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AdamaScience and Technology University
School of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Department of Electrical Power and Control Engineering
Course: ScientificResearchMethods And Presentations
Title: Stand-alone Hybrid Energy Systems for Remote Area Power Generation
Prepared by: Getahun Shanko
(PGR/24470/14)
Outline:
 Introduction
 Role of renewable energy to reduce greenhouse
gases.
 The renewable energy situation in study area
 Technical analyses
 Result and discussions
 Conclusion
28 February 2024 2
Introduction
 Renewable energy is energy derived from natural sources that are provided by
the sun, wind, water, waste, and heat from the Earth.
 Hybrid renewable energy source is composed of two or more energy sources.
 The use of hybrid power generation came forward due to; the high prices of oil,
available in widespread, free from pollution.
Figure 1. Standalone hybrid wind/photovoltaic power generation
28 February
2024
3
Solar Energy
Figure 2.Working principles of Solar and wind energy
 Unlimited supply
 No negative impact
 Free of cost
 Free from pollution 28 February 2024
4
28 February 2024 5
Need of Hybridization
• For increasing output
• For fulfilling demand of consumer
• Providing uninterrupted power supply
• System can design for both off grid and on grid
Role of renewable energy to reduce greenhouses gases
 Fossil fuels have polluted the environment due to their high combustion rates of CO2 and
high energy release.
 Considering the increase of energy consumption in the world has constantly risen, and the
production of CO2 would potentially enhanced.
Table.1 CO2 emissions in different regions from 1971 to 2020( in million tons)
28 February 2024 6
Region 1971 1995 2010 2020
OECD 9,031 10,763 13,427 14,476
Transition
economics
3,029 3,135 3,852 4,465
China 875 3,051 5,322 7,081
Rest of the
world
1,435 4,791 8,034 11,163
World 14,732 22,150 31,189 37,848
Table 2. Monthly solar radiation and wind speed for the study area
Weobserve thattwocitieshaveahighrateinwind speed (m/s)andsolarradiation(kWh/m2/d)ina
month.
28 February 2024 7
Technical analyses
 Analysis of output power for PV
Below equations are employed for calculating output power of PV.
P(t) = nr[1 − β(Tc−Tcref )].AG(t) ..............................................(1)
where, nr is the reference module efficiency,
Tcref is the reference cell temperature in degree Celsius,
A (m) is the PV generator area and
G (t) is the solar irradiation in tilted module plane
28 February 2024 8
 Wind speed analysis
 To calculate wind speed, there is the main equation that can be used and the
most common is the Weibull function:
28 February 2024 9
f(v) =
𝒌
𝒄
𝒗
𝒄
𝒌−𝟏
𝒆𝒙
𝒗
𝒄
𝒌
, k>0, v>0, c>0 ..........(2)
Where, f(v) = the probability density function
v = the wind speed [m/s]
k = the Weibull shape factor [unit less]
c = the Weibull scale parameter [m/s]
Result and discussions
Techno-economic analysis of wind and solar energy
 By the using homer software, the technical-economic analysis in this research has been
performed.
NPC =
𝑪𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒏
𝑪𝑹𝑭(𝑰,𝒏)
… … 𝟑 𝐂𝐑𝐅 𝐈, 𝒏 =
𝒊 (𝟏 + 𝒊)^𝒏
(𝟏 + 𝒊)^𝒏−𝟏
..........(4)
Where, NPC is the total annual cost(in dollars), where, i is the nominal interest rate,
and n is the number of years.
I is the annual interest rate, n is number of years,
Ct is net cash inflow,
CRF (i, n) is the capital recovery factor.
28 February 2024 10
COE =
𝑪𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒏
𝑬𝒊𝒔+𝑬𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅)
) … (𝟓) where Eis is the electrical energy that the
microgrid system serves, and Egrid is the amount of electricity sold to the grid.
Table 3: detailed breakdown of the NPC for PV-Wind-diesel-battery-converter hybrid system
28 February 2024 11
Cities Components Capital ($) Replacement($) O&M ($) Fuel ($) Salvage($) Total ($)
Zabol PV 3,000 780 320 0 -437 3,622
Zahak PV 3,000 780 320 0 -437 3,622
Zabol WES 5 Tulipo 5,000 1,669 639 0 -311 6,998
Zahak WES 5 Tulipo 5,000 1,669 639 0 -311 6,998
Zabol Generator 1 1,000 356 241 4,296 -91 5,801
Zahak Generator 1 1,000 830 414 7,418 -63 9,559
Zabol Battery 1 6,600 4,464 767 0 -1,281 10,549
Zahak Battery 1 6,600 4,464 767 0 -1,281 10,549
Zabol Conservator 7,000 292 128 0 -54 1,066
Zahak Conservator 7,000 292 128 0 -54 1,066
Fig. 3. Monthly average electric production of PV-generator hybrid for Zabol and Zahak respectively
28 February 2024 12
28 February 2024 13
Table 4 : Emissions produced in the study areas
Zabol Zahak
Pollutant Emissions(kg/yr.) Pollutant Emissions(kg/yr)
Carbon dioxide 1106 Carbon dioxide 1910
Carbon monoxide 2.76 Carbon monoxide 4.71
Unburned hydrocarbons 0.302 Unburned hydrocarbons 0.522
Particulate matter 0.206 Particulate matter 0.355
Sulfur dioxide 2.22 Sulfur dioxide 3.84
Nitrogen dioxide 24.4 Nitrogen dioxide 42.1
Analyses of emission issues
Conclusion
The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid energy systems for
remote area depending on renewable resources opportunities.
For this purpose, a stand-alone hybrid power generation system
consisting of
 wind turbine generator (WTG),
 photovoltaic(PV) panels,
 and storage batteries (SB) was studied by the researchers.
However, a large portion of the load is supplied by wind for the study
area.
28 February 2024 14
THANK YOU!!!
28 February 2024 15
QUESTION?

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  • 1. AdamaScience and Technology University School of Electrical Engineering and Computing Department of Electrical Power and Control Engineering Course: ScientificResearchMethods And Presentations Title: Stand-alone Hybrid Energy Systems for Remote Area Power Generation Prepared by: Getahun Shanko (PGR/24470/14)
  • 2. Outline:  Introduction  Role of renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gases.  The renewable energy situation in study area  Technical analyses  Result and discussions  Conclusion 28 February 2024 2
  • 3. Introduction  Renewable energy is energy derived from natural sources that are provided by the sun, wind, water, waste, and heat from the Earth.  Hybrid renewable energy source is composed of two or more energy sources.  The use of hybrid power generation came forward due to; the high prices of oil, available in widespread, free from pollution. Figure 1. Standalone hybrid wind/photovoltaic power generation 28 February 2024 3
  • 4. Solar Energy Figure 2.Working principles of Solar and wind energy  Unlimited supply  No negative impact  Free of cost  Free from pollution 28 February 2024 4
  • 5. 28 February 2024 5 Need of Hybridization • For increasing output • For fulfilling demand of consumer • Providing uninterrupted power supply • System can design for both off grid and on grid
  • 6. Role of renewable energy to reduce greenhouses gases  Fossil fuels have polluted the environment due to their high combustion rates of CO2 and high energy release.  Considering the increase of energy consumption in the world has constantly risen, and the production of CO2 would potentially enhanced. Table.1 CO2 emissions in different regions from 1971 to 2020( in million tons) 28 February 2024 6 Region 1971 1995 2010 2020 OECD 9,031 10,763 13,427 14,476 Transition economics 3,029 3,135 3,852 4,465 China 875 3,051 5,322 7,081 Rest of the world 1,435 4,791 8,034 11,163 World 14,732 22,150 31,189 37,848
  • 7. Table 2. Monthly solar radiation and wind speed for the study area Weobserve thattwocitieshaveahighrateinwind speed (m/s)andsolarradiation(kWh/m2/d)ina month. 28 February 2024 7
  • 8. Technical analyses  Analysis of output power for PV Below equations are employed for calculating output power of PV. P(t) = nr[1 − β(Tc−Tcref )].AG(t) ..............................................(1) where, nr is the reference module efficiency, Tcref is the reference cell temperature in degree Celsius, A (m) is the PV generator area and G (t) is the solar irradiation in tilted module plane 28 February 2024 8
  • 9.  Wind speed analysis  To calculate wind speed, there is the main equation that can be used and the most common is the Weibull function: 28 February 2024 9 f(v) = 𝒌 𝒄 𝒗 𝒄 𝒌−𝟏 𝒆𝒙 𝒗 𝒄 𝒌 , k>0, v>0, c>0 ..........(2) Where, f(v) = the probability density function v = the wind speed [m/s] k = the Weibull shape factor [unit less] c = the Weibull scale parameter [m/s]
  • 10. Result and discussions Techno-economic analysis of wind and solar energy  By the using homer software, the technical-economic analysis in this research has been performed. NPC = 𝑪𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝑪𝑹𝑭(𝑰,𝒏) … … 𝟑 𝐂𝐑𝐅 𝐈, 𝒏 = 𝒊 (𝟏 + 𝒊)^𝒏 (𝟏 + 𝒊)^𝒏−𝟏 ..........(4) Where, NPC is the total annual cost(in dollars), where, i is the nominal interest rate, and n is the number of years. I is the annual interest rate, n is number of years, Ct is net cash inflow, CRF (i, n) is the capital recovery factor. 28 February 2024 10
  • 11. COE = 𝑪𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝑬𝒊𝒔+𝑬𝒈𝒓𝒊𝒅) ) … (𝟓) where Eis is the electrical energy that the microgrid system serves, and Egrid is the amount of electricity sold to the grid. Table 3: detailed breakdown of the NPC for PV-Wind-diesel-battery-converter hybrid system 28 February 2024 11 Cities Components Capital ($) Replacement($) O&M ($) Fuel ($) Salvage($) Total ($) Zabol PV 3,000 780 320 0 -437 3,622 Zahak PV 3,000 780 320 0 -437 3,622 Zabol WES 5 Tulipo 5,000 1,669 639 0 -311 6,998 Zahak WES 5 Tulipo 5,000 1,669 639 0 -311 6,998 Zabol Generator 1 1,000 356 241 4,296 -91 5,801 Zahak Generator 1 1,000 830 414 7,418 -63 9,559 Zabol Battery 1 6,600 4,464 767 0 -1,281 10,549 Zahak Battery 1 6,600 4,464 767 0 -1,281 10,549 Zabol Conservator 7,000 292 128 0 -54 1,066 Zahak Conservator 7,000 292 128 0 -54 1,066
  • 12. Fig. 3. Monthly average electric production of PV-generator hybrid for Zabol and Zahak respectively 28 February 2024 12
  • 13. 28 February 2024 13 Table 4 : Emissions produced in the study areas Zabol Zahak Pollutant Emissions(kg/yr.) Pollutant Emissions(kg/yr) Carbon dioxide 1106 Carbon dioxide 1910 Carbon monoxide 2.76 Carbon monoxide 4.71 Unburned hydrocarbons 0.302 Unburned hydrocarbons 0.522 Particulate matter 0.206 Particulate matter 0.355 Sulfur dioxide 2.22 Sulfur dioxide 3.84 Nitrogen dioxide 24.4 Nitrogen dioxide 42.1 Analyses of emission issues
  • 14. Conclusion The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid energy systems for remote area depending on renewable resources opportunities. For this purpose, a stand-alone hybrid power generation system consisting of  wind turbine generator (WTG),  photovoltaic(PV) panels,  and storage batteries (SB) was studied by the researchers. However, a large portion of the load is supplied by wind for the study area. 28 February 2024 14
  • 15. THANK YOU!!! 28 February 2024 15 QUESTION?