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Chapter 1
customer relationship management
By the of this chapter, you will be aware of:

1.    Four major perspectives on CRM: strategic, operational,
      analytical and collaborative
2.    Several common misunderstandings about CRM
3.    A definition of CRM
4.    The six constituencies having an interest in CRM
5.    How important CRM issues vary across industries
6.    Five generic models of CRM




                                                                2
Introduction
  The expression customer relationship management (CRM) has
only been in use since the early 1990s.

       Information technology (IT) companies have tended to use
the term CRM to describe the software applications that automate
the marketing, selling and service function of businesses.




                                                               3
Strategic CRM
Strategic CRM is focused upon the development
of a customer-centric business culture. This culture is
dedicated to winning and keeping customers by
creating and delivering value better than competitors.

  Many business claim to be customer-centric,
customer-led, customer-focused or customer oriented,
but few are.

                                                          4
Strategic CRM
Customer-centricity competes with other business logics.
Philip Kotler identifies three other major business orientation:

Product-oriented business believe that customer choose
products with the best quality, performance, design or features.

Production-oriented business believe that customer choose low-
price products. Consequently, these business strive to keep
operating costs low, and develop low-cost routes to market.


                                                                   5
Strategic CRM
Sale-oriented business make the assumption that if they invest
enough in advertising, selling, public relations (PR) and sales
promotion, customers will be persuaded to buy.

A customer or market-oriented company shares a set of beliefs
about putting the customer first. It collects, disseminates and
uses customer and competitive information to develop better
value propositions for customers.




                                                                  6
Operational CRM
Operational CRM automaters and improves customer-facing and
customer-supporting business processes. CRM software
applications enable the marketing, selling and service functions
to be automated and integrated.

Marketing automation
Marketing automation (MA) applies technology to marketing
processes.




                                                               7
Operational CRM
Sale-force automation
Sale-force automation (SFA) was the original form of operational
CRM. SFA system are now widely adopted in business-to-
business environments and are seen as a competitive imperative
that offers competitive parity.

  Sale-force automation software enables companies
automatically to assign leads and track opportunities as they
progress through the sales and pipeline towards closure.


                                                                8
Operational CRM
Service automation
Service automation allows companies to manage their service
operation whether delivered through call centre, contact centre,
web or face-to-face. CRM software enables companies to
handle and coordinate their service-related inbound and
outbound communications across all channels.

  Service automation differs significantly depending on the
product being serviced.


                                                               9
Analytical CRM
Analytical CRM is concerned with capturing, storing, extracting,
integrating, processing, interpreting, distributing, using and
reporting customer-related data to enhance both customer and
company value.

Analytical CRM is has become an essential part of many CRM
implementations.

Analytical CRM can lead companies to decide that selling
  approaches should differ between customer group.

                                                               10
Analytical CRM
Analytical CRM can lead companies to decide that selling
approaches should differ between customer group.

   From the customer’s point of view , analytical CRM can
deliver timely, customized, solutions to the customer’s problem,
thereby enhancing customer satisfaction.

  From the company’s point of view, analytical CRM offers the
prospect of more effective customer retention and customer
acquisition programmes.

                                                                11
Collaborative CRM
Collaborative CRM is the term used to describe the strategic and
tactical alignment of normally separate enterprises in supply
Chain for the more profitable identification, attraction, retention
and development of customers.

   Some CRM technology vendors have developed partner
relationship management (PRM) applications that enable
companies to manage complex partner or channel ecosystem
and reduce the costs of partner or channel management. PRM
applications are often used to manage partner promotions.

                                                                 12
Misunderstandings about CRM
Misunderstanding 1: CRM is database marketing

Misunderstanding 2: CRM is marketing process

Misunderstanding 3: CRM is an IT issue

Misunderstanding 4: CRM is about loyalty schemes

Misunderstanding 5: CRM can be implemented by any company


                                                        13
Defining CRM
   CRM is the core business strategy that integrates
Integrates internal processes and function, and
   external
network, to create and deliver value to targeted
customers at a profit. It is grounded on high quality
customer-related data and enabled by information
technology.



                                                        14
CRM constituencies
There are several important constituencies having an
interest in CRM:
1. Companies implementing CRM :many companies have
   implemented CRM.

2.   Customers and partners of those companies

3.   Vendors of CRM software: such as Oracle, SAP, SAS, KANA,
     Microsoft and StayinFront.



                                                                15
CRM constituencies
4.   CRM application service providers (ASPs):



5.   Vendors of CRM hardware and infrastructure:



6.   Management consultants:




                                                   16
Commercial contexts of CRM
   Banks

   Automobile manufacturers

   High-tech companies

   Consumer goods manufacturers

                                   17
The not-for-profit context
Most of this chapter has been concerned with CRM in
the for-profit context. CRM can also be found in the
not-for-profit context.
   Universities have deployed CRM to manage their
student and alumni relationships. For example,
students who enjoy their experiences at a graduate
school of business may return there for executive
education.

                                                       18
Models of CRM
A number of comprehensive CRM models have been developed.
We introduce five of them here.

1. The IDIC model
The IDIC model suggests that companies should take four
    actions
in order to build closer one-to-one relationships with customers:
 identify
 differentiate
 interact
 customize
                                                               19
Models of CRM
2. The QCi model




                                   20
Models of CRM
3. The CRM value chain




                                21
Models of CRM
4. Payne’s five-process model




                                 22
Models of CRM
5. The Gartner competency model




                                  23

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Session 3.crm strategy analytical

  • 2. By the of this chapter, you will be aware of: 1. Four major perspectives on CRM: strategic, operational, analytical and collaborative 2. Several common misunderstandings about CRM 3. A definition of CRM 4. The six constituencies having an interest in CRM 5. How important CRM issues vary across industries 6. Five generic models of CRM 2
  • 3. Introduction The expression customer relationship management (CRM) has only been in use since the early 1990s. Information technology (IT) companies have tended to use the term CRM to describe the software applications that automate the marketing, selling and service function of businesses. 3
  • 4. Strategic CRM Strategic CRM is focused upon the development of a customer-centric business culture. This culture is dedicated to winning and keeping customers by creating and delivering value better than competitors. Many business claim to be customer-centric, customer-led, customer-focused or customer oriented, but few are. 4
  • 5. Strategic CRM Customer-centricity competes with other business logics. Philip Kotler identifies three other major business orientation: Product-oriented business believe that customer choose products with the best quality, performance, design or features. Production-oriented business believe that customer choose low- price products. Consequently, these business strive to keep operating costs low, and develop low-cost routes to market. 5
  • 6. Strategic CRM Sale-oriented business make the assumption that if they invest enough in advertising, selling, public relations (PR) and sales promotion, customers will be persuaded to buy. A customer or market-oriented company shares a set of beliefs about putting the customer first. It collects, disseminates and uses customer and competitive information to develop better value propositions for customers. 6
  • 7. Operational CRM Operational CRM automaters and improves customer-facing and customer-supporting business processes. CRM software applications enable the marketing, selling and service functions to be automated and integrated. Marketing automation Marketing automation (MA) applies technology to marketing processes. 7
  • 8. Operational CRM Sale-force automation Sale-force automation (SFA) was the original form of operational CRM. SFA system are now widely adopted in business-to- business environments and are seen as a competitive imperative that offers competitive parity. Sale-force automation software enables companies automatically to assign leads and track opportunities as they progress through the sales and pipeline towards closure. 8
  • 9. Operational CRM Service automation Service automation allows companies to manage their service operation whether delivered through call centre, contact centre, web or face-to-face. CRM software enables companies to handle and coordinate their service-related inbound and outbound communications across all channels. Service automation differs significantly depending on the product being serviced. 9
  • 10. Analytical CRM Analytical CRM is concerned with capturing, storing, extracting, integrating, processing, interpreting, distributing, using and reporting customer-related data to enhance both customer and company value. Analytical CRM is has become an essential part of many CRM implementations. Analytical CRM can lead companies to decide that selling approaches should differ between customer group. 10
  • 11. Analytical CRM Analytical CRM can lead companies to decide that selling approaches should differ between customer group. From the customer’s point of view , analytical CRM can deliver timely, customized, solutions to the customer’s problem, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction. From the company’s point of view, analytical CRM offers the prospect of more effective customer retention and customer acquisition programmes. 11
  • 12. Collaborative CRM Collaborative CRM is the term used to describe the strategic and tactical alignment of normally separate enterprises in supply Chain for the more profitable identification, attraction, retention and development of customers. Some CRM technology vendors have developed partner relationship management (PRM) applications that enable companies to manage complex partner or channel ecosystem and reduce the costs of partner or channel management. PRM applications are often used to manage partner promotions. 12
  • 13. Misunderstandings about CRM Misunderstanding 1: CRM is database marketing Misunderstanding 2: CRM is marketing process Misunderstanding 3: CRM is an IT issue Misunderstanding 4: CRM is about loyalty schemes Misunderstanding 5: CRM can be implemented by any company 13
  • 14. Defining CRM CRM is the core business strategy that integrates Integrates internal processes and function, and external network, to create and deliver value to targeted customers at a profit. It is grounded on high quality customer-related data and enabled by information technology. 14
  • 15. CRM constituencies There are several important constituencies having an interest in CRM: 1. Companies implementing CRM :many companies have implemented CRM. 2. Customers and partners of those companies 3. Vendors of CRM software: such as Oracle, SAP, SAS, KANA, Microsoft and StayinFront. 15
  • 16. CRM constituencies 4. CRM application service providers (ASPs): 5. Vendors of CRM hardware and infrastructure: 6. Management consultants: 16
  • 17. Commercial contexts of CRM  Banks  Automobile manufacturers  High-tech companies  Consumer goods manufacturers 17
  • 18. The not-for-profit context Most of this chapter has been concerned with CRM in the for-profit context. CRM can also be found in the not-for-profit context. Universities have deployed CRM to manage their student and alumni relationships. For example, students who enjoy their experiences at a graduate school of business may return there for executive education. 18
  • 19. Models of CRM A number of comprehensive CRM models have been developed. We introduce five of them here. 1. The IDIC model The IDIC model suggests that companies should take four actions in order to build closer one-to-one relationships with customers:  identify  differentiate  interact  customize 19
  • 20. Models of CRM 2. The QCi model 20
  • 21. Models of CRM 3. The CRM value chain 21
  • 22. Models of CRM 4. Payne’s five-process model 22
  • 23. Models of CRM 5. The Gartner competency model 23