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University of Chakwal, Pakistan
Topic: Shark Fish
Presented by: Zahra Qayyum
Roll No. 2OM-UOC/ZOL-41
Department of Zoology
Semester: 8th
Subject: Ichthyology
Session: 2020-2024
Instructor: Dr. Syeda Nadia Ahmad
Sharks (Selachimorpha) belong to class chondrichthyes, or
cartilaginous fishes.
There are two main groups of chondrichthyans:
i. The largest is subclass elasmobranchii
ii. The second one is subclass holocephali
Introduction
• Four factors spark interest in sharks:
1) Generous funding of research on shark attacks
2) A rise in popularity of recreational shark fishing
3) The opening of china to commerce with the united states
4) The release of the movie “jaws” (castro, 2016).
History
General
Characteristics
• Status: endangered
• Body shape: typically fusiform
• Tail: heterocercel
• Fins: dorsal, anal, caudal, pelvic and
pectoral
• Types of scales: scales of shark are called
dermal denticles, the type of placoid scales
• Feeder: bottom feeders
• Life span: 20-30 years. Greenland sharks,
272 years
• Kingdom: Animalia
• Phylum: Chordata
• Class: Chondrichthyes
• Subclass: Elasmobranchii
• Superclass: Neoselachii
• Superorder: Selachimorpha
Taxonomy
Fig1.1: Extant shark orders
https://images.app.goo.gl/V4cJPigk3xMcrWqz6
• In all oceans of the world
• Certain species survive in cold, deepsea or even in freshwater
• They may be found in stunning tropical reefs, deep water, and even
beneath the sea ice in the arctic.
Distribution
• Tiger, bull, blacktip, and nurse sharks were investigated for
morphological variables
• Juvenile tiger and bull sharks - larger caudal fins compared to adults
• This has importance in understanding how body form changes across
ontogeny (irschick et al., 2017).
Morphology
• Dorsal fin - 1 or 2
• Pectoral fin - paired -just behind
the gill slits,
• Pelvic fin - paired - on the ventral
side
• Anal fin - between the pelvic fins
and the caudal fin
• Caudal fin - move the shark
forward.
Fins
Figuer 1.2: Shark fins
(https://images.app.goo.gl/xGd3LSswfCy7Hinz6
• Comapred to their male counterparts,
female sharks have skin that is thicker,
denticle denser, and denticle
Overlapped (Hagood et al., 2023).
• Shark skin is more like teeth than
scales
Shark skin
Fig 1.3: Shark Skin
(https://images.app.goo.gl/RKbBebHRQXUdMeJi8)
• Males have more distal inclination
in the upper third teeth and wider
upper first teeth than females
(French et al., 2017).
• Up to 30,000 teeth lost in a shark's
lifetime.
• The subterminal mouth found on
the ventral surface of the head
behind the snout, is present.
Shark tooth and mouth
Fig 1.4: Shark teeth and open mouth image
(https://images.app.goo.gl/cxM2pyGbp9gRnrjg9)
Shark attacks
• Shark attacks, can lead to human
injury or fatality
• Among the more than 500 known
shark species, only three sharks, are
responsible for most unprovoked
bites and fatalities (hardiman et al.,
2020).
Fig 1.5: Attacking Shark image
(https://images.app.goo.gl/CsKunTgt3VwfC86h6)
• Sharks can migrate or not, but when they do there are few reasons,
• Overfeeding in the region
• Changing water temperature or with changing season
• For better breeding chances
• In 2022, researchers used a hidden markov model to analyze satellite tracks from 30
tagged individuals in order to identify unique behavioral stages such as foaraging and
migration (guzman et al., 2022).
Shark migratory
behavior
Maternal investment and
brain evolution
• The research study in 2020 analysed
100 chondrichthyans
• Greater brain size – more maternal
investment (mull et al., 2020).
• Although the mother will not give
the infant any attention, she will
ensure that shark nursery is a safe
environment for the birth.
Fig 1.6: First described nursery in Cuba
(https://www.google.com/url?sa)
Public attitude towards
shark
• In 2021, 13,800 questionnaires were
gathered
• Accounting for 92 percent of the
surveys completed
• Researchers discovered positive
view toward shark (giovos et al.,
2021).
Interesting facts about shark
No
bones
Excellent
eyesight
Have
electro-
receptor
organs
Can go
into
trance
Sharks
age
through
vertebrae
rings
Skin feels
like
sandpaper
Unique
spot
patterns
The importance of shark
• Ecological importance
• Sharks are crucial for ocean
ecosystem balance
• Rising significance of
shark tourism
• Shark utilization as meat,
fins, liver, skin, cartilage and
jaws and teeth
Fig 1.7: Shark importance
(https://images.app.goo.gl/upTLZYZE2cwTfiv5A)
• Shark conservation
• According to the international union for conservation of nature red
list of threatened species, 397 shark species are endangered (toupin et
al., 2023).
• Local adaption variability in migratory shark
• Using single nucleotide polymorphism, study in 2024 examined
genetic diversity in smooth hammerhead shark.
• Individuals from Pacific coast and the Gulf of California were found
to have adaptive variation (félix-lópez et al., 2024).
Recent researches
• Humans influence on shark behavior
• According to a recent study, shark behavior in an isolated marine reserve was greatly
altered by human presence during the COVID-19 lockdown
• Tiger shark detection rates dropped by 67%, while lemon shark detection rates
increased by 43%. (afonso, 2024).
• Initial effects on shark threatened species
• After a no take zone extension, the research conducted in 2024 employed baited
remote underwater stereo-videos to evaluate shark population in the Southwestern
Atlantic region (motta et al., 2024).
• Afonso, A. S. (2024). Humans influence shark behavior: evidence from the COVID-19 lockdown. Ocean & coastal
management, 248, 106965.
• Castro, j. I. (2016). The origins and rise of shark biology in the 20th century. Marine fisheries review, 78.
• Ebert, d. A., Dando, M., Fowler, S., & Jabado, R. (2021). Sharks of the world: A complete guide (wild nature press)
(illustrated ed.). Princeton university press.
• Félix-lópez, d. G., Rocha-olivares, A., & Saavedra-sotelo, N. C. (2024). Local adaptive variation in a highly migratory
fish: the smooth hammerhead shark sphyrna zygaena. Ecological genetics and genomics, 31, 100233.
• Giovos, i., Barash, A., Barone, M., Barría, C., Borme, D., Brigaudeau, C., ... & Mazzoldi, c. (2021). Understanding the
public attitude towards sharks for improving their conservation. Marine policy, 134, 104811.
• Guzman, h. M., Collatos, C. M., & Gomez, C. G. (2022). Movement, behavior, and habitat use of whale sharks
(rhincodon typus) in the tropical eastern pacific ocean. Frontiers in marine science, 9, 793248.
• Hagood, m. E., Alexander, J. R., & Porter, M. E. (2023). Relationships in shark skin: mechanical and morphological
properties vary between sexes and among species. Integrative and comparative biology, 63(6), 1154-1167.
• https://www.Dutchsharksociety.Org/why-do-sharks-migrate
• Https://www.Fisheries.Noaa.Gov/feature-story/12-shark-facts-may-surprise-you
References
• Motivarash yagnesh, B., Fofandi durga, C., Dabhi raj, M., Makrani rehanavaz, A., & Tanna
poojaben, D. (2020). Importance of sharks in ocean ecosystem. Journal of entomology and
zoology studies, 8(1), 611-613.
• Motivarash yagnesh, b., Fofandi durga, C., Dabhi raj, M., Makrani rehanavaz, A., & Tanna
poojaben, D. (2020). Importance of sharks in ocean ecosystem. Journal of entomology and
zoology studies, 8(1), 611-613.
• Motta, f. S., Rolim, F. A., Athayde, A. C. S., Gragnolati, M., Munhoz, R. R., Chelotti, L. D., ... &
Gadig, o. B. (2024). Initial effects of the expansion and enforcement of a subtropical marine
reserve on threatened shark species. Environmental biology of fishes, 1-12.
• Mull, c. G., Yopak, K. E., & Dulvy, N. K. (2020). Maternal investment, ecological lifestyle, and
brain evolution in sharks and rays. The american naturalist, 195(6), 1056-1069.
• Torres, p., Bolhão, N., Da cunha, R. T., Vieira, J. A. C., & Dos santos rodrigues, A. (2017). Dead
or alive: the growing importance of shark diving in the mid-atlantic region. Journal for nature
conservation, 36, 20-28.
• Toupin, r., Melnick, K., Moharana, T., Curry, B., Gracey, C., Richards, N., ... & Mongeon, p.
(2023). Measuring engagement with shark research in science, news and social media, and
policy: A bibliometric analysis. Marine policy, 157, 105829.
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics

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Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics

  • 2. Topic: Shark Fish Presented by: Zahra Qayyum Roll No. 2OM-UOC/ZOL-41 Department of Zoology Semester: 8th Subject: Ichthyology Session: 2020-2024 Instructor: Dr. Syeda Nadia Ahmad
  • 3. Sharks (Selachimorpha) belong to class chondrichthyes, or cartilaginous fishes. There are two main groups of chondrichthyans: i. The largest is subclass elasmobranchii ii. The second one is subclass holocephali Introduction
  • 4. • Four factors spark interest in sharks: 1) Generous funding of research on shark attacks 2) A rise in popularity of recreational shark fishing 3) The opening of china to commerce with the united states 4) The release of the movie “jaws” (castro, 2016). History
  • 5. General Characteristics • Status: endangered • Body shape: typically fusiform • Tail: heterocercel • Fins: dorsal, anal, caudal, pelvic and pectoral • Types of scales: scales of shark are called dermal denticles, the type of placoid scales • Feeder: bottom feeders • Life span: 20-30 years. Greenland sharks, 272 years
  • 6. • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Chondrichthyes • Subclass: Elasmobranchii • Superclass: Neoselachii • Superorder: Selachimorpha Taxonomy Fig1.1: Extant shark orders https://images.app.goo.gl/V4cJPigk3xMcrWqz6
  • 7. • In all oceans of the world • Certain species survive in cold, deepsea or even in freshwater • They may be found in stunning tropical reefs, deep water, and even beneath the sea ice in the arctic. Distribution
  • 8. • Tiger, bull, blacktip, and nurse sharks were investigated for morphological variables • Juvenile tiger and bull sharks - larger caudal fins compared to adults • This has importance in understanding how body form changes across ontogeny (irschick et al., 2017). Morphology
  • 9. • Dorsal fin - 1 or 2 • Pectoral fin - paired -just behind the gill slits, • Pelvic fin - paired - on the ventral side • Anal fin - between the pelvic fins and the caudal fin • Caudal fin - move the shark forward. Fins Figuer 1.2: Shark fins (https://images.app.goo.gl/xGd3LSswfCy7Hinz6
  • 10. • Comapred to their male counterparts, female sharks have skin that is thicker, denticle denser, and denticle Overlapped (Hagood et al., 2023). • Shark skin is more like teeth than scales Shark skin Fig 1.3: Shark Skin (https://images.app.goo.gl/RKbBebHRQXUdMeJi8)
  • 11. • Males have more distal inclination in the upper third teeth and wider upper first teeth than females (French et al., 2017). • Up to 30,000 teeth lost in a shark's lifetime. • The subterminal mouth found on the ventral surface of the head behind the snout, is present. Shark tooth and mouth Fig 1.4: Shark teeth and open mouth image (https://images.app.goo.gl/cxM2pyGbp9gRnrjg9)
  • 12. Shark attacks • Shark attacks, can lead to human injury or fatality • Among the more than 500 known shark species, only three sharks, are responsible for most unprovoked bites and fatalities (hardiman et al., 2020). Fig 1.5: Attacking Shark image (https://images.app.goo.gl/CsKunTgt3VwfC86h6)
  • 13. • Sharks can migrate or not, but when they do there are few reasons, • Overfeeding in the region • Changing water temperature or with changing season • For better breeding chances • In 2022, researchers used a hidden markov model to analyze satellite tracks from 30 tagged individuals in order to identify unique behavioral stages such as foaraging and migration (guzman et al., 2022). Shark migratory behavior
  • 14. Maternal investment and brain evolution • The research study in 2020 analysed 100 chondrichthyans • Greater brain size – more maternal investment (mull et al., 2020). • Although the mother will not give the infant any attention, she will ensure that shark nursery is a safe environment for the birth. Fig 1.6: First described nursery in Cuba (https://www.google.com/url?sa)
  • 15. Public attitude towards shark • In 2021, 13,800 questionnaires were gathered • Accounting for 92 percent of the surveys completed • Researchers discovered positive view toward shark (giovos et al., 2021).
  • 16. Interesting facts about shark No bones Excellent eyesight Have electro- receptor organs Can go into trance Sharks age through vertebrae rings Skin feels like sandpaper Unique spot patterns
  • 17. The importance of shark • Ecological importance • Sharks are crucial for ocean ecosystem balance • Rising significance of shark tourism • Shark utilization as meat, fins, liver, skin, cartilage and jaws and teeth Fig 1.7: Shark importance (https://images.app.goo.gl/upTLZYZE2cwTfiv5A)
  • 18. • Shark conservation • According to the international union for conservation of nature red list of threatened species, 397 shark species are endangered (toupin et al., 2023). • Local adaption variability in migratory shark • Using single nucleotide polymorphism, study in 2024 examined genetic diversity in smooth hammerhead shark. • Individuals from Pacific coast and the Gulf of California were found to have adaptive variation (félix-lópez et al., 2024). Recent researches
  • 19. • Humans influence on shark behavior • According to a recent study, shark behavior in an isolated marine reserve was greatly altered by human presence during the COVID-19 lockdown • Tiger shark detection rates dropped by 67%, while lemon shark detection rates increased by 43%. (afonso, 2024). • Initial effects on shark threatened species • After a no take zone extension, the research conducted in 2024 employed baited remote underwater stereo-videos to evaluate shark population in the Southwestern Atlantic region (motta et al., 2024).
  • 20. • Afonso, A. S. (2024). Humans influence shark behavior: evidence from the COVID-19 lockdown. Ocean & coastal management, 248, 106965. • Castro, j. I. (2016). The origins and rise of shark biology in the 20th century. Marine fisheries review, 78. • Ebert, d. A., Dando, M., Fowler, S., & Jabado, R. (2021). Sharks of the world: A complete guide (wild nature press) (illustrated ed.). Princeton university press. • Félix-lópez, d. G., Rocha-olivares, A., & Saavedra-sotelo, N. C. (2024). Local adaptive variation in a highly migratory fish: the smooth hammerhead shark sphyrna zygaena. Ecological genetics and genomics, 31, 100233. • Giovos, i., Barash, A., Barone, M., Barría, C., Borme, D., Brigaudeau, C., ... & Mazzoldi, c. (2021). Understanding the public attitude towards sharks for improving their conservation. Marine policy, 134, 104811. • Guzman, h. M., Collatos, C. M., & Gomez, C. G. (2022). Movement, behavior, and habitat use of whale sharks (rhincodon typus) in the tropical eastern pacific ocean. Frontiers in marine science, 9, 793248. • Hagood, m. E., Alexander, J. R., & Porter, M. E. (2023). Relationships in shark skin: mechanical and morphological properties vary between sexes and among species. Integrative and comparative biology, 63(6), 1154-1167. • https://www.Dutchsharksociety.Org/why-do-sharks-migrate • Https://www.Fisheries.Noaa.Gov/feature-story/12-shark-facts-may-surprise-you References
  • 21. • Motivarash yagnesh, B., Fofandi durga, C., Dabhi raj, M., Makrani rehanavaz, A., & Tanna poojaben, D. (2020). Importance of sharks in ocean ecosystem. Journal of entomology and zoology studies, 8(1), 611-613. • Motivarash yagnesh, b., Fofandi durga, C., Dabhi raj, M., Makrani rehanavaz, A., & Tanna poojaben, D. (2020). Importance of sharks in ocean ecosystem. Journal of entomology and zoology studies, 8(1), 611-613. • Motta, f. S., Rolim, F. A., Athayde, A. C. S., Gragnolati, M., Munhoz, R. R., Chelotti, L. D., ... & Gadig, o. B. (2024). Initial effects of the expansion and enforcement of a subtropical marine reserve on threatened shark species. Environmental biology of fishes, 1-12. • Mull, c. G., Yopak, K. E., & Dulvy, N. K. (2020). Maternal investment, ecological lifestyle, and brain evolution in sharks and rays. The american naturalist, 195(6), 1056-1069. • Torres, p., Bolhão, N., Da cunha, R. T., Vieira, J. A. C., & Dos santos rodrigues, A. (2017). Dead or alive: the growing importance of shark diving in the mid-atlantic region. Journal for nature conservation, 36, 20-28. • Toupin, r., Melnick, K., Moharana, T., Curry, B., Gracey, C., Richards, N., ... & Mongeon, p. (2023). Measuring engagement with shark research in science, news and social media, and policy: A bibliometric analysis. Marine policy, 157, 105829.