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EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Semantic Web 
Karwan Jacksi 
PhD Student 
School of Computing and Technology 
Eastern Mediterranean University 
Guest Lecture 
Text Mining -Fall – 2014 
11.11.2014 
Link to the slides 
www.KarwanJacksi.net/seminars
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Agenda 
• Motivation 
– Development of the Web 
– Limitations of the current Web 
• Technical Solution 
– Introduction to Semantic Web 
– Semantic Web Architecture and Languages 
– Semantic Web Tools 
• Summery 
• References 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 2
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Development of the Web 
1. Internet 
2. Web 1.0 
3. Web 2.0 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 3
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Internet 
• “The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer 
networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite 
(TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. 
• It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private 
and public, academic, business, and government networks of 
local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of 
electronic and optical networking technologies.” 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 4
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Internet Cont’d 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 5
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Internet Cont’d 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 6
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Memex 
Conceived 
1945 
WWW 
Created 
1989 
Mosaic 
Created 
1993 
A 
Mathematical 
Theory of 
Communication 
1948 
Packet 
Switching 
Invented 
1964 
Silicon 
Chip 
1958 
First Vast 
Computer 
Network 
Envisioned 
1962 
ARPANET 
1969 
TCP/IP 
Created 
1972 
Internet 
Named 
and 
Goes 
TCP/IP 
1984 
Hypertext 
Invented 
1965 
Age of 
eCommerce 
Begins 
1995 
A brief summary of Internet evolution 
1945 1995 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 7
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Web 1.0 
• “The World Wide Web ("WWW" or simply the "Web") is a 
system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the 
Internet. 
• With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may 
contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates 
between them using hyperlinks”. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 8
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Web 1.0 principles 
• The success of Web1.0 is based on three simple principles: 
1. A simple and uniform addressing schema to identify information 
chunks i.e. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 
2. A simple and uniform representation formalism to structure 
information chunks allowing browsers to render them i.e. 
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) 
3. A simple and uniform protocol to access information chunks i.e. 
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 9
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Web 1.0 principles Cont’d 
• 1. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 
– Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to name/identify 
resources on the Web 
– URIs are pointers to resources to which request methods can be 
applied to generate potentially different responses 
– Resource can reside anywhere on the Internet 
– Most popular form of a URI is the Uniform Resource Locator 
(URL) 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 10
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Web 1.0 principles Cont’d 
• 2. Hyper-Text Markup Language (HTML) 
– Hyper-Text Markup Language: 
• A subset of Standardized General Markup Language (SGML) 
• Facilitates a hyper-media environment 
– Documents use elements to “mark up” or identify sections of text 
for different purposes 
– HTML markup consists of several types of entities, including: 
elements, attributes, data types and character references 
– Markup elements are not seen by the user when page is 
displayed 
– Documents are rendered by browsers 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 11
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Web 1.0 principles Cont’d 
• 3. Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 
– Protocol for client/server communication 
• The heart of the Web 
• Very simple request/response protocol 
– Client sends request message, server replies with response message 
• Provide a way to publish and retrieve HTML pages 
• Relies on URI naming mechanism 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 12
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3- Web 2.0 
• “The term "Web 2.0" (2004–present) is commonly associated 
with web applications that facilitate interactive information 
sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and 
collaboration on the World Wide Web” 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 13
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3- Web 2.0 Cont’d 
• A Web 2.0 site may allow users to interact and collaborate 
with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated 
content in a virtual community, in contrast to Web 
sites where people are limited to the passive viewing 
of content. 
– Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, 
wikis, video sharing sites…etc. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 14
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3- Web 2.0 Cont’d 
• With Web 1.0 technology a significant amount of software 
skills and investment in software was necessary to publish 
information. 
– Web 2.0 technology changed this dramatically. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 15
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Web 2.0 major breakthroughs 
• The four major breakthroughs of Web 2.0 are: 
– Blurring the distinction between content consumers and content 
providers. 
• Wiki, Blogs, and Twitter turned the publication of text in mass 
phenomena, as Flickr and YouTube did for multimedia 
– Moving from media for individuals towards media for communities. 
• Social web sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn…etc allow communities of 
users to smoothly interweave their information and activities 
– Blurring the distinction between service consumers and service 
providers 
• Mashups allow web users to easy integrate services in their web site 
that were implemented by third parties 
– Integrating human and machine computing in a new and innovative 
way 
• Amazon Mechanical Turk - allows to access human services through a 
web service interface blurring the distinction between manually and 
automatically provided services 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 16
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Limitations of the current Web 
• The current Web has its limitations when it comes to: 
1. finding relevant information 
2. extracting relevant information 
3. combining and reusing information 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 17
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Finding relevant information 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 18
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Finding relevant information Cont’d 
• Finding information on the current Web is based on keyword 
search 
• Keyword search has a limited recall and precision due to: 
– Synonyms: 
• e.g. Searching information about “Cars” will ignore Web pages that 
contain the word “Automobiles” even though the information on 
these pages could be relevant 
– Homonyms: 
• e.g. Searching information about “Jaguar” will bring up pages 
containing information about both “Jaguar” (the car brand) and 
“Jaguar” (the animal) even though the user is interested only in one 
of them 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 19
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Finding relevant information Cont’d 
• Keyword search has a limited recall and precision due also to: 
– Spelling variants: 
• e.g. “organize” in American English vs. “organise” in British English 
– Spelling mistakes 
– Multiple languages 
• i.e. information about same topics in published on the Web on 
different languages (English, German, Italian,…) 
• Current search engines provide no means to specify the 
relation between a resource and a term 
– e.g. sell / buy 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 20
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Extracting relevant information 
• One-fit-all automatic solution for extracting information from 
Web pages is not possible due to different formats, different 
syntaxes 
• Even from a single Web page is difficult to extract the relevant 
information 
Which book is 
about the Web? 
What is the price 
of the book? 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 21
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Extracting relevant information Cont’d 
• Extracting information from current web sites can be done 
using wrappers 
WEB 
HTML pages 
Layout 
Structured Data, 
Databases, 
XML 
Structure 
Wrapper 
extract 
annotate 
structure 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 22
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Extracting relevant information Cont’d 
• The actual extraction of information from web sites is 
specified using standards such as XSL Transformation (XSLT) 
• Extracted information can be stored as structured data in XML 
format or databases. 
• However, using wrappers do not really scale because the 
actual extraction of information depends again on the web site 
format and layout 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 23
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Combining and reusing information 
• Tasks often require to combine data on the Web 
1. Searching for the same information in different digital libraries 
2. Information may come from different web sites and needs to be 
combined 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 24
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Combining and reusing information 
1. Searches for the same information in different digital libraries 
Example: I want travel from Innsbruck to Rome. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 25
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Combining and reusing information 
2. Information may come from different web sites and needs to 
be combined 
Example: I want to travel from Innsbruck to Rome where I want 
to stay in a hotel and visit the city 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 26
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
How to improve current Web? 
• Increasing automatic linking among data 
• Increasing recall and precision in search 
• Increasing automation in data integration 
• Increasing automation in the service life cycle 
• Adding semantics to data and services is the solution! 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 27
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Introduction to semantic web 
• The Vision 
More than 2 billion users 
more than 50 billion pages 
Static WWW 
URI, HTML, HTTP 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 28
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Introduction to semantic web cont’d 
Serious problems in 
• information finding, 
• information extracting, 
• information representing, 
• information interpreting 
• and information maintaining. 
WWW 
URI, HTML, HTTP 
Semantic Web 
RDF, RDF(S), OWL 
Static 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 29
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
What is the Semantic Web? 
• “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in 
which information is given well-defined meaning, better 
enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” 
T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, O. Lassila, “The Semantic 
Web”, Scientific American, May 2001 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 30
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
What is the Semantic Web? Cont’d 
• The next generation of the WWW 
• Information has machine-processable and machine-understandable 
semantics 
• Not a separate Web but an augmentation of the current one 
• The backbone of Semantic Web are ontologies 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 31
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Ontology definition 
• Ontologies are the modeling foundations to Semantic Web 
– They provide the well-defined meaning for information 
conceptual model 
of a domain 
(ontological theory) 
unambiguous 
terminology definitions 
formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization 
commonly accepted 
understanding 
machine-readability 
with computational 
semantics 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 32
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Ontology example 
• Concept 
– conceptual entity of the domain 
• Property 
– attribute describing a concept 
• Relation 
– relationship between concepts or 
properties 
• Axiom 
name email 
isA – hierarchy (taxonomy) 
matr.-nr. 
research 
field 
Student Professor 
– coherency description between Concepts 
/ Properties / Relations via logical 
expressions 
Person 
attends holds 
Lecture 
topic 
lecture 
nr. 
holds(Professor, Lecture) => 
Lecture.topic = Professor.researchField 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 33
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Semantic Web of Data 
1. Web Data Annotation 
2. Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) 
3. Data Integration over the Web 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 34
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
1-Web Data Annotation 
– connecting (syntactic) Web objects, like text chunks, images, … to 
their semantic notion 
• e.g., this image is about Famagusta, Nazife Dimililer is a professor 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 35
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) 
– global networking of knowledge through URI, RDF, and SPARQL 
• e.g., connecting my calendar with my rss feeds, my pictures, ... 
LinkedCT 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 36
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
2-Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) Cont’d 
• Linked Open Data statistics: 
– data sets: 123 
– total number of triples: 19.562.409.691 
– total number of links between data sets: 142.605.717 
• Statistics available at: (These pages were last modified on 23 September 2010!) 
– http://esw.w3.org/topic/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/DataSets/Statistics 
– http://esw.w3.org/topic/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/DataSets/LinkStatistics 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 37
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web 
• Data integration involves combining data residing in different 
sources and providing user with a unified view of these data 
• Data integration over the Web can be implemented as follows: 
1. Export the data sets to be integrated as RDF graphs 
2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same URI) 
from different data sets 
3. Start making queries on the integrated data, queries that were 
not possible on the individual data sets. 
4. Example (next slide) 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 38
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 
1. Export first data set as RDF graph 
For example the following RDF graph contains information about 
book “The Glass Palace” by Amitav Ghosh 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 39
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 
1. Export second data set as RDF graph 
Information about the same book but in French this time is 
modeled in RDF graph below 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 40
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 
2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same 
URI) from different data sets 
Same URI = Same resource 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 41
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 
2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same 
URI) from different data sets 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 42
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 
3. Start making queries on the integrated data 
– A user of the second dataset may ask queries like: “give me the title 
of the original book” 
– This information is not in the second dataset! 
– This information can be however retrieved from the integrated 
dataset, in which the second dataset was connected with the first 
dataset 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 43
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Semantic Web Architecture and Languages 
• Requirements 
– Extensibility 
• Each layer should extend the previous one(s) 
– Support for data interchange 
• Using data from one source in other applications 
– Support for ontology description with different complexity 
• Including rules 
– Support for data query 
– Support for data provenance and trust evaluation 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 44
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Semantic Web Stack 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 45
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
UNICODE, URI and XML 
• UNICODE is the standard international character set 
– E.g. used to encode the data in the repository 
• ASCII –7 bit, 128 characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, punctuation 
• Extension code pages –128 chars (ß, Ä, ñ, ø, Š, etc.) 
– Different systems, many different code pages 
– ISO Latin 1, CP1252 –Western languages(197 = Å) 
– ISO Latin 2, CP1250 –East Europe(197 = Ĺ) 
• Code page is an interpretation, not a property of text 
– Thus if we do not interpret correctly the code page, the result visualized 
will not be the expected one 
• Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) identify things and 
concepts 
– E.g. used to identify resources on the Web and in the repository 
• URI Syntax scheme: [//authority] [/path] [?query] [#fragid] 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 46
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
UNICODE, URI and XML Cont’d 
• eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language 
used for data exchange 
– Language for creating languages 
– “Meta-language” 
– XHTML is a language: HTML expressed in XML 
• E.g. format that can be wrapped into RDF and imported into the 
repository 
– Examples: 
• <temperature unit="F">64</temperature> 
• <swearword language='fr'>con</swearword> 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 47
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
RDF, RDFS and OWL 
• Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the HTML of the Semantic Web 
– Simple way to describe resources on the Web 
– Based on triples <subject, predicate, object> 
• Various serializations, including one based on XML (RDF/XML, Turtle,N3…etc) 
• Example: 
– <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill> 
– <#john, rdf:type, #Student> 
– What is a “#Student”? 
• RFD is not defining a vocabulary about the statements, but only to express 
statements 
• We know that “#Student” identifies a category (a concept or a class), but this is 
only implicitly defined in RDF 
• We need a language for defining RDF types: 
– Define classes: 
• “#Student is a class” 
– –Relationships between classes: 
• “#Student is a sub-class of #Person” 
– –Properties of classes: 
• “#Person has a property hasName” 
• RDF Schema (RDFS) is such a language 
name email 
Person 
isA – hierarchy (taxonomy) 
matr.-nr. 
research 
field 
Student Professor 
attends holds 
Lecture 
topic 
lecture 
nr. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 48
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
RDF, RDFS and OWL Cont’d 
• Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a more complex ontology 
language than RDFS 
– Layered language based on DL 
– Overcomes some RDF(S) limitations 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 49
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
SPARQL and Rule Languages 
• SPARQL 
– Query language for RDF triples 
– A protocol for querying RDF data over the Web 
– A language used to query the repository from the user interface 
• E.g. What are all the country capitals in Africa? 
PREFIX abc: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#> 
SELECT ?capital ?country 
WHERE { 
?x abc:cityname ?capital ; 
abc:isCapitalOf ?y . 
?y abc:countryname ?country ; 
abc:isInContinent abc:Africa . } 
• Rule languages (esp. Rule Interchange Format RIF) 
– Extend ontology languages with proprietary axioms 
– Based on different types of logics 
• Description Logic 
• Logic Programming 
holds(Professor, Lecture) => 
Lecture.topic = Professor.researchField 
– E.g. used to enable reasoning over data to infer new knowledge 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 50
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Logics, Proof and Trust 
• Unifying logic 
– Bring together the various ontology and rule languages 
– Common inferences, meaning of data 
• Proof 
– Explanation of inference results, data provenance 
• Trust 
– Trust that the system performs correctly 
– Trust that the system can explain what it is doing 
– Network of trust for data sources and services 
– Technology and user interface 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 51
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Tools for semantic web 
• The Semantic web tools can be grouped according to their 
purpose 
1. the ontology Editors are used for data modeling 
• The visualization and editing of Ontologies are added to be the 
extensions of Ontology Editors. 
2. the Reasoner for the notion of generalized Inference 
mechanism. 
3. the Plugin and APIs that can set up the Semantic web 
development environment. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 52
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Ontology Editor 
• The Ontology Editors are used for creating a data model for 
the underlying Semantic web Application 
– It favours manipulating the available ontologies for access. 
• The ontologies are constructed using standard Ontology 
languages. 
• The Ontology Languages are formal languages that depends 
with reasoning rules for framing these ontologies 
• The Ontology Languages are classified either by syntax or 
structure. 
– The Syntax oriented Ontology Languages like OWL, RDF and 
OIL are more prevalent ontology languages. 
– The Ontology Editors can be classified based on the type of 
ontology languages used. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 53
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Ontology Editor Cont’d 
• Protege (today) 
http://protege.stanford.edu 
• Neon Toolkit: www.neon-toolkit.org 
• myOntology: www.myontology.org 
• Semantic Media Wiki 
– HALO extension 
http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Halo_Extension 
– Ontology editor extension http://smw-active.sti-innsbruck.at 
• DOGMA Modeler http://starlab.vub.ac.be/website/node/47 
• OntoStudio http://www.ontoprise.de/ 
• TopBraid Composer http://www.topbraidcomposer.com/ 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 54
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Reasoner 
• The Inference mechanism on Reasoners are the rich 
capability provided to infer logical consequences from axioms. 
• These Logical consequences are nothing but the relationship 
between statements that are true, where axioms are the 
statements which are accepted to be true without controversy. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 55
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Reasoner Cont’d 
• AllegroGraph http://agraph.franz.com/ 
• Fact http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/%7Ehorrocks/FaCT/ 
• Pellet http://clarkparsia.com/pellet 
• Racer http://www.racer-systems.com/ 
• IRIS http://www.sti-innsbruck.at/ 
• OWLIM http://http//ontotext.com/owlim/ 
• KAON http://kaon2.semanticweb.org/ 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 56
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Plugin and API 
• The Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of 
protocols, and tools for building software applications. 
– It favors easier development of a program by providing 
necessary building blocks and assembling these building blocks 
is the remaining part to work. 
• The APIs are more useful for users than programmers. 
– Since, they provide a common API with similar interface for all 
programs. 
• This leads to an easier learning task for even naïve users. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 57
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Plugin and API Cont’d 
• The plug-ins are a set of software components used for 
adding specific abilities to a larger software application. 
– For Example, Pellet Reasoner Plugins are added in Eclipse IDE 
for inferring the relationships. 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 58
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Plugin and API Cont’d 
• Jena API 
– The Jena API is a well known Semantic web platform among 
Java framework for building Semantic Web applications. 
– It includes wide range of java libraries that help developers to 
develop code easier. 
– The first approach of developing Jena was underwent by 
researchers in HP Labs by 2000. 
– Jena is an open-source project, and has been used in a wide 
variety of semantic web applications. 
– In 2010, Jena was adopted by the Apache Software Foundation 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 59
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Summery 
• Semantic Web is not a replacement of the current Web, it’s 
an evolution of it 
• Semantic Web is about: 
– annotation of data on the Web 
– data linking on the Web 
– data Integration over the Web 
• Semantic Web aims at automating tasks currently carried out 
by humans 
• Semantic Web is becoming real! 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 60
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Good Videos 
• Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0 
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsNcjya56v8 
• Web today -Web 2.0 
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE 
• The Future Internet: Service Web 3.0 
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=off08As3siM 
• Web 3.0 - The Internet of Things! 
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_nbUizGeEY 
• Web 3.0 
• http://www.sti-innsbruck.at/results/movies/web-30 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 61
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
References 
• A Survey on Tools Essential for Semantic Web Research 
– International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) 
Volume 62– No.9, January 2013 
• A Review on Semantic-Based Web Mining and its Applications 
– Sivakumar J et al. / International Journal of Engineering and 
Technology (IJET) 
• Wikipedia 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memex 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosaic_(web_browser) 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 
– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web 
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Mechanical_Turk 
– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework 
– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 62
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
References 
• Other Links 
– http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt 
– http://www.ontoprise.de 
– http://linkeddata.org 
– http://www.w3.org/People/Ivan/CorePresentations/SWTutorial/Sli 
des.pdf 
– http://sti-innsbruck.at/sites/default/files/courses/01_SW-Introduction. 
pdf 
– http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/mobasher/classes/it130/internet-www/ 
index.html 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 63
EMU–School of Computing and Technology 
Your Questions? 
THE END 
Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 64

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Semantic web

  • 1. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Semantic Web Karwan Jacksi PhD Student School of Computing and Technology Eastern Mediterranean University Guest Lecture Text Mining -Fall – 2014 11.11.2014 Link to the slides www.KarwanJacksi.net/seminars
  • 2. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Agenda • Motivation – Development of the Web – Limitations of the current Web • Technical Solution – Introduction to Semantic Web – Semantic Web Architecture and Languages – Semantic Web Tools • Summery • References Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 2
  • 3. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Development of the Web 1. Internet 2. Web 1.0 3. Web 2.0 Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 3
  • 4. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Internet • “The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. • It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.” Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 4
  • 5. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Internet Cont’d Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 5
  • 6. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Internet Cont’d Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 6
  • 7. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Memex Conceived 1945 WWW Created 1989 Mosaic Created 1993 A Mathematical Theory of Communication 1948 Packet Switching Invented 1964 Silicon Chip 1958 First Vast Computer Network Envisioned 1962 ARPANET 1969 TCP/IP Created 1972 Internet Named and Goes TCP/IP 1984 Hypertext Invented 1965 Age of eCommerce Begins 1995 A brief summary of Internet evolution 1945 1995 Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 7
  • 8. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Web 1.0 • “The World Wide Web ("WWW" or simply the "Web") is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. • With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks”. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 8
  • 9. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Web 1.0 principles • The success of Web1.0 is based on three simple principles: 1. A simple and uniform addressing schema to identify information chunks i.e. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 2. A simple and uniform representation formalism to structure information chunks allowing browsers to render them i.e. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) 3. A simple and uniform protocol to access information chunks i.e. Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 9
  • 10. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Web 1.0 principles Cont’d • 1. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) – Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to name/identify resources on the Web – URIs are pointers to resources to which request methods can be applied to generate potentially different responses – Resource can reside anywhere on the Internet – Most popular form of a URI is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 10
  • 11. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Web 1.0 principles Cont’d • 2. Hyper-Text Markup Language (HTML) – Hyper-Text Markup Language: • A subset of Standardized General Markup Language (SGML) • Facilitates a hyper-media environment – Documents use elements to “mark up” or identify sections of text for different purposes – HTML markup consists of several types of entities, including: elements, attributes, data types and character references – Markup elements are not seen by the user when page is displayed – Documents are rendered by browsers Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 11
  • 12. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Web 1.0 principles Cont’d • 3. Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – Protocol for client/server communication • The heart of the Web • Very simple request/response protocol – Client sends request message, server replies with response message • Provide a way to publish and retrieve HTML pages • Relies on URI naming mechanism Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 12
  • 13. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3- Web 2.0 • “The term "Web 2.0" (2004–present) is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web” Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 13
  • 14. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3- Web 2.0 Cont’d • A Web 2.0 site may allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to Web sites where people are limited to the passive viewing of content. – Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites…etc. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 14
  • 15. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3- Web 2.0 Cont’d • With Web 1.0 technology a significant amount of software skills and investment in software was necessary to publish information. – Web 2.0 technology changed this dramatically. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 15
  • 16. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Web 2.0 major breakthroughs • The four major breakthroughs of Web 2.0 are: – Blurring the distinction between content consumers and content providers. • Wiki, Blogs, and Twitter turned the publication of text in mass phenomena, as Flickr and YouTube did for multimedia – Moving from media for individuals towards media for communities. • Social web sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn…etc allow communities of users to smoothly interweave their information and activities – Blurring the distinction between service consumers and service providers • Mashups allow web users to easy integrate services in their web site that were implemented by third parties – Integrating human and machine computing in a new and innovative way • Amazon Mechanical Turk - allows to access human services through a web service interface blurring the distinction between manually and automatically provided services Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 16
  • 17. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Limitations of the current Web • The current Web has its limitations when it comes to: 1. finding relevant information 2. extracting relevant information 3. combining and reusing information Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 17
  • 18. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Finding relevant information Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 18
  • 19. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Finding relevant information Cont’d • Finding information on the current Web is based on keyword search • Keyword search has a limited recall and precision due to: – Synonyms: • e.g. Searching information about “Cars” will ignore Web pages that contain the word “Automobiles” even though the information on these pages could be relevant – Homonyms: • e.g. Searching information about “Jaguar” will bring up pages containing information about both “Jaguar” (the car brand) and “Jaguar” (the animal) even though the user is interested only in one of them Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 19
  • 20. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Finding relevant information Cont’d • Keyword search has a limited recall and precision due also to: – Spelling variants: • e.g. “organize” in American English vs. “organise” in British English – Spelling mistakes – Multiple languages • i.e. information about same topics in published on the Web on different languages (English, German, Italian,…) • Current search engines provide no means to specify the relation between a resource and a term – e.g. sell / buy Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 20
  • 21. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Extracting relevant information • One-fit-all automatic solution for extracting information from Web pages is not possible due to different formats, different syntaxes • Even from a single Web page is difficult to extract the relevant information Which book is about the Web? What is the price of the book? Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 21
  • 22. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Extracting relevant information Cont’d • Extracting information from current web sites can be done using wrappers WEB HTML pages Layout Structured Data, Databases, XML Structure Wrapper extract annotate structure Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 22
  • 23. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Extracting relevant information Cont’d • The actual extraction of information from web sites is specified using standards such as XSL Transformation (XSLT) • Extracted information can be stored as structured data in XML format or databases. • However, using wrappers do not really scale because the actual extraction of information depends again on the web site format and layout Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 23
  • 24. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Combining and reusing information • Tasks often require to combine data on the Web 1. Searching for the same information in different digital libraries 2. Information may come from different web sites and needs to be combined Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 24
  • 25. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Combining and reusing information 1. Searches for the same information in different digital libraries Example: I want travel from Innsbruck to Rome. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 25
  • 26. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Combining and reusing information 2. Information may come from different web sites and needs to be combined Example: I want to travel from Innsbruck to Rome where I want to stay in a hotel and visit the city Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 26
  • 27. EMU–School of Computing and Technology How to improve current Web? • Increasing automatic linking among data • Increasing recall and precision in search • Increasing automation in data integration • Increasing automation in the service life cycle • Adding semantics to data and services is the solution! Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 27
  • 28. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Introduction to semantic web • The Vision More than 2 billion users more than 50 billion pages Static WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 28
  • 29. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Introduction to semantic web cont’d Serious problems in • information finding, • information extracting, • information representing, • information interpreting • and information maintaining. WWW URI, HTML, HTTP Semantic Web RDF, RDF(S), OWL Static Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 29
  • 30. EMU–School of Computing and Technology What is the Semantic Web? • “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, O. Lassila, “The Semantic Web”, Scientific American, May 2001 Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 30
  • 31. EMU–School of Computing and Technology What is the Semantic Web? Cont’d • The next generation of the WWW • Information has machine-processable and machine-understandable semantics • Not a separate Web but an augmentation of the current one • The backbone of Semantic Web are ontologies Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 31
  • 32. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Ontology definition • Ontologies are the modeling foundations to Semantic Web – They provide the well-defined meaning for information conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) unambiguous terminology definitions formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization commonly accepted understanding machine-readability with computational semantics Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 32
  • 33. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Ontology example • Concept – conceptual entity of the domain • Property – attribute describing a concept • Relation – relationship between concepts or properties • Axiom name email isA – hierarchy (taxonomy) matr.-nr. research field Student Professor – coherency description between Concepts / Properties / Relations via logical expressions Person attends holds Lecture topic lecture nr. holds(Professor, Lecture) => Lecture.topic = Professor.researchField Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 33
  • 34. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Semantic Web of Data 1. Web Data Annotation 2. Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) 3. Data Integration over the Web Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 34
  • 35. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 1-Web Data Annotation – connecting (syntactic) Web objects, like text chunks, images, … to their semantic notion • e.g., this image is about Famagusta, Nazife Dimililer is a professor Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 35
  • 36. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) – global networking of knowledge through URI, RDF, and SPARQL • e.g., connecting my calendar with my rss feeds, my pictures, ... LinkedCT Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 36
  • 37. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 2-Data Linking on the Web (Web of Data) Cont’d • Linked Open Data statistics: – data sets: 123 – total number of triples: 19.562.409.691 – total number of links between data sets: 142.605.717 • Statistics available at: (These pages were last modified on 23 September 2010!) – http://esw.w3.org/topic/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/DataSets/Statistics – http://esw.w3.org/topic/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/DataSets/LinkStatistics Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 37
  • 38. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web • Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing user with a unified view of these data • Data integration over the Web can be implemented as follows: 1. Export the data sets to be integrated as RDF graphs 2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same URI) from different data sets 3. Start making queries on the integrated data, queries that were not possible on the individual data sets. 4. Example (next slide) Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 38
  • 39. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 1. Export first data set as RDF graph For example the following RDF graph contains information about book “The Glass Palace” by Amitav Ghosh Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 39
  • 40. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 1. Export second data set as RDF graph Information about the same book but in French this time is modeled in RDF graph below Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 40
  • 41. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same URI) from different data sets Same URI = Same resource Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 41
  • 42. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 2. Merge identical resources (i.e. resources having the same URI) from different data sets Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 42
  • 43. EMU–School of Computing and Technology 3-Data Integration over the Web Cont’d 3. Start making queries on the integrated data – A user of the second dataset may ask queries like: “give me the title of the original book” – This information is not in the second dataset! – This information can be however retrieved from the integrated dataset, in which the second dataset was connected with the first dataset Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 43
  • 44. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Semantic Web Architecture and Languages • Requirements – Extensibility • Each layer should extend the previous one(s) – Support for data interchange • Using data from one source in other applications – Support for ontology description with different complexity • Including rules – Support for data query – Support for data provenance and trust evaluation Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 44
  • 45. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Semantic Web Stack Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 45
  • 46. EMU–School of Computing and Technology UNICODE, URI and XML • UNICODE is the standard international character set – E.g. used to encode the data in the repository • ASCII –7 bit, 128 characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, punctuation • Extension code pages –128 chars (ß, Ä, ñ, ø, Š, etc.) – Different systems, many different code pages – ISO Latin 1, CP1252 –Western languages(197 = Å) – ISO Latin 2, CP1250 –East Europe(197 = Ĺ) • Code page is an interpretation, not a property of text – Thus if we do not interpret correctly the code page, the result visualized will not be the expected one • Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) identify things and concepts – E.g. used to identify resources on the Web and in the repository • URI Syntax scheme: [//authority] [/path] [?query] [#fragid] Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 46
  • 47. EMU–School of Computing and Technology UNICODE, URI and XML Cont’d • eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language used for data exchange – Language for creating languages – “Meta-language” – XHTML is a language: HTML expressed in XML • E.g. format that can be wrapped into RDF and imported into the repository – Examples: • <temperature unit="F">64</temperature> • <swearword language='fr'>con</swearword> Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 47
  • 48. EMU–School of Computing and Technology RDF, RDFS and OWL • Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the HTML of the Semantic Web – Simple way to describe resources on the Web – Based on triples <subject, predicate, object> • Various serializations, including one based on XML (RDF/XML, Turtle,N3…etc) • Example: – <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill> – <#john, rdf:type, #Student> – What is a “#Student”? • RFD is not defining a vocabulary about the statements, but only to express statements • We know that “#Student” identifies a category (a concept or a class), but this is only implicitly defined in RDF • We need a language for defining RDF types: – Define classes: • “#Student is a class” – –Relationships between classes: • “#Student is a sub-class of #Person” – –Properties of classes: • “#Person has a property hasName” • RDF Schema (RDFS) is such a language name email Person isA – hierarchy (taxonomy) matr.-nr. research field Student Professor attends holds Lecture topic lecture nr. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 48
  • 49. EMU–School of Computing and Technology RDF, RDFS and OWL Cont’d • Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a more complex ontology language than RDFS – Layered language based on DL – Overcomes some RDF(S) limitations Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 49
  • 50. EMU–School of Computing and Technology SPARQL and Rule Languages • SPARQL – Query language for RDF triples – A protocol for querying RDF data over the Web – A language used to query the repository from the user interface • E.g. What are all the country capitals in Africa? PREFIX abc: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#> SELECT ?capital ?country WHERE { ?x abc:cityname ?capital ; abc:isCapitalOf ?y . ?y abc:countryname ?country ; abc:isInContinent abc:Africa . } • Rule languages (esp. Rule Interchange Format RIF) – Extend ontology languages with proprietary axioms – Based on different types of logics • Description Logic • Logic Programming holds(Professor, Lecture) => Lecture.topic = Professor.researchField – E.g. used to enable reasoning over data to infer new knowledge Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 50
  • 51. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Logics, Proof and Trust • Unifying logic – Bring together the various ontology and rule languages – Common inferences, meaning of data • Proof – Explanation of inference results, data provenance • Trust – Trust that the system performs correctly – Trust that the system can explain what it is doing – Network of trust for data sources and services – Technology and user interface Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 51
  • 52. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Tools for semantic web • The Semantic web tools can be grouped according to their purpose 1. the ontology Editors are used for data modeling • The visualization and editing of Ontologies are added to be the extensions of Ontology Editors. 2. the Reasoner for the notion of generalized Inference mechanism. 3. the Plugin and APIs that can set up the Semantic web development environment. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 52
  • 53. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Ontology Editor • The Ontology Editors are used for creating a data model for the underlying Semantic web Application – It favours manipulating the available ontologies for access. • The ontologies are constructed using standard Ontology languages. • The Ontology Languages are formal languages that depends with reasoning rules for framing these ontologies • The Ontology Languages are classified either by syntax or structure. – The Syntax oriented Ontology Languages like OWL, RDF and OIL are more prevalent ontology languages. – The Ontology Editors can be classified based on the type of ontology languages used. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 53
  • 54. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Ontology Editor Cont’d • Protege (today) http://protege.stanford.edu • Neon Toolkit: www.neon-toolkit.org • myOntology: www.myontology.org • Semantic Media Wiki – HALO extension http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Halo_Extension – Ontology editor extension http://smw-active.sti-innsbruck.at • DOGMA Modeler http://starlab.vub.ac.be/website/node/47 • OntoStudio http://www.ontoprise.de/ • TopBraid Composer http://www.topbraidcomposer.com/ Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 54
  • 55. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Reasoner • The Inference mechanism on Reasoners are the rich capability provided to infer logical consequences from axioms. • These Logical consequences are nothing but the relationship between statements that are true, where axioms are the statements which are accepted to be true without controversy. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 55
  • 56. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Reasoner Cont’d • AllegroGraph http://agraph.franz.com/ • Fact http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/%7Ehorrocks/FaCT/ • Pellet http://clarkparsia.com/pellet • Racer http://www.racer-systems.com/ • IRIS http://www.sti-innsbruck.at/ • OWLIM http://http//ontotext.com/owlim/ • KAON http://kaon2.semanticweb.org/ Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 56
  • 57. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Plugin and API • The Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of protocols, and tools for building software applications. – It favors easier development of a program by providing necessary building blocks and assembling these building blocks is the remaining part to work. • The APIs are more useful for users than programmers. – Since, they provide a common API with similar interface for all programs. • This leads to an easier learning task for even naïve users. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 57
  • 58. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Plugin and API Cont’d • The plug-ins are a set of software components used for adding specific abilities to a larger software application. – For Example, Pellet Reasoner Plugins are added in Eclipse IDE for inferring the relationships. Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 58
  • 59. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Plugin and API Cont’d • Jena API – The Jena API is a well known Semantic web platform among Java framework for building Semantic Web applications. – It includes wide range of java libraries that help developers to develop code easier. – The first approach of developing Jena was underwent by researchers in HP Labs by 2000. – Jena is an open-source project, and has been used in a wide variety of semantic web applications. – In 2010, Jena was adopted by the Apache Software Foundation Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 59
  • 60. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Summery • Semantic Web is not a replacement of the current Web, it’s an evolution of it • Semantic Web is about: – annotation of data on the Web – data linking on the Web – data Integration over the Web • Semantic Web aims at automating tasks currently carried out by humans • Semantic Web is becoming real! Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 60
  • 61. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Good Videos • Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsNcjya56v8 • Web today -Web 2.0 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE • The Future Internet: Service Web 3.0 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=off08As3siM • Web 3.0 - The Internet of Things! • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_nbUizGeEY • Web 3.0 • http://www.sti-innsbruck.at/results/movies/web-30 Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 61
  • 62. EMU–School of Computing and Technology References • A Survey on Tools Essential for Semantic Web Research – International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 62– No.9, January 2013 • A Review on Semantic-Based Web Mining and its Applications – Sivakumar J et al. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) • Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memex – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosaic_(web_browser) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Mechanical_Turk – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 62
  • 63. EMU–School of Computing and Technology References • Other Links – http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt – http://www.ontoprise.de – http://linkeddata.org – http://www.w3.org/People/Ivan/CorePresentations/SWTutorial/Sli des.pdf – http://sti-innsbruck.at/sites/default/files/courses/01_SW-Introduction. pdf – http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/mobasher/classes/it130/internet-www/ index.html Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 63
  • 64. EMU–School of Computing and Technology Your Questions? THE END Karwan Jacksi 11/18/2014 64