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Tracing Networks Workshop 2009




             Semantic Web in
    Cultural Heritage and Archaeology

                         Monika Solanki
            Department of Computer Science
                University of Leicester


                      November 13, 2009




Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Talk outline   Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Outline


                                                              Introduction and Preliminaries
                                                              Semantic Web meets Cultural
                                                              Heritage
                                                              Semantic Web meets
                                                              Archaeology
                                                              Questions and Discussion




 Philosophy in discussion with a Philosopher


                                               http://www.kb.nl/manuscripts/
              Monika Solanki        Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009




                                 Part I

                   Setting the Scene

                 Introduction and Preliminaries




Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Semantic Web: The Vision

     An extension of the current web.
     A Web of machine - readable and linked data.
     Allows software agents to carry out complex tasks on
     behalf of the human users, e.g. Search.
     Through systems that can support trusted interactions over
     the network.
     The key: semantic interoperability of Web resources.

           http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/




      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Semantic Web: A“Heritage” Perspective

     Heritage communities: new ways to provide domain
     experts (historians, curators) and non expert users (school
     children) with access to their collections.
     Online digital libraries of collections and exhibitions.
     Navigating, searching and retrieving 2D images, 3D
     models and textual metadata
     Virtual Museum
     Book your next Museum trip!!




      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Two different kinds of users
 “Which museum holds                                     “For our history project, we
 artifacts and records of                                want to visit a museum to
 study of the breakdown and                              study how life was in ancient
 fossilization of bone from                              Egypt”
 mummies found in the
 bronze age”




       Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Semantic Web: A “Heritage” Perspective

  Benefits:
     Curators:
          Along with simple description - metadata, relationships
          between the objects in the collection will be available.
          Planning of their exhibition: identification of the pieces,
          production of catalogue and publicity material - handled by
          “exhibition agents”.
     Non experts:
          Enable “meaningful” searches over online digital libraries of
          collections and exhibitions.
          Planning your museum trip by relating opening times
          against public transport schedules.




      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Ontologies/Vocabularies/Thesauri

  Ontologies
     An ontology is an explicit specification of a domain in terms
     of entities and relationship between these entities.




       Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Ontologies/Vocabularies/Thesauri

  Ontologies
     The relationship between entities provide the semantics or
     meaning of the data.
     This information is normally hidden in a dataset, e.g.,
     databases, but it is made more explicit in an ontology.
     This explicit specification facilitates querying, complex
     reasoning and extension of the knowledge base that can
     be derived from the dataset.
     Technologies for building ontologies: RDF, SPARQL, OWL,
     and SKOS.




       Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


A Loomweight Ontology




     Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


CIDOC CRM Ontology

 ICOM-CIDOC: The International Committee for Documentation
 of the International Council of Museums
     provides definitions and a formal structure for describing
     the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in
     cultural heritage documentation.
     enables information exchange and interchange between
     heterogeneous sources of cultural heritage information by
     providing a common and extensible semantic framework
     promote a shared understanding of cultural heritage
     information by transforming disparate, localised information
     sources into a coherent global resource.

                   http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/index.html


      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


CIDOC CRM ontology

    A collaboration with the International Council of Museums.
    This is the most dominant ontology in cultural heritage.
    It is intended to cover the full spectrum of cultural heritage
    knowledge - from Archaeology to Art history, literary and
    musical entities.
    An ontology of 86 classes and 137 properties for culture
    and more.
    With the capacity to explain hundreds of (meta)data
    formats.
    Accepted by ISO TC46 in September 2000.
    International standard since 2006 - ISO 21127:2006.
    The ontology has been encoded in OWL2.0, OWLDL and
    RDFS.

     Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
CIDOC CRM Ontology
 Top level classes
CIDOC CRM Ontology
 Some specific Concepts
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System

    SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and
    standards to support the use of knowledge organization
    systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes,
    subject heading systems and taxonomies within the
    framework of the Semantic Web.
    SKOS provides a standard way to represent knowledge
    organization systems RDF.
    SKOS is a data model
         ..for data that can be published on the web...


                  http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/intro




     Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System




    ..linked with other data...


       http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk/
SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System




    ..data which is semantically interoperable...

                   The Web and SKOS, Alistair Miles, ISKO, London, July 2008
Introduction and Preliminaries     Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Geonames

    A cool resource that provides a web service to query for
    information on world wide locations (city, town, place...)
    and returns the results in RDF.
    It provides a nice google map interface as well.
    The GeoNames Ontology makes it possible to add
    geospatial semantic information to the Word Wide Web. All
    over 6.2 million geonames toponyms now have a unique
    URL with a corresponding RDF web service.
    This has been used to add rich geographical information
    (e.g. latitude and longitude) to cultural archives that have.
    ambiguous text entries for place information.

                                                  http://www.geonames.org/



     Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Geonames

    The service distinguishes “Concept” from “Document”
    about it.
    For the town Embrun in France we have these two URIs :
    http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/
    http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/about.rdf
    The first URI stands for the town in France. You use this
    URI if you want to refer to the town.
    The second URI is the document with the information
    geonames has about Embrun. This is called the “feature”
    document for the town.
    The geonames web server is configured to redirect
    requests for [1] to [2].



     Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


  Geonames: An example “feature” RDF document

<Feature rdf:about="http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/">
 <name xml:lang="fr">Embrun</name>
 <alternateName xml:lang="fr">Embrun, Hautes-Alpes</alternateName>
 <featureClass rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/ontology#P"/>
 <featureCode rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/ontology#P.PPL"/>
 <inCountry rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/countries/#FR"/>
 <population>7069</population>
 <postalCode>05200</postalCode>
 <wgs84_pos:alt>900</wgs84_pos:alt>
 <wgs84_pos:lat>44.5667</wgs84_pos:lat>
 <wgs84_pos:long>6.5000</wgs84_pos:long>
 <parentFeature rdf:resource="http://sws.geonames.org/3013738/"/>
 <nearbyFeatures rdf:resource="http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/nearby.rdf"/>
 <locationMap>http://www.geonames.org/3020251/embrun.html</locationMap>
 <wikipediaArticle rdf:resource="http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embrun"/>
 <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://rdf.insee.fr/geo/COM_05046"/>
</Feature>




           Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The Getty Vocabularies

     The Getty vocabulary databases are produced and
     maintained by the Getty Vocabulary Program.
     They are compliant with ISO and NISO standards for
     thesaurus construction.
     They contain terms, names, and other information about
     people, places, things, and concepts relating to art,
     architecture, and material culture.


  http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/




      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The Getty Vocabularies

  The Getty vocabularies can be used in three ways:
      at the data entry stage, by catalogers or indexers who are
      describing works of art, architecture, material culture,
      archival materials, visual surrogates, or bibliographic
      materials;
      as knowledge bases, providing information for researchers;
      and as search assistants to enhance end-user access to
      online resources.




       Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The Getty Vocabularies
     The Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)
          A structured vocabulary of around 34,000 concepts,
          including 131,000 terms, descriptions, bibliographic
          citations, and other information relating to fine art,
          architecture, decorative arts, archival materials, and
          material culture.
     The Union List of Artist Names (ULAN)
          A structured vocabulary containing around 127,000
          records, including 375,000 names and biographical and
          bibliographic information about artists and architects,
          including a wealth of variant names, pseudonyms, and
          language variants.




      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Introduction and Preliminaries    Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The Getty Vocabularies
     The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)
          A structured vocabulary containing around 895,000
          records, including around 1,115,000 names, place types,
          coordinates, and descriptive notes, focusing on places
          important for the study of art and architecture.
     The Cultural Objects Name Authority (CONA)
          A new Getty vocabulary currently under development
          (2011). It will include authority records for cultural works,
          including architecture and movable works such as
          paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, manuscripts,
          photographs, ceramics, textiles, furniture, and other visual
          media such as frescoes and architectural sculpture,
          performance art, archaeological artifacts, and various
          functional objects that are from the realm of material culture
          and of the type collected by museums.


      Monika Solanki      Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009




                                Part II

    Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage

   Museums, Digital Libraries and Archives community




Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Overview

    Online access to even the most important aspects of our
    past and cultural heritage is still limited and highly
    fragmented, despite large amounts of public funding being
    devoted to their digitisation.
    Digital libraries raise the quality, availability and diversity of
    information.
    The museum community are especially interested in the
    items and artefacts in their collections and their
    representation as multimedia.




     Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Overview



    There is a strong demand for the innovation of enhanced
    facilities for multimedia information organisation, storage
    and retrieval.
    A constraint on the uptake of multimedia digital libraries is
    the limited amount of structured metadata available in such
    systems.




     Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The DigiCULT project (2002-2004)

                                    Digital Culture (DigiCULT) - an IST Support
                                    Measure to establish a regular technology
                                    watch for cultural and scientific heritage.
                                    A rigorous publication agenda of seven
                                    Thematic issues, three in-depth Technology
                                    watch reports and a DigiCULT info
                                    e-journal.
                              The third thematic issue addressed the
                              question “What will the SW do for heritage
                              institutions”.
     The DigiCULT Expert 13 (historians, language and information
     technology scientists, academics and publishers) concluded that
     the cultural heritage sector needed the SW.


                                         http://www.digicult.info/
      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Semantic web Think Tank (2006-2007)

     AHRC funded Thinktank to identify the key challenges and
     opportunities for museums and to define how the culture
     sector should respond to them.
     First Meeting in 2006 as part of the UK Museums and the
     Web conference led by Ross Parry (School of Museum
     studies @ UOL).
     23 participants: technologists, journalists, publishers,
     culture-sector professionals, theorists, managers, project
     leaders and strategicians.


      http://culturalsemanticweb.wordpress.com/workshop-reports/




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Museum Finland

    The first major deployment of semantic web technologies
    in the Museum sector.
    A semantic portal: Finnish museums on the Semantic web.
    Provides tools and services so that Finnish museums
    could present their collections online through a common
    semantic web interface.
    Second prize in the 2004 Semantic we challenge.
    Follow up project in 2008: CultureSampo - Finnish Culture
    on the Semantic Web 2.0.

                                                      http://www.museosuomi.fi///
                               http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/index.shtml




     Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
SCULPTEUR (2002)
    SCULPTEUR: Semantic and content-based multimedia
    exploitation for European benefit.
    Uses ontologies to structure and navigate nuseum
    collections
    “Concept Browser” allows users to access the information
    from the museum partners collaborating in the project
    structured through a common ontology, the CIDOC CRM.
    A web-based demonstrator for navigating, searching and
    retrieving 2D images, 3D models and textual metadata
    from the Victoria and Albert Museum - one of their partners
    and also includes a graphical ontology browser for users
    unfamiliar to the museum collection.

                        http://www.sculpteurweb.org/
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


eCHASE

   eCHASE: electronic Cultural Heritage made Accessible for
   Sustainable Exploitation
   A follow up project from SCULPTEUR.
   A demonstrator that allows users to search, collect and
   share multimedia entries from semantically integrated
   repositories across Europe.
   also includes a “lightbox” feature to support collaboration
   between eCHASE users.
   The eCHASE system can be accessed by external
   software applications as a Web Service.

                                              http://www.echase.org/




    Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


MultimediaN N9C Eculture project

     Development of a set of e-culture demonstrators providing
     multimedia access to distributed collections of cultural
     heritage objects.
     The architecture is fully based on open Web standards, in
     particular XML, SVG, RDF/OWL and SPARQL.
     Winner of the Semantic Web challenge in 2006.
     The demonstrator uses the Getty vocabularies (converted
     to RDF/OWL) as well as the lexical resource WordNet,
     version 2.0.

                         http://e-culture.multimedian.nl/




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


MultimediaN N9C Eculture project
     Collected descriptions of 200,000 objects from six
     collections.
          Rijksmusuem Amsterdam.
          National museum of ethnology.
          The Royal Tropical institute.
          The Netherlands institute for Art history.
          The Royal Library.
          Web collection archive.
     Collections are annotated with a range of thesauri and
     several proprietary controlled keyword lists.
     The semantic search is done over these collections.




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
CHIP @ Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
    The CHIP (Cultural Heritage Information Presentation)
    project is funded by Dutch Science Foundation.
    Three different components/tools in the CHIP
    demonstrator
        Artwork Recommender. a Web-based rating dialog for
        artworks/topics to build a user profile
        Tour Wizard. a Web-based tool using the user profile to
        generate (semi)automatically personalization virtual
        museum tours for each user.
        Mobile Tour. a PDA-based tool to map virtual tours into the
        physical museum space with constraints; to give guidance
        to users and to synchronize the user profile on the web and
        in the PDA.


                         http://www.chip-project.org/
STITCH@CATCH
 Semantic Interoperability To access Cultural Heritage
     To develop theory, methods and tools for allowing
     metadata interoperability through semantic links between
     the vocabularies.
     Cultural-heritage collections are typically indexed with
     metadata derived from a range of different vocabularies,.
     In general, it is unrealistic to assume unification of
     vocabularies.
     Research challenge is similar to what is called the
     “ontology mapping” problem in Semantic Web research.


              http://www.cs.vu.nl/STITCH/index.html
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


CONTEXTA/SR

    CONTEXTA/SR is a platform whose goal is to semantically
    integrate cultural heritage heterogeneous information.
    Modelling: ontologies to describe artifacts, ontologies to
    describe circumstances, and social ontologies.
    It does not build on CIDOC/CRM, rather it builds on
    ISAD(G) (General International Standard Archival
    Description) standard.
    ISAD(G) is a very detailed ontology specialized for the
    heritage domain.
    A very important aspect of their work is their use of
    resolvable URI in order to support the linked data initiative.


        www.archimuse.com/mw2008/papers/astudillo/astudillo.html


     Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009




                                Part III

    Semantic Web meets Archaeology




Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Overview

    In contrast to the cultural heritage sector aka museums,
    the Semantic Web has seen less uptake in archaeology.
    This could be because archaeologists tend to focus on
    analysis and recording of the data rather than
    dissemination.
    Experiences are mostly limited to spreadsheets, relational
    databases and/or spatial data management.
    Many academic archaeologists remain protective of their
    data especially when it has not been published in
    traditional media.
    The complexity of combining siloed resources may be
    overwhelming.



     Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


VBI-ERAT-LVPA (2004))

         An early example of the use of structured knowledge
         bases in the archaeological sphere.
         The VBI-ERAT-LVPA index is a knowledge base that
         integrates complementary archaeological information
         sources.
         The source data comprised complementary scientific
         databases and corpora describing finds with inscriptions
         and iconography of the Roman era.
         Each source schema was interpreted in terms of the
         CIDOC CRM model and stored as an RDF knowledge
         base.


  Doerr M., Schaller K. and Theodoridou M. 2004. Integration of complementary archaeological sources. In Computer

       Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference (CAA 2004). Prato (Italy), 13-17 April 2004.


            Monika Solanki        Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


VBI-ERAT-LVPA (2004))

     A suite of transformation/mapping tools: databases,
     spreadsheet, text files → XML (compatible with CIDOC
     CRM) → RDF.
     RDF Suite which allows for effective and efficient
     management of large volumes of RDF descriptions.
     Semantic web portal generator in order to provide a
     Web-based easy to use by archaeologists user interface.
     The user interface allows the formulation of three types of
     queries.




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


STAR (2007 - 2010)

        STAR: Semantic Technologies for Archaeological
        Resources
        A 3 year AHRC funded project, in collaboration with
        English Heritage and the Royal School of Library and
        Information Science Denmark.

  Aim
  To investigate the potential of semantic terminology tools for
  widening and improving access to digital archaeology
  resources, including disparate data sets and associated grey
  literature.



  http://hypermedia.research.glam.ac.uk/kos/star/
         Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


STAR (2007 - 2010)

  Outputs:
     In collaboration with English Heritage, a set of extensions
     to the CIDOC CRM core ontology (CIDOC CRM-EH
     Ontology) have been produced as RDF files.
     The project has developed an initial set of semantic web
     services, based upon the SKOS thesaurus
     representations.




       Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


archeoserver

     Led by Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e
     Comunicazione, University of Milano Bicocca
     Developed an ontology and navigation tools for an e-library
     on pre and proto - history in Italy.
     Looking into integration of excavation datasets in the Po
     valley.
     It does not use CIDOC/CRM, but uses its own ontology
     developed using the NavEditOW ontology editor.


               http://www.archeoserver.it/space/start




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Virtual Environments for Research in Archaeology

  VERA
     The project aims to produce a fully-fledged virtual research
     environment for the archaeological community.
     Develop services to increase the uptake of IADS@York.
     Future intentions: incorporate RDF for a broader
     archaeological data integration system.


                                                http://vera.rdg.ac.uk/




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Roman Ports Project (2007 - )

     a project undertaken by the University of Southampton and
     British School at Rome, has brought together a multitude
     of partners in order to share data about amphora and
     marble distribution along the Mediterranean littoral.
     A very good application of all round semantic web
     technologies.
     developed a guided process by which relational data
     columns can be mapped to concepts within an ontology,
     Natural Language Processing used to facilitate the
     mapping of local terms to concepts within different concept
     schemes.
     Spatial toponyms are also extracted and integreated using
     the Geonames webservices.

            http://www.bsr.ac.uk/BSR/sub_arch/BSR_Arch_05Roman.htm

      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


The Open Archaeology Software Suite

     Open Archaeology will host a number of sub-projects that
     while functional at a component level are intended to
     interoperate creating a complete AIS (Archaeological
     Information System), including the components necessary
     to manage the organisation carrying out the archaeology.
     Software project started during 2006 by Oxford
     Archaeology.
     Use of RDF is already evident. The project information is
     available to be downloaded as RDF metadata.


                 https://launchpad.net/openarchaeology




      Monika Solanki   Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Summary and Conclusions       Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Summary: The Heritage perspective

     Archaeological data sources are fragmentary by nature.
     Theoretical approaches used by practitioners are diverse.
     “Data is sacred” - expressing one’s knowledge base in
     terms of another’s ontology, may not always be
     “acceptable”.
     Adoption of the Semantic Web by the heritage sector
     depends upon the syntactical and semantic mark-up of
     content.
     The sector should coordinate their efforts to ensure that
     the fundamental building blocks that can enable their
     success on the semantic web are in place.
     Try not to “reinvent the wheel” in terms of metadata - use
     existing annotation schemes.


      Monika Solanki       Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Summary and Conclusions       Tracing Networks Workshop 2009


Summary: The Semantic Web perspective

    Provide facilities for harvesting, enriching and aligning
    collection metadata and vocabularies.
    Provide facilities for semantic search through the resulting
    graph, including various presentation mechanisms for the
    search results.
    User involvement is a key thing in cultural heritage: provide
    facilities for non experts to contribute to the metadata and
    annotations through folksonomies aka social tagging and
    faceted classification.




     Monika Solanki       Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
Summary and Conclusions       Tracing Networks Workshop 2009




                                                          Questions

                                                                    &
                                                        Discussions




                              http://www.kb.nl/manuscripts/
Monika Solanki       Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology

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Semantic web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology

  • 1. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology Monika Solanki Department of Computer Science University of Leicester November 13, 2009 Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 2. Talk outline Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Outline Introduction and Preliminaries Semantic Web meets Cultural Heritage Semantic Web meets Archaeology Questions and Discussion Philosophy in discussion with a Philosopher http://www.kb.nl/manuscripts/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 3. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Part I Setting the Scene Introduction and Preliminaries Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 4. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Semantic Web: The Vision An extension of the current web. A Web of machine - readable and linked data. Allows software agents to carry out complex tasks on behalf of the human users, e.g. Search. Through systems that can support trusted interactions over the network. The key: semantic interoperability of Web resources. http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 5. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Semantic Web: A“Heritage” Perspective Heritage communities: new ways to provide domain experts (historians, curators) and non expert users (school children) with access to their collections. Online digital libraries of collections and exhibitions. Navigating, searching and retrieving 2D images, 3D models and textual metadata Virtual Museum Book your next Museum trip!! Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 6. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Two different kinds of users “Which museum holds “For our history project, we artifacts and records of want to visit a museum to study of the breakdown and study how life was in ancient fossilization of bone from Egypt” mummies found in the bronze age” Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 7. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Semantic Web: A “Heritage” Perspective Benefits: Curators: Along with simple description - metadata, relationships between the objects in the collection will be available. Planning of their exhibition: identification of the pieces, production of catalogue and publicity material - handled by “exhibition agents”. Non experts: Enable “meaningful” searches over online digital libraries of collections and exhibitions. Planning your museum trip by relating opening times against public transport schedules. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 8. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Ontologies/Vocabularies/Thesauri Ontologies An ontology is an explicit specification of a domain in terms of entities and relationship between these entities. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 9. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Ontologies/Vocabularies/Thesauri Ontologies The relationship between entities provide the semantics or meaning of the data. This information is normally hidden in a dataset, e.g., databases, but it is made more explicit in an ontology. This explicit specification facilitates querying, complex reasoning and extension of the knowledge base that can be derived from the dataset. Technologies for building ontologies: RDF, SPARQL, OWL, and SKOS. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 10. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 A Loomweight Ontology Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 11. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 CIDOC CRM Ontology ICOM-CIDOC: The International Committee for Documentation of the International Council of Museums provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation. enables information exchange and interchange between heterogeneous sources of cultural heritage information by providing a common and extensible semantic framework promote a shared understanding of cultural heritage information by transforming disparate, localised information sources into a coherent global resource. http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/index.html Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 12. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 CIDOC CRM ontology A collaboration with the International Council of Museums. This is the most dominant ontology in cultural heritage. It is intended to cover the full spectrum of cultural heritage knowledge - from Archaeology to Art history, literary and musical entities. An ontology of 86 classes and 137 properties for culture and more. With the capacity to explain hundreds of (meta)data formats. Accepted by ISO TC46 in September 2000. International standard since 2006 - ISO 21127:2006. The ontology has been encoded in OWL2.0, OWLDL and RDFS. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 13. CIDOC CRM Ontology Top level classes
  • 14. CIDOC CRM Ontology Some specific Concepts
  • 15. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems and taxonomies within the framework of the Semantic Web. SKOS provides a standard way to represent knowledge organization systems RDF. SKOS is a data model ..for data that can be published on the web... http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/intro Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 16. SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System ..linked with other data... http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk/
  • 17. SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System ..data which is semantically interoperable... The Web and SKOS, Alistair Miles, ISKO, London, July 2008
  • 18. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Geonames A cool resource that provides a web service to query for information on world wide locations (city, town, place...) and returns the results in RDF. It provides a nice google map interface as well. The GeoNames Ontology makes it possible to add geospatial semantic information to the Word Wide Web. All over 6.2 million geonames toponyms now have a unique URL with a corresponding RDF web service. This has been used to add rich geographical information (e.g. latitude and longitude) to cultural archives that have. ambiguous text entries for place information. http://www.geonames.org/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 19. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Geonames The service distinguishes “Concept” from “Document” about it. For the town Embrun in France we have these two URIs : http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/ http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/about.rdf The first URI stands for the town in France. You use this URI if you want to refer to the town. The second URI is the document with the information geonames has about Embrun. This is called the “feature” document for the town. The geonames web server is configured to redirect requests for [1] to [2]. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 20. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Geonames: An example “feature” RDF document <Feature rdf:about="http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/"> <name xml:lang="fr">Embrun</name> <alternateName xml:lang="fr">Embrun, Hautes-Alpes</alternateName> <featureClass rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/ontology#P"/> <featureCode rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/ontology#P.PPL"/> <inCountry rdf:resource="http://www.geonames.org/countries/#FR"/> <population>7069</population> <postalCode>05200</postalCode> <wgs84_pos:alt>900</wgs84_pos:alt> <wgs84_pos:lat>44.5667</wgs84_pos:lat> <wgs84_pos:long>6.5000</wgs84_pos:long> <parentFeature rdf:resource="http://sws.geonames.org/3013738/"/> <nearbyFeatures rdf:resource="http://sws.geonames.org/3020251/nearby.rdf"/> <locationMap>http://www.geonames.org/3020251/embrun.html</locationMap> <wikipediaArticle rdf:resource="http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embrun"/> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://rdf.insee.fr/geo/COM_05046"/> </Feature> Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 21. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The Getty Vocabularies The Getty vocabulary databases are produced and maintained by the Getty Vocabulary Program. They are compliant with ISO and NISO standards for thesaurus construction. They contain terms, names, and other information about people, places, things, and concepts relating to art, architecture, and material culture. http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 22. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The Getty Vocabularies The Getty vocabularies can be used in three ways: at the data entry stage, by catalogers or indexers who are describing works of art, architecture, material culture, archival materials, visual surrogates, or bibliographic materials; as knowledge bases, providing information for researchers; and as search assistants to enhance end-user access to online resources. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 23. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The Getty Vocabularies The Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) A structured vocabulary of around 34,000 concepts, including 131,000 terms, descriptions, bibliographic citations, and other information relating to fine art, architecture, decorative arts, archival materials, and material culture. The Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) A structured vocabulary containing around 127,000 records, including 375,000 names and biographical and bibliographic information about artists and architects, including a wealth of variant names, pseudonyms, and language variants. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 24. Introduction and Preliminaries Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The Getty Vocabularies The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) A structured vocabulary containing around 895,000 records, including around 1,115,000 names, place types, coordinates, and descriptive notes, focusing on places important for the study of art and architecture. The Cultural Objects Name Authority (CONA) A new Getty vocabulary currently under development (2011). It will include authority records for cultural works, including architecture and movable works such as paintings, sculpture, prints, drawings, manuscripts, photographs, ceramics, textiles, furniture, and other visual media such as frescoes and architectural sculpture, performance art, archaeological artifacts, and various functional objects that are from the realm of material culture and of the type collected by museums. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 25. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Part II Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage Museums, Digital Libraries and Archives community Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 26. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Overview Online access to even the most important aspects of our past and cultural heritage is still limited and highly fragmented, despite large amounts of public funding being devoted to their digitisation. Digital libraries raise the quality, availability and diversity of information. The museum community are especially interested in the items and artefacts in their collections and their representation as multimedia. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 27. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Overview There is a strong demand for the innovation of enhanced facilities for multimedia information organisation, storage and retrieval. A constraint on the uptake of multimedia digital libraries is the limited amount of structured metadata available in such systems. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 28. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The DigiCULT project (2002-2004) Digital Culture (DigiCULT) - an IST Support Measure to establish a regular technology watch for cultural and scientific heritage. A rigorous publication agenda of seven Thematic issues, three in-depth Technology watch reports and a DigiCULT info e-journal. The third thematic issue addressed the question “What will the SW do for heritage institutions”. The DigiCULT Expert 13 (historians, language and information technology scientists, academics and publishers) concluded that the cultural heritage sector needed the SW. http://www.digicult.info/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 29. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Semantic web Think Tank (2006-2007) AHRC funded Thinktank to identify the key challenges and opportunities for museums and to define how the culture sector should respond to them. First Meeting in 2006 as part of the UK Museums and the Web conference led by Ross Parry (School of Museum studies @ UOL). 23 participants: technologists, journalists, publishers, culture-sector professionals, theorists, managers, project leaders and strategicians. http://culturalsemanticweb.wordpress.com/workshop-reports/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 30. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Museum Finland The first major deployment of semantic web technologies in the Museum sector. A semantic portal: Finnish museums on the Semantic web. Provides tools and services so that Finnish museums could present their collections online through a common semantic web interface. Second prize in the 2004 Semantic we challenge. Follow up project in 2008: CultureSampo - Finnish Culture on the Semantic Web 2.0. http://www.museosuomi.fi/// http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/index.shtml Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 31. SCULPTEUR (2002) SCULPTEUR: Semantic and content-based multimedia exploitation for European benefit. Uses ontologies to structure and navigate nuseum collections “Concept Browser” allows users to access the information from the museum partners collaborating in the project structured through a common ontology, the CIDOC CRM. A web-based demonstrator for navigating, searching and retrieving 2D images, 3D models and textual metadata from the Victoria and Albert Museum - one of their partners and also includes a graphical ontology browser for users unfamiliar to the museum collection. http://www.sculpteurweb.org/
  • 32. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 eCHASE eCHASE: electronic Cultural Heritage made Accessible for Sustainable Exploitation A follow up project from SCULPTEUR. A demonstrator that allows users to search, collect and share multimedia entries from semantically integrated repositories across Europe. also includes a “lightbox” feature to support collaboration between eCHASE users. The eCHASE system can be accessed by external software applications as a Web Service. http://www.echase.org/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 33. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 MultimediaN N9C Eculture project Development of a set of e-culture demonstrators providing multimedia access to distributed collections of cultural heritage objects. The architecture is fully based on open Web standards, in particular XML, SVG, RDF/OWL and SPARQL. Winner of the Semantic Web challenge in 2006. The demonstrator uses the Getty vocabularies (converted to RDF/OWL) as well as the lexical resource WordNet, version 2.0. http://e-culture.multimedian.nl/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 34. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 MultimediaN N9C Eculture project Collected descriptions of 200,000 objects from six collections. Rijksmusuem Amsterdam. National museum of ethnology. The Royal Tropical institute. The Netherlands institute for Art history. The Royal Library. Web collection archive. Collections are annotated with a range of thesauri and several proprietary controlled keyword lists. The semantic search is done over these collections. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 35. CHIP @ Rijksmuseum Amsterdam The CHIP (Cultural Heritage Information Presentation) project is funded by Dutch Science Foundation. Three different components/tools in the CHIP demonstrator Artwork Recommender. a Web-based rating dialog for artworks/topics to build a user profile Tour Wizard. a Web-based tool using the user profile to generate (semi)automatically personalization virtual museum tours for each user. Mobile Tour. a PDA-based tool to map virtual tours into the physical museum space with constraints; to give guidance to users and to synchronize the user profile on the web and in the PDA. http://www.chip-project.org/
  • 36. STITCH@CATCH Semantic Interoperability To access Cultural Heritage To develop theory, methods and tools for allowing metadata interoperability through semantic links between the vocabularies. Cultural-heritage collections are typically indexed with metadata derived from a range of different vocabularies,. In general, it is unrealistic to assume unification of vocabularies. Research challenge is similar to what is called the “ontology mapping” problem in Semantic Web research. http://www.cs.vu.nl/STITCH/index.html
  • 37. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 CONTEXTA/SR CONTEXTA/SR is a platform whose goal is to semantically integrate cultural heritage heterogeneous information. Modelling: ontologies to describe artifacts, ontologies to describe circumstances, and social ontologies. It does not build on CIDOC/CRM, rather it builds on ISAD(G) (General International Standard Archival Description) standard. ISAD(G) is a very detailed ontology specialized for the heritage domain. A very important aspect of their work is their use of resolvable URI in order to support the linked data initiative. www.archimuse.com/mw2008/papers/astudillo/astudillo.html Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 38. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Part III Semantic Web meets Archaeology Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 39. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Overview In contrast to the cultural heritage sector aka museums, the Semantic Web has seen less uptake in archaeology. This could be because archaeologists tend to focus on analysis and recording of the data rather than dissemination. Experiences are mostly limited to spreadsheets, relational databases and/or spatial data management. Many academic archaeologists remain protective of their data especially when it has not been published in traditional media. The complexity of combining siloed resources may be overwhelming. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 40. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 VBI-ERAT-LVPA (2004)) An early example of the use of structured knowledge bases in the archaeological sphere. The VBI-ERAT-LVPA index is a knowledge base that integrates complementary archaeological information sources. The source data comprised complementary scientific databases and corpora describing finds with inscriptions and iconography of the Roman era. Each source schema was interpreted in terms of the CIDOC CRM model and stored as an RDF knowledge base. Doerr M., Schaller K. and Theodoridou M. 2004. Integration of complementary archaeological sources. In Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference (CAA 2004). Prato (Italy), 13-17 April 2004. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 41. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 VBI-ERAT-LVPA (2004)) A suite of transformation/mapping tools: databases, spreadsheet, text files → XML (compatible with CIDOC CRM) → RDF. RDF Suite which allows for effective and efficient management of large volumes of RDF descriptions. Semantic web portal generator in order to provide a Web-based easy to use by archaeologists user interface. The user interface allows the formulation of three types of queries. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 42. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 STAR (2007 - 2010) STAR: Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources A 3 year AHRC funded project, in collaboration with English Heritage and the Royal School of Library and Information Science Denmark. Aim To investigate the potential of semantic terminology tools for widening and improving access to digital archaeology resources, including disparate data sets and associated grey literature. http://hypermedia.research.glam.ac.uk/kos/star/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 43. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 STAR (2007 - 2010) Outputs: In collaboration with English Heritage, a set of extensions to the CIDOC CRM core ontology (CIDOC CRM-EH Ontology) have been produced as RDF files. The project has developed an initial set of semantic web services, based upon the SKOS thesaurus representations. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 44. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 archeoserver Led by Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione, University of Milano Bicocca Developed an ontology and navigation tools for an e-library on pre and proto - history in Italy. Looking into integration of excavation datasets in the Po valley. It does not use CIDOC/CRM, but uses its own ontology developed using the NavEditOW ontology editor. http://www.archeoserver.it/space/start Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 45. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Virtual Environments for Research in Archaeology VERA The project aims to produce a fully-fledged virtual research environment for the archaeological community. Develop services to increase the uptake of IADS@York. Future intentions: incorporate RDF for a broader archaeological data integration system. http://vera.rdg.ac.uk/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 46. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Roman Ports Project (2007 - ) a project undertaken by the University of Southampton and British School at Rome, has brought together a multitude of partners in order to share data about amphora and marble distribution along the Mediterranean littoral. A very good application of all round semantic web technologies. developed a guided process by which relational data columns can be mapped to concepts within an ontology, Natural Language Processing used to facilitate the mapping of local terms to concepts within different concept schemes. Spatial toponyms are also extracted and integreated using the Geonames webservices. http://www.bsr.ac.uk/BSR/sub_arch/BSR_Arch_05Roman.htm Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 47. Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 The Open Archaeology Software Suite Open Archaeology will host a number of sub-projects that while functional at a component level are intended to interoperate creating a complete AIS (Archaeological Information System), including the components necessary to manage the organisation carrying out the archaeology. Software project started during 2006 by Oxford Archaeology. Use of RDF is already evident. The project information is available to be downloaded as RDF metadata. https://launchpad.net/openarchaeology Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 48. Summary and Conclusions Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Summary: The Heritage perspective Archaeological data sources are fragmentary by nature. Theoretical approaches used by practitioners are diverse. “Data is sacred” - expressing one’s knowledge base in terms of another’s ontology, may not always be “acceptable”. Adoption of the Semantic Web by the heritage sector depends upon the syntactical and semantic mark-up of content. The sector should coordinate their efforts to ensure that the fundamental building blocks that can enable their success on the semantic web are in place. Try not to “reinvent the wheel” in terms of metadata - use existing annotation schemes. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 49. Summary and Conclusions Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Summary: The Semantic Web perspective Provide facilities for harvesting, enriching and aligning collection metadata and vocabularies. Provide facilities for semantic search through the resulting graph, including various presentation mechanisms for the search results. User involvement is a key thing in cultural heritage: provide facilities for non experts to contribute to the metadata and annotations through folksonomies aka social tagging and faceted classification. Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology
  • 50. Summary and Conclusions Tracing Networks Workshop 2009 Questions & Discussions http://www.kb.nl/manuscripts/ Monika Solanki Semantic Web in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology