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Segregation
What We Know…
A Century of Racial Segregation… After the abolition of slavery in the United States, three Constitutional amendments were passed to grant newly freed African Americans legal status:  13 th  abolished slavery 14 th  provided citizenship to all races 15 th  guaranteed the right to vote
The Supreme Court & Segregation Despite these well intentioned Amendments between 1873 and 1883 the Supreme Court handed down a series of decisions that virtually voided the work of Congress Blacks were separated from whites by law in areas such as: Transportation Public accommodations Recreational facilities Prisons Armed forces Schools in both  Northern  and Southern states
Upholding School Segregation The Sarah Roberts Case (1849) 5 year old Sarah Roberts was forced to walk passed several all white schools to reach her all black school Her father filed a lawsuit against the city of Boston to integrate public schools Her lawyer argued that separate schools for African Americans branded “a whole race with the stigma of inferiority and degradation” The Massachusetts Supreme Court upheld segregation
Upholding All Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  The Supreme Court upheld the practice of separate but equal saying that it did not violate the 14 th  Amendment It was felt that the children of former slaves would be better served if they attended their own schools of equal quality, in their own communities Schools for black students, however, while separate were anything but equal
Separate But  Not  Equal
The Wind of Change… Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) It held that school segregation violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14 th  Amendment The Supreme Court announced its  unanimous  decision on May 17, 1954 The following year the Court ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed.”
What We Want To Know…
Reaction to Forced Integration How did the  nation  react? How did  schools  react? How did the  races  react? How did  teachers  react? How did  students  react?
What We Learned…
After Brown… Some school districts in the Southern and border states desegregated peacefully In other places resistance to school desegregation resulted in open defiance and violent confrontations One such place was in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
Ruby Bridges In 1960 the New Orleans public schools integrated on a grade-per-year basis, beginning with the first grade  The School Board issued a test to black kindergartners to determine the best candidates Six-year old Ruby Bridges was one of six children selected
Ruby Bridges On November 14, Bridges integrated the William Frantz Public School In retaliation, white parents withdrew her classmates and Bridges's father was fired from his job Ruby completed the first grade alone with the support of Barbara Henry, a Boston teacher, and Dr. Robert Coles, a child psychiatrist Ruby's walk to school the first day, escorted by U.S. Marshals, inspired the 1964 Norman Rockwell painting, “The Problem We All Live With”

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Segregation

  • 3. A Century of Racial Segregation… After the abolition of slavery in the United States, three Constitutional amendments were passed to grant newly freed African Americans legal status: 13 th abolished slavery 14 th provided citizenship to all races 15 th guaranteed the right to vote
  • 4. The Supreme Court & Segregation Despite these well intentioned Amendments between 1873 and 1883 the Supreme Court handed down a series of decisions that virtually voided the work of Congress Blacks were separated from whites by law in areas such as: Transportation Public accommodations Recreational facilities Prisons Armed forces Schools in both Northern and Southern states
  • 5. Upholding School Segregation The Sarah Roberts Case (1849) 5 year old Sarah Roberts was forced to walk passed several all white schools to reach her all black school Her father filed a lawsuit against the city of Boston to integrate public schools Her lawyer argued that separate schools for African Americans branded “a whole race with the stigma of inferiority and degradation” The Massachusetts Supreme Court upheld segregation
  • 6. Upholding All Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Supreme Court upheld the practice of separate but equal saying that it did not violate the 14 th Amendment It was felt that the children of former slaves would be better served if they attended their own schools of equal quality, in their own communities Schools for black students, however, while separate were anything but equal
  • 7. Separate But Not Equal
  • 8. The Wind of Change… Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) It held that school segregation violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14 th Amendment The Supreme Court announced its unanimous decision on May 17, 1954 The following year the Court ordered desegregation “with all deliberate speed.”
  • 9. What We Want To Know…
  • 10. Reaction to Forced Integration How did the nation react? How did schools react? How did the races react? How did teachers react? How did students react?
  • 12. After Brown… Some school districts in the Southern and border states desegregated peacefully In other places resistance to school desegregation resulted in open defiance and violent confrontations One such place was in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
  • 13. Ruby Bridges In 1960 the New Orleans public schools integrated on a grade-per-year basis, beginning with the first grade The School Board issued a test to black kindergartners to determine the best candidates Six-year old Ruby Bridges was one of six children selected
  • 14. Ruby Bridges On November 14, Bridges integrated the William Frantz Public School In retaliation, white parents withdrew her classmates and Bridges's father was fired from his job Ruby completed the first grade alone with the support of Barbara Henry, a Boston teacher, and Dr. Robert Coles, a child psychiatrist Ruby's walk to school the first day, escorted by U.S. Marshals, inspired the 1964 Norman Rockwell painting, “The Problem We All Live With”

Editor's Notes

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