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Serialization and
performance
Сергей Моренец
23 мая 2014 г.
About author
Works in IT since 2000
10 year of Java SE/EE experience
Occupied senior Java developer/Team
Lead positions
Winner of 2013 JBoss Community
Recognition Award.
https://www.jboss.org/jbcra
Agenda
• Purpose of serialization
• Frameworks overview
• Performance testing
• Q & A
Serialization
File storages
Database
Network communication
Web usage
Serialization
Simple
Flexible
Compact
Versioning
Fast Scalable
Data formats
Binary
XML
JSON
YAML
Performance
• Native memory copying using C operations
• “Unsafe” operations
• Ignore object introspection
• Direct object-object copying
Java serialization
• The easiest programming effort
• Out-of-the-box functionality
Java serialization
• Serializable interface
• Decreases the flexibility to change a class’s
implementation once it has been released
• Doesn’t allow to exchange data with
C++/Python applications
• Due to default constructors hole for invariant
corruption and illegal access
• No customization
• You should have access to the source code
No customization
You should have access to the source code
Java externalization
• Serialization but by implementing
Externalizable interface to persist and
restore the object
• Responsibility of the class to save and
restore the contents of its instances
• Requires modifications in
marshalling/unmarshalling code if the class
contents changed
No customization
You should have access to the source code
Java externalization
Avro
• Schema evolution
• Binary and JSON encoding
• Dynamic typing
• Support of Java, C, C++, C# and Python
• Apache Hadoop integration
Avro
Avro
XML
• Interchangeable format
• Supported schemas
• Space intensive and huge performance loss
• Complex navigating
Simple
• High performance XML serialization and
configuration framework for Java.
• Requires absolutely no configuration
• Can handle cycles in the object graph
Simple
Javolution
• Fast real-time library for safety-critical
applications
• Based on OSGi context
• Parallel computing support
Javolution
Json-io
• Doesn’t require custom interfaces/attributes
usage/source code
• Handles cyclic references
• Reader/writer customization
• Does not depend on any native or 3rd party
libraries.
Google gson
• Java library to convert JSON to Java objects and
vice-versa
• Doesn’t require source code of serialized objects
• Allow custom representatives
Google gson
Jackson
• High-performance, ergonomic JSON processor
Java library
• Extensive customization tools
• Mix-in annotations
• Materialized interfaces
• Multiple data formats
Jackson
• JSON
• CSV
• Smile(binary JSON)
• XML
• YAML(similar to JSON)
BSON for Jackson
• Binary encoded JSON
• Main data exchange format for MongoDB
• Allows writing custom extensions
Protocol buffers
• Way of encoding structured data in an efficient
yet extensible format.
• Google uses Protocol Buffers for almost all of
its internal RPC protocols and file formats.
• Supported in Java, C++, Python
Protocol buffers
message User {
required string login = 1;
repeated Order orders = 2;
}
message Order {
required int32 id = 1;
optional string date = 2;
}
Protocol buffers
FST
• Java-to-java library
• No support for versioning
• Use case is high performance message oriented
software
• Drop-in replacement
• Custom optimization using annotations, custom
serializers
FST
GridGain
• Part of distributed computing system
• Don’t require any custom interfaces or API
• Direct memory copying by invoking native
"unsafe" operations
• Predefined fields introspection
GridGain
Kryo
• Fast and efficient object graph serialization
framework for Java
• Open source project on Google code
• Automatic deep and shallow copying/cloning
• Doesn’t put requirements on the source classes
(in most cases)
Kryo
• Twitter
• Apache Hive
• Akka
• Storm
• S4
Kryo
Kryo
Benchmark
• JDK 1.8.0.5
• Apache Avro 1.7.6
• Simple 2.7.1
• Json-io 2.5.2
• Google GSON 2.2.4
• Jackson 2.3.2
• BSON for Jackson 2.3.1
• Protocol buffers 2.5
• Kryo 2.23
• FST 1.54
• GridGain 6.0.2
Benchmark
• Speed(serialization and deserialization)
• Size(complex and ordinary objects)
• Flexibility
Benchmark
Benchmark
Issues
Library Description
Gson, Jackson Crashed when serializing cyclic
dependency
Simple Crashed for very big XML file
Avro Bug during deserialization
Serialization (complex)
# Library Time(ms)
1 Kryo(optimized) 134
2 Protocol buffers 165
3 GridGain 196
4 FST 207
5 Kryo 209
6 Jackson(smile) 275
7 Kryo(unsafe) 306
8 Jackson 491
9 Java serialization 605
10 Javolution 1043
Serialization (simple)
# Library Time(ms)
1 Protocol buffers <1
2 Google GSON 5
3 Java serialization 10
4 BSON for Jackson 10
5 Jackson(smile) 11
6 Kryo(optimized) 17
7 Kryo 18
8 Jackson 18
9 Kryo(unsafe) 20
10 Javolution 21
Deserialization (complex)
# Library Time(ms)
1 Kryo(optimized) 113
2 Protocol buffers 165
3 GridGain 196
4 FST 207
5 Kryo 209
6 Jackson(smile) 275
7 Kryo(unsafe) 306
8 Jackson 491
9 Java serialization 605
10 BSON for Jackson 930
Deserialization (simple)
# Library Time(ms)
1 Protocol buffers 1
2 GridGain 3
3 Google GSON 6
4 Jackson(smile) 9
5 BSON for Jackson 9
6 Kryo(optimized) 18
7 Kryo 18
8 Jackson 18
9 Kryo(unsafe) 20
10 FST 42
Size (complex)
# Library Size(bytes)
1 Kryo(optimized) 33904
2 FST 34069
3 Kryo 35674
4 Protocol buffers 39517
5 Kryo(unsafe) 40554
6 Jackson(smile) 44840
7 Java serialization 49757
8 GridGain 58288
9 Jackson 67858
10 Google GSON 68338
Size (simple)
# Library Size(bytes)
1 Kryo(optimized) 18
2 Kryo 18
3 Protocol buffers 20
4 Kryo(unsafe) 21
5 GridGain 33
6 Jackson(smile) 40
7 Jackson 41
8 Google GSON 41
9 Jackson(YAML) 41
10 BSON for Jackson 46
Usability
# Library
1 Google GSON
2 Kryo
2 Kryo(unsafe)
3 Jackson
3 Jackson(XML, Smile, YAML)
3 BSON for Jackson
4 Json-io
5 FST
6 Java serialization
7 Kryo(optimized)
Overall rating (2014)
# Library Rating
1 Kryo(optimized) 67
2 Protocol buffers 65
3 Kryo 58
4 Jackson(smile) 55
5 Kryo(unsafe) 46
6 GridGain 44
7 Google GSON 43
8 FST 43
9 Jackson 40
10 BSON for Jackson 33
11 Java serialization 32
Overall rating (2013)
# Library Rating
1 Kryo(optimized) 67
2 Kryo(unsafe) 65
3 Protocol buffers 63
4 Kryo 59
5 Jackson(smile) 51
6 Google GSON 45
7 FST 42
8 GridGain 34
9 Jackson 32
10 Java serialization 30
11 BSON for Jackson 24
Advices
Library Usage
Kryo Fast and compact serializer for complex
objects over network
Protocol buffers Fast serializer for simple objects
Jackson(smile) Jackson-based serializer for Web usage
Google JSON Dirty solution to quickly serialize/deserialize
objects
Apache Avro Serialize objects into files with possible
schema changes
Java Out-of-the-box trusted solution without
additional libraries
Сергей Моренец
morenets@mail.ru
Q&A

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Serialization and performance in Java

  • 2. About author Works in IT since 2000 10 year of Java SE/EE experience Occupied senior Java developer/Team Lead positions Winner of 2013 JBoss Community Recognition Award. https://www.jboss.org/jbcra
  • 3. Agenda • Purpose of serialization • Frameworks overview • Performance testing • Q & A
  • 7. Performance • Native memory copying using C operations • “Unsafe” operations • Ignore object introspection • Direct object-object copying
  • 8. Java serialization • The easiest programming effort • Out-of-the-box functionality
  • 9. Java serialization • Serializable interface • Decreases the flexibility to change a class’s implementation once it has been released • Doesn’t allow to exchange data with C++/Python applications • Due to default constructors hole for invariant corruption and illegal access • No customization • You should have access to the source code No customization You should have access to the source code
  • 10. Java externalization • Serialization but by implementing Externalizable interface to persist and restore the object • Responsibility of the class to save and restore the contents of its instances • Requires modifications in marshalling/unmarshalling code if the class contents changed No customization You should have access to the source code
  • 12. Avro • Schema evolution • Binary and JSON encoding • Dynamic typing • Support of Java, C, C++, C# and Python • Apache Hadoop integration
  • 13. Avro
  • 14. Avro
  • 15. XML • Interchangeable format • Supported schemas • Space intensive and huge performance loss • Complex navigating
  • 16. Simple • High performance XML serialization and configuration framework for Java. • Requires absolutely no configuration • Can handle cycles in the object graph
  • 18. Javolution • Fast real-time library for safety-critical applications • Based on OSGi context • Parallel computing support
  • 20. Json-io • Doesn’t require custom interfaces/attributes usage/source code • Handles cyclic references • Reader/writer customization • Does not depend on any native or 3rd party libraries.
  • 21. Google gson • Java library to convert JSON to Java objects and vice-versa • Doesn’t require source code of serialized objects • Allow custom representatives
  • 23. Jackson • High-performance, ergonomic JSON processor Java library • Extensive customization tools • Mix-in annotations • Materialized interfaces • Multiple data formats
  • 24. Jackson • JSON • CSV • Smile(binary JSON) • XML • YAML(similar to JSON)
  • 25. BSON for Jackson • Binary encoded JSON • Main data exchange format for MongoDB • Allows writing custom extensions
  • 26. Protocol buffers • Way of encoding structured data in an efficient yet extensible format. • Google uses Protocol Buffers for almost all of its internal RPC protocols and file formats. • Supported in Java, C++, Python
  • 27. Protocol buffers message User { required string login = 1; repeated Order orders = 2; } message Order { required int32 id = 1; optional string date = 2; }
  • 29. FST • Java-to-java library • No support for versioning • Use case is high performance message oriented software • Drop-in replacement • Custom optimization using annotations, custom serializers
  • 30. FST
  • 31. GridGain • Part of distributed computing system • Don’t require any custom interfaces or API • Direct memory copying by invoking native "unsafe" operations • Predefined fields introspection
  • 33. Kryo • Fast and efficient object graph serialization framework for Java • Open source project on Google code • Automatic deep and shallow copying/cloning • Doesn’t put requirements on the source classes (in most cases)
  • 34. Kryo • Twitter • Apache Hive • Akka • Storm • S4
  • 35. Kryo
  • 36. Kryo
  • 37. Benchmark • JDK 1.8.0.5 • Apache Avro 1.7.6 • Simple 2.7.1 • Json-io 2.5.2 • Google GSON 2.2.4 • Jackson 2.3.2 • BSON for Jackson 2.3.1 • Protocol buffers 2.5 • Kryo 2.23 • FST 1.54 • GridGain 6.0.2
  • 38. Benchmark • Speed(serialization and deserialization) • Size(complex and ordinary objects) • Flexibility
  • 41. Issues Library Description Gson, Jackson Crashed when serializing cyclic dependency Simple Crashed for very big XML file Avro Bug during deserialization
  • 42. Serialization (complex) # Library Time(ms) 1 Kryo(optimized) 134 2 Protocol buffers 165 3 GridGain 196 4 FST 207 5 Kryo 209 6 Jackson(smile) 275 7 Kryo(unsafe) 306 8 Jackson 491 9 Java serialization 605 10 Javolution 1043
  • 43. Serialization (simple) # Library Time(ms) 1 Protocol buffers <1 2 Google GSON 5 3 Java serialization 10 4 BSON for Jackson 10 5 Jackson(smile) 11 6 Kryo(optimized) 17 7 Kryo 18 8 Jackson 18 9 Kryo(unsafe) 20 10 Javolution 21
  • 44. Deserialization (complex) # Library Time(ms) 1 Kryo(optimized) 113 2 Protocol buffers 165 3 GridGain 196 4 FST 207 5 Kryo 209 6 Jackson(smile) 275 7 Kryo(unsafe) 306 8 Jackson 491 9 Java serialization 605 10 BSON for Jackson 930
  • 45. Deserialization (simple) # Library Time(ms) 1 Protocol buffers 1 2 GridGain 3 3 Google GSON 6 4 Jackson(smile) 9 5 BSON for Jackson 9 6 Kryo(optimized) 18 7 Kryo 18 8 Jackson 18 9 Kryo(unsafe) 20 10 FST 42
  • 46. Size (complex) # Library Size(bytes) 1 Kryo(optimized) 33904 2 FST 34069 3 Kryo 35674 4 Protocol buffers 39517 5 Kryo(unsafe) 40554 6 Jackson(smile) 44840 7 Java serialization 49757 8 GridGain 58288 9 Jackson 67858 10 Google GSON 68338
  • 47. Size (simple) # Library Size(bytes) 1 Kryo(optimized) 18 2 Kryo 18 3 Protocol buffers 20 4 Kryo(unsafe) 21 5 GridGain 33 6 Jackson(smile) 40 7 Jackson 41 8 Google GSON 41 9 Jackson(YAML) 41 10 BSON for Jackson 46
  • 48. Usability # Library 1 Google GSON 2 Kryo 2 Kryo(unsafe) 3 Jackson 3 Jackson(XML, Smile, YAML) 3 BSON for Jackson 4 Json-io 5 FST 6 Java serialization 7 Kryo(optimized)
  • 49. Overall rating (2014) # Library Rating 1 Kryo(optimized) 67 2 Protocol buffers 65 3 Kryo 58 4 Jackson(smile) 55 5 Kryo(unsafe) 46 6 GridGain 44 7 Google GSON 43 8 FST 43 9 Jackson 40 10 BSON for Jackson 33 11 Java serialization 32
  • 50. Overall rating (2013) # Library Rating 1 Kryo(optimized) 67 2 Kryo(unsafe) 65 3 Protocol buffers 63 4 Kryo 59 5 Jackson(smile) 51 6 Google GSON 45 7 FST 42 8 GridGain 34 9 Jackson 32 10 Java serialization 30 11 BSON for Jackson 24
  • 51. Advices Library Usage Kryo Fast and compact serializer for complex objects over network Protocol buffers Fast serializer for simple objects Jackson(smile) Jackson-based serializer for Web usage Google JSON Dirty solution to quickly serialize/deserialize objects Apache Avro Serialize objects into files with possible schema changes Java Out-of-the-box trusted solution without additional libraries