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A Puzzle to Solve: How Successful Is
Teaching Information Literacy
Instruction in Distance Learning?
European Conference on Information Literacy 2013
Istanbul, Turkey
Dr. Sharon Yang, Rider University
Oct 22-25, 2013
An Assessment Study
• Two identical courses, Spring, 2013 (Feb-May)
– CIS-340 Online: Ecommerce, 12 students
– CIS-340 F2F: Ecommerce, 26 students
• Worked with Faculty/professor of the two courses
• Process
– Pre-test a week before the instruction
– F2F research instruction for CIS-340 F2F
– Captured lecture for online course
– Post test within three days to a week
The Same 10 Questions for Pre- & Post
Tests
1 Why do you use truncation symbols in your search?
2 How do you do a phrase search?
3 You use Boolean operator "and" to…
4 You use Boolean operator "or" to
5
Which of the following is the best search statement for
information on security issues regarding electronic fund
transfer in setting up e-commerce?
6
If you are looking for information on the latest development of a
technology, what is the best choice for searching?
7
If you want all the articles on business use of wiki from Wall
Street Journal since 1970 to present, how do you do it?
8 What is a scholarly journal?
9 If you are looking for journal articles, where do you look?
10
What are the factors you should consider when evaluating
Internet resources?
Pre-test of F2F vs. Online
41.67%
75.00%
58.33%
83.33%
50.00%
33.33%
66.67%
58.33%
41.67%
91.67%
14.29%
28.57%
57.14%
71.43%
28.57%
14.29%
42.86%
100.00%
14.29%
100.00%
0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
F2F On line
Data Loss
Post Test of F2F vs. Online
14.29%
28.57%
57.14%
71.43%
28.57%
14.29%
42.86%
100.00%
14.29%
100.00%100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
0.00% 0.00%
100.00%
0.00%
100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Online Pre-test Online Post-test
Problems in the Study
1. The faculty-An assessment is not a requirement. So the response rate for
pre-test is 63% and post test 84%.
2. Technical problem-Google Docs-lost 18 responses from post test
3. Small number of students in both classes (26 F2F vs. 12 online). Findings
are not conclusive.
4. The captured lecture with online classes. Not sure if students really
listened to it or not. No control over online attendance.
5. The captured lecture-hard to fit the lecture and demos into a short
captured video.
6. Time limit in creating a captured lecture to repeat what is taught in the
class.
7. Students took library instruction before?
Which Is More Effective? – Study 1
Date: 2012
Setting: University of Arizona Libraries, USA
Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of 10 week one credit
online library course vs. F2F one-shot 50 min library session.
Research method: Compare test scores of pre- and post-tests
covering the same concepts by 660 students.
Findings: Online significantly better in performance or scores
Which Is More Effective? – Study 2
Date: 2010
Setting: Rogers State University Library, USA
Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of online with traditional F2F
library instruction in three classes
Research Method: Citation analysis on term papers
Findings: No difference.
Which Is More Effective? – Study 3
Date: 2011
Setting: Loyola Marymount University, CA, USA
Purpose: Hybrid instruction vs. online instruction.
Research method: Compared scores from worksheets from blended
instruction (2 module online and 3 modules F2F,100 worksheets) vs.
online (five modules 46 worksheets)
Findings: Computer-assisted instruction is equally or more effective
than hybrid instruction
Which Is More Effective? – Study 4
Date: 2011
Setting: State University of New York at Oswego, NY, USA
Purpose: Online vs. F2F library instruction to graduate students
Research method: Compared pre- and post-test scores; citation
analysis.
Findings: Online instruction is equivalent to F2F in learning
outcome. The face-to-face group was more satisfied with the class.
Which Is More Effective? – Study 5
Study 5
Date: 2008
Setting: University of Rhode Island, USA
Purpose: Evaluate online vs. F2F library instruction
Research Method: Compare the scores from Pre- and post-tests
Findings: Online students performed slightly better than their face-
to-face counterparts.
Which Is More Effective? – Study 6
Date: 2010
Setting: Nigeria public schools, Nigeria
Purpose: Compare the effectiveness of captioned videos with F2F
instruction for hearing impaired kids
Findings: F2F and captioned video are equally effective.
Which Is More Effective? – Study 7
Date: 2008
Setting: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NYC
Purpose: Evaluate students’ satisfaction towards online (tutorials) vs.
F2F instruction on PubMed
Research Method: Pre- and post tests by 455 first year medical
students
Findings: Students who took the online tutorial were equally or more
satisfied with the learning experience than students who attended
classroom sessions
Which Is More Effective?- Study 8
• Date: 2005
• Setting: University of Central Florida, USA
• Purpose: Compare three formats of delivery: F2F, on campus Web
based tutorials, and distance Web based tutorials with 49 students
in three classes
• Research method: Pre- and post-tests
• Findings: Equal learning outcomes; Group of Web based tutorials
shows higher self-efficacy.
Which Is More Effective-Study 9
Date: 2009
Setting: US Department of Education, USA
Research Method: Massive analysis of data from all previous
studies on online vs. F2F instruction across the disciplines.
Findings: Interesting!!!
• Students in online classes performed better than those in F2F
classes
• Online videos/quizzes do not affect students’ learning
outcome
Which Is More Effective-Study 9-continued
“Students who took all or part of their class online performed better, on
average, than those taking the same course through traditional face-to-
face instruction”
“Elements such as video or online quizzes do not appear to influence
the amount that students learn in online classes.”
“Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger
advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely
online instruction”
“Studies in which learners in the online condition spent more time on
task than students in the face-to-face condition found a greater benefit
for online learning.”
Conclusion
• Conflicting findings
• Online library instruction is equally
effective as F2F instruction.
• Comparison of online vs. F2F may have
different findings across the disciplines.
Studies
Study 1
Mery, Y., Newby, J., & Peng, K. (2012). Why One-shot Information Literacy Sessions Are Not the Future of Instruction:
A Case for Online Credit Courses. College & Research Libraries, 73(4), 366-377.
Study 2
Clark, S., & Chinburg, S. (2010). Research Performance in Undergraduates Receiving Face to Face versus Online
Library Instruction: A Citation Analysis. Journal Of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 530-542.
doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488599
Study 3
Archambault, S. (2011). Library Instruction for Freshman English: A Multi-Year Assessment of Student Learning.
Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 6(4), 88-106.
Study 4
Shaffer, B. A. (2011). Graduate Student Library Research Skills: Is Online Instruction Effective?. Journal Of Library &
Information Services In Distance Learning, 5(1/2), 35-55. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2011.570546
Study 5
Burkhardt, J. M., Kinnie, J., & Cournoyer, C. M. (2008). Information Literacy Successes Compared: Online vs. Face to
Face. Journal Of Library Administration, 48(3/4), 379-389.
Studies-Continued
Study 6
Atinmo, M., & Egunjobi, R. (2010). A Comparative Study of Captioned Video and Face-to-Face Instruction in Library
Instruction for Secondary School Students with Hearing Impairment. Library Philosophy & Practice, 1-9.
Study 7
Schimming, L. M. (2008). Measuring medical student preference: a comparison of classroom versus online instruction
for teaching PubMed. Journal Of The Medical Library Association, 96(3), 217-222.
Study 8
Beile, P. M., & Boote, D. N. (2004). Does the medium matter?: A comparison of a Web-based tutorial with face-to-face
library instruction on education students' self-efficacy levels and learning outcomes. Research Strategies, 20(1/2), 57-
68. doi:10.1016/j.resstr.2005.07.002
Study 9
Wadham, R. (2009). “Online learning vs. Face to Face” at http://sites.lib.byu.edu/education/2009/08/24/online-learning-
vs-face-to-face/ (accessed Oct 12, 2013).
US Department of Education(2009). “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning
• A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies” at http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-
based-practices/finalreport.pdf (accessed Oct 12, 2013).
References
• Driscoll, A, Jicha, K, Hunt, A, Tichavsky, L, & Thompson, G 2012, 'Can Online Courses Deliver In-class Results?:
A Comparison of Student Performance and Satisfaction in an Online versus a Face-to-face Introductory Sociology
Course', Teaching Sociology, 40, 4, pp. 312-331.
• Euzent, P, Martin, T, Moskal, P, & Moskal, P 2011, 'Assessing Student Performance and Perceptions in Lecture
Capture vs. Face-to-Face Course Delivery', Journal Of Information Technology Education, 10, pp. 295-307.
• Pearcy, A 2009, 'Finding the Perfect Blend: A Comparative Study of Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended
Instruction', Proquest LLC, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 September 2013.

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A Puzzle to Solve: How Successful Is Teaching Information Instruction in Distance Learning?

  • 1. A Puzzle to Solve: How Successful Is Teaching Information Literacy Instruction in Distance Learning? European Conference on Information Literacy 2013 Istanbul, Turkey Dr. Sharon Yang, Rider University Oct 22-25, 2013
  • 2. An Assessment Study • Two identical courses, Spring, 2013 (Feb-May) – CIS-340 Online: Ecommerce, 12 students – CIS-340 F2F: Ecommerce, 26 students • Worked with Faculty/professor of the two courses • Process – Pre-test a week before the instruction – F2F research instruction for CIS-340 F2F – Captured lecture for online course – Post test within three days to a week
  • 3. The Same 10 Questions for Pre- & Post Tests 1 Why do you use truncation symbols in your search? 2 How do you do a phrase search? 3 You use Boolean operator "and" to… 4 You use Boolean operator "or" to 5 Which of the following is the best search statement for information on security issues regarding electronic fund transfer in setting up e-commerce? 6 If you are looking for information on the latest development of a technology, what is the best choice for searching? 7 If you want all the articles on business use of wiki from Wall Street Journal since 1970 to present, how do you do it? 8 What is a scholarly journal? 9 If you are looking for journal articles, where do you look? 10 What are the factors you should consider when evaluating Internet resources?
  • 4. Pre-test of F2F vs. Online 41.67% 75.00% 58.33% 83.33% 50.00% 33.33% 66.67% 58.33% 41.67% 91.67% 14.29% 28.57% 57.14% 71.43% 28.57% 14.29% 42.86% 100.00% 14.29% 100.00% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F2F On line
  • 6. Post Test of F2F vs. Online 14.29% 28.57% 57.14% 71.43% 28.57% 14.29% 42.86% 100.00% 14.29% 100.00%100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00% 0.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Online Pre-test Online Post-test
  • 7. Problems in the Study 1. The faculty-An assessment is not a requirement. So the response rate for pre-test is 63% and post test 84%. 2. Technical problem-Google Docs-lost 18 responses from post test 3. Small number of students in both classes (26 F2F vs. 12 online). Findings are not conclusive. 4. The captured lecture with online classes. Not sure if students really listened to it or not. No control over online attendance. 5. The captured lecture-hard to fit the lecture and demos into a short captured video. 6. Time limit in creating a captured lecture to repeat what is taught in the class. 7. Students took library instruction before?
  • 8. Which Is More Effective? – Study 1 Date: 2012 Setting: University of Arizona Libraries, USA Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of 10 week one credit online library course vs. F2F one-shot 50 min library session. Research method: Compare test scores of pre- and post-tests covering the same concepts by 660 students. Findings: Online significantly better in performance or scores
  • 9. Which Is More Effective? – Study 2 Date: 2010 Setting: Rogers State University Library, USA Purpose: Evaluate the effectiveness of online with traditional F2F library instruction in three classes Research Method: Citation analysis on term papers Findings: No difference.
  • 10. Which Is More Effective? – Study 3 Date: 2011 Setting: Loyola Marymount University, CA, USA Purpose: Hybrid instruction vs. online instruction. Research method: Compared scores from worksheets from blended instruction (2 module online and 3 modules F2F,100 worksheets) vs. online (five modules 46 worksheets) Findings: Computer-assisted instruction is equally or more effective than hybrid instruction
  • 11. Which Is More Effective? – Study 4 Date: 2011 Setting: State University of New York at Oswego, NY, USA Purpose: Online vs. F2F library instruction to graduate students Research method: Compared pre- and post-test scores; citation analysis. Findings: Online instruction is equivalent to F2F in learning outcome. The face-to-face group was more satisfied with the class.
  • 12. Which Is More Effective? – Study 5 Study 5 Date: 2008 Setting: University of Rhode Island, USA Purpose: Evaluate online vs. F2F library instruction Research Method: Compare the scores from Pre- and post-tests Findings: Online students performed slightly better than their face- to-face counterparts.
  • 13. Which Is More Effective? – Study 6 Date: 2010 Setting: Nigeria public schools, Nigeria Purpose: Compare the effectiveness of captioned videos with F2F instruction for hearing impaired kids Findings: F2F and captioned video are equally effective.
  • 14. Which Is More Effective? – Study 7 Date: 2008 Setting: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NYC Purpose: Evaluate students’ satisfaction towards online (tutorials) vs. F2F instruction on PubMed Research Method: Pre- and post tests by 455 first year medical students Findings: Students who took the online tutorial were equally or more satisfied with the learning experience than students who attended classroom sessions
  • 15. Which Is More Effective?- Study 8 • Date: 2005 • Setting: University of Central Florida, USA • Purpose: Compare three formats of delivery: F2F, on campus Web based tutorials, and distance Web based tutorials with 49 students in three classes • Research method: Pre- and post-tests • Findings: Equal learning outcomes; Group of Web based tutorials shows higher self-efficacy.
  • 16. Which Is More Effective-Study 9 Date: 2009 Setting: US Department of Education, USA Research Method: Massive analysis of data from all previous studies on online vs. F2F instruction across the disciplines. Findings: Interesting!!! • Students in online classes performed better than those in F2F classes • Online videos/quizzes do not affect students’ learning outcome
  • 17. Which Is More Effective-Study 9-continued “Students who took all or part of their class online performed better, on average, than those taking the same course through traditional face-to- face instruction” “Elements such as video or online quizzes do not appear to influence the amount that students learn in online classes.” “Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction” “Studies in which learners in the online condition spent more time on task than students in the face-to-face condition found a greater benefit for online learning.”
  • 18. Conclusion • Conflicting findings • Online library instruction is equally effective as F2F instruction. • Comparison of online vs. F2F may have different findings across the disciplines.
  • 19. Studies Study 1 Mery, Y., Newby, J., & Peng, K. (2012). Why One-shot Information Literacy Sessions Are Not the Future of Instruction: A Case for Online Credit Courses. College & Research Libraries, 73(4), 366-377. Study 2 Clark, S., & Chinburg, S. (2010). Research Performance in Undergraduates Receiving Face to Face versus Online Library Instruction: A Citation Analysis. Journal Of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 530-542. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488599 Study 3 Archambault, S. (2011). Library Instruction for Freshman English: A Multi-Year Assessment of Student Learning. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 6(4), 88-106. Study 4 Shaffer, B. A. (2011). Graduate Student Library Research Skills: Is Online Instruction Effective?. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 5(1/2), 35-55. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2011.570546 Study 5 Burkhardt, J. M., Kinnie, J., & Cournoyer, C. M. (2008). Information Literacy Successes Compared: Online vs. Face to Face. Journal Of Library Administration, 48(3/4), 379-389.
  • 20. Studies-Continued Study 6 Atinmo, M., & Egunjobi, R. (2010). A Comparative Study of Captioned Video and Face-to-Face Instruction in Library Instruction for Secondary School Students with Hearing Impairment. Library Philosophy & Practice, 1-9. Study 7 Schimming, L. M. (2008). Measuring medical student preference: a comparison of classroom versus online instruction for teaching PubMed. Journal Of The Medical Library Association, 96(3), 217-222. Study 8 Beile, P. M., & Boote, D. N. (2004). Does the medium matter?: A comparison of a Web-based tutorial with face-to-face library instruction on education students' self-efficacy levels and learning outcomes. Research Strategies, 20(1/2), 57- 68. doi:10.1016/j.resstr.2005.07.002 Study 9 Wadham, R. (2009). “Online learning vs. Face to Face” at http://sites.lib.byu.edu/education/2009/08/24/online-learning- vs-face-to-face/ (accessed Oct 12, 2013). US Department of Education(2009). “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning • A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies” at http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence- based-practices/finalreport.pdf (accessed Oct 12, 2013).
  • 21. References • Driscoll, A, Jicha, K, Hunt, A, Tichavsky, L, & Thompson, G 2012, 'Can Online Courses Deliver In-class Results?: A Comparison of Student Performance and Satisfaction in an Online versus a Face-to-face Introductory Sociology Course', Teaching Sociology, 40, 4, pp. 312-331. • Euzent, P, Martin, T, Moskal, P, & Moskal, P 2011, 'Assessing Student Performance and Perceptions in Lecture Capture vs. Face-to-Face Course Delivery', Journal Of Information Technology Education, 10, pp. 295-307. • Pearcy, A 2009, 'Finding the Perfect Blend: A Comparative Study of Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Instruction', Proquest LLC, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 September 2013.

Editor's Notes

  1. 1-4 about effective search statement;
  2. Total F2F respondents=24; 63% response rate; online students seems to start low in information literacy. They are doing well in two questions because they are common sense questions. Total online respondents=14; misleading data. Online is not low in IL than day class, 100%
  3. Lost 18 students
  4. Total Online Pre-test respondents=14; lost 18Total online Post-test respondents=1
  5. English composition freshmen classes. Complicated study with control groups, etc. Online course is 10 week long. Librarians designed the course and graduate student assistants taught it. Did not talk about how they taught this online classStudents who participated in the online course demonstrated significant improvement in their test scores compared to the other students.
  6. Method: 1. check citations; 2. divide citations into categories such as scholarly, peered reviewed, trade publications, websites, etc. currency of the sources, etc.
  7. English 110 classes for undergraduates; introduction to college writing; five modules; 100 worksheets from blended vs. 46 from online are analyzed.
  8. This study looks into two parts, 1. learning outcomes of three groups,; 2. self perceived efficacy; learning outcomes are the same, but group 2 and 2 show a statistically significant differences. Group 3 have a higher self-perceived efficacy (they think they know more?) What does this mean?Self-efficacy is the measure of the belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals
  9. Meta analysis of all the literature