Sheets Zn coating : resist rusting, improves the appearance of metal permit to be soldered at greater ease Reduce weldability by producing toxic fumes and residues Use to make pans, buckets, heating ducts, gutters etc.
  • 6. MATERIAL USED Stainless Steel: it is an alloy of steel with chromium(min.10-12%), nickel and some other materials. Good corrosive resistance Good weldability Cost is very high Tougher than GI sheets Use in food processing, dairy industry, chemical plants, kitchenwares etc.
  • 7. MATERIAL USED Copper: Available either as cold rolled or hot rolled sheets Better appearance than other metals Good corrosive resistance Conducts heat and electricity efficiently Cost is very high Use in automobile industries, electric works, expansion joints, gutters etc.
  • 8. MATERIAL USED Aluminium: Can not be used in pure form, but is used with a very small amount of Cu, Si, Mn and Fe. Whitish in color Light in weight Highly resistance to corrosion Use in construction of refrigerator trays, lighting fixtures, window panels, airplanes , many electrical and transport items etc.
  • 9. MATERIAL USED Tin Plates: is a thin sheet of iron coated with tin to prevent rusting Very bright silvery appearance Use in roofs, food containers, dairy equipments, furnace fittings, cans, pans etc.
  • 10. MATERIAL USED Lead: Worked by hand without using any mechanical device Very soft and heavy Use in nuclear shielding, highly corrosive acid tank linings, roof flashing, sound-proofing, vibration absorbers, waterproofing and x-ray shielding.
  • 11. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 1. Measuring tools i. Steel rule ii. Folding rule iii.Circumference rule iv. Vernier Caliper v. Micrometer vi. Thickness Gauge vii. Sheet Metal Gauge 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Straight Edge Steel Square Scriber Divider Trammel Points 7. Punches 8. Chisel 9. Hammers 10. Snips or shears 11. Pliers 12. Stakes 13. Groovers 14. Rivet Set 15. Soldering Iron
  • 12. 1. MEASURING TOOLS i. Steel Rule: It is made of hardened steel and used for taking linear measurements of articles to an accuracy from 1 to 0.5 mm. ii. Folding Rule: This is very useful in measuring and laying out larger work with 0.5 mm accuracy. iii. Steel Circumference Rule: It is used to find out directly the circumference of a cylinder. iv. Swing Blade Protractor: used for marking and measuring angle
  • 13. 1. MEASURING TOOLS v. Vernier Caliper: used for measuring both inside and outside dimensions upto 0.02 mm. vi. Micrometer Caliper: used to measure the thickness of metal sheets accurately upto 0.01 mm. vii. Thickness Gauge: also called slip gauge and used to measure the clearance between parts during assembly viii. Sheet Metal Gauge: used to measure the thickness of sheets
  • 14. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 2. Straight Edge: is a flat graduated steel bar with one longitudinal edge bevelled. It is useful for scribing long straight lines. 3. Steel Square: made of hardened steel. It is used for marking in the perpendicular direction to any base line.
  • 15. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS Scriber: also known as metal worker’s pencil. It has one hardened sharp pointed edge to scratch line on sheet metal. 5. Dividers: used for drawing circles , arc on sheet metal and also used to mark a desired distance between two points. 6. Trammel Points: consist of a bar with two movable heads. It is used to draw large circles or arcs that are beyond the limit of the dividers. 4.
  • 16. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS Punch: used for marking out work, locating centers etc. Prick punches is used to make small marks on layout lines. Centre punch is used to make prick punch markers larger at the centre holes that are to be drilled Hand lever punch is used for marking holes with a punch and die incorporated in the tool when a large number of holes are to be punched. 7.
  • 17. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 8. Chisel: used for cutting sheets, rivets, bolts and chipping operations. The flat chisel and round nose chisel are most widely used in sheet metal works. flat chisel round nose chisel
  • 18. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 9. Hammers: used for forming shapes by raising, stretching or throwing off. Types: 1. Riveting hammer: used for riveting 2. Setting hammer: used for setting down the edge while making a double seam 3. Raising hammer: used for forming of a flat sheet of metal into a curved or hollow shape like spoon. Riveting Hammer Setting Hammer Raising Hammer
  • 19. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 9a. Mallet: used to strike a light and soft blow on metal. -this is soft hammer made of rubber, copper, brass, wood etc. 10. Snips or shears: used to cut thin sheets. 11. Stakes: sheet metal worker’s anvils ,i.e., supporting tool. Mallet Snips Stakes
  • 20. SHEET METAL HAND TOOLS 12. Pliers: used for holding, bending and cutting work. Plires 13. Hand Groover: used for grooves and flatten a seam 14. Rivet Set: a hardened steel tool with hollow in one end. -used to shape the end of rivet Groover Rivet Set
  • 22. SHEET METAL OPERATIONS 1. Shearing: it has three basic stagesA. Plastic Deformation B. Fracture C. Shear This procedure gives a clean edge on the piece of metal.
  • 23. 1. SHEARING Some basic shearing operations are: A. Cutting off: cutting off a piece from a strip A B. Parting: cutting a strip between two pieces to part them B
  • 24. 1. SHEARING C. Blanking: It is an operation of cutting a flat shape from a sheet metal. The part punched out is called the blank and the remaining sheet is the scrap. D. Punching: It is a cutting operation by which various shaped holes are made in the sheet metal. In this operation, the hole is the required operation and the material punched out is the scrap.
  • 25. 1. SHEARING E. Notching: removing the E metal from the edge of sheet metal. F. Slitting: In this shearing is conducted between rotary blades. G. Lancing: This makes a cut part way across a strip. H. Trimming: cutting away excess material or flash from a piece. F G
  • 26. 2. BENDING Bending is the creation of a formed feature by angular displacement of a sheet metal work piece. In this operation, the material in the form of flat sheet or strip is uniformly strained around a linear axis which lies in the neutral place and perpendicular to the lengthwise direction of the sheet or metal.
  • 27. 3. DRAWING It is the operation of producing cup shaped products from flat metal sheet. It is divided into two parts: 1. Deep Drawing: in this the length of object is higher than its width 2. Shallow Drawing: in this the length of object is lesser than its width
  • 28. 4. SQUEEZING In this operation, the metal is squeezed within the cavity of the die and the punch to attain the desired shape.
  • 29. SHEET METAL JOINTS 1.Hem: “A hem is an edge or border made by folding.” Hems are commonly used to reinforce an edge, hide burrs and rough edges, and improve appearance. Types: 1. Single Hem 2. Double Hem 3. Wired Hem Single Hem Double Hem
  • 30. SHEET METAL JOINTS 2. Seams: “A seam joins the edges of two materials.” Seams are commonly used in the food industry on canned goods, on amusement park cars, and in the automotive industry.
  • 31. SHEET METAL JOINTS Types of Seam: A. Lap Seam: it can prepare as lap joint by means of soldering B. Grooved Seam: made by hooking two hems and locking them by groover. C. Single Seam: used to join bottom to vertical bodies of various shapes. LAP SEAM GROOVED SEAM
  • 32. SHEET METAL JOINTS D. Double Seam: it is like single seam except that it formed edge is bent upward against the body. E. Dovetail Seam: similar to dove tail joint and used to join flat plate to a cylindrical piece. F. Burred bottom Seam: used to join bottom of container to its body. DOUBLE SEAM DOVETAIL SEAM
  • 33. SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE Various machines commonly used are: 1. Shearing machine: used to cut or shear metal sheets.
  • 34. SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE 2. Bar Folder: used to bend and fold the edges of metal sheets.
  • 35. SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE 3. Burring Machine: used to make burr of the edges of the bottom for a can and on the end of cylinder
  • 36. SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE 4. Turning Machine: similar to burring machine and used to produce a rounded edge for wiring operation and for double seaming
  • 37. SHEET METAL WORKING MACHINE 5. Wiring Machine: is used to press the wire inserted into turned sheet after the hammering. 6. Forming machine: used to form stove pipes, cans etc. It consists of three rolls between which the curves are made. metal. 7. Brake: is a machine used for bending and folding sheet metal.