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Segment Routing
A Control Plane Simplification
Cengiz Alaettinoglu
Motivation
Forwarding	traffic	over	non-shortest	paths	is	necessary	for:
• Traffic	engineering
• Protection	against	failures	(link/node/srlg)
• BGP	exit	selection
• SLA	conforming	service	paths	(e.g.	low	delay	paths)
• …
Network	operators	have	two	choices:
• RSVP-TE
• Segment	routing
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 2
Segment Routing Provides Uncompromised
Functionality With Simplicity
Segment	routing	simplifies	the	IP/MPLS	control	plane
• No	need	to	run	LDP	or	RSVP-TE
• No	signaling	overhead
• Small	overhead	in	IGP	and	BGP	in	comparison	to	RSVP-TE	overhead	in	IGP
Functionality	is	not	compromised
• Traffic	engineering
• Shortest	and	non-shortest	paths
• ECMP-aware	TE
• Protection	against	link/node/SRLG	failures
• Primary/secondary	paths
• SLA	conforming	service	paths	(e.g.	L2/L3	VPNs)
• Egress	BGP	exit	selection	(mainly	for	content	providers/data	centers)
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 3
Why Simplify?
It	is	a	challenge	to	operate	LDP	and	RSVP-TE	at	large	scale
• N^2	RSVP-TE	tunnels
• N^2	LDP	sessions	over	these	tunnels
• RSVP-TE	signaling	overhead	on	the	routers	and	race	conditions
• Excessive	IGP	churn	due	to	available	link	bandwidth	changes
• IGP/LDP	synchronization	issues
As	a	result,	many	SPs	are	reluctant	to	run	RSVP-TE
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 4
State of RSVP-TE in the Network
More	than	6%	of	the	
tunnels	are	down	due	
to	race	conditions
Traffic	is	forced	to	IGP	
paths	or	stuck	on	FRR	
paths
• Creates	congestion
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 5
Segment Routing (by SPRING WG)
Each	packet	contains	its	path	as	a	list	of	path	segments
• Similar	to	“source”	routing
• Any	router	along	the	path	can	insert	segments
• Typically	ingress	router	or	protecting	router
6
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
3	Segments
• Segment	to	C
• Segment	to	X
• Segment	to	Z
All	link	costs	are	1
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
IGP Distributes SIDs and SRGBs
Z	announces	SID	9	to	reach	Z
C	announces	SID	3	to	reach	C
X	announces	SID	7	to	reach	X
Each	router	announces	its	Segment	Routing	Global	Block	(SRGB)
• MPLS	label	=	SID	+	offset
• Let’s	assume	that	offset	is	0
• MPLS	label	=	SID
All	routers	set	up	MPLS	forwarding	state	for	these	labels
• ECMP-aware	shortest	paths	to	each	Z,	C	and	X
7
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
3	Segments
• Go	to	C	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	X	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path
All	link	costs	are	1
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
A Wants Path A B C X Y Z
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 8
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
3	Segments:	3	->	7->	9
• Go	to	C	on	shortest	path	(SID	3)
• Go	to	X	on	shortest	path	(SID	7)
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path	(SID	9)
OSPF	says	SIDs	for	
• C	is	3
• X	is	7
• Z	is	9
7
9
Payload
9
Payload
9
Payload
Payload
3
7
9
Payload
MPLS	Label	Stack
Any Path Can Be Encoded
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 9
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
1	Segment	(shortest	IGP	path)
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path	(node	segment)
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
5	Segments
• Go	to	B	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	W	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	Y	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	D	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
3	Segments
• Go	to	C	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	X	on	link	3	(adjacency	segment)
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path
How Does SPRING Eliminate LDP?
LDP	distributes	MPLS	labels	for	prefixes
• Usually	these	are	BGP	next	hops
IGP	distributes	prefix-SID	for	BGP	next	hops
(I	am	conveniently	ignoring	PWE	signaling)
10Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
SDN TE Use Case
Using	on-device	RSVP-TE	for	optimization	is	problematic
• Not	network-wide	optimization
• Race	conditions	lead	to	failed	tunnels	or	stuck	FRRs
• See	my	Apricot	talk	yesterday
SDN	application	centralizes	bandwidth	allocation
• No	need	to	signal	intermediate	routers	these	bandwidth	reservations
• No	need	to	carry	available	bandwidth	in	IGP	and	interfere	with	IGP	convergence
• No	need	for	a	reservation	protocol
• No	need	for	refreshes
Still	need	to	encode	shortest	and	non-shortest	paths
• Segment	routing	can	do	this	without	any	of	this	overhead
• Segment	routing	IGP	overhead	is	small	and	not	changing	with	bw reservations;	hence	small
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 11
TI-LFA
Topology-independent	loop-free	alternative
Protects	against	link/node/SRLG	failures
Protects	any	IP/MPLS	traffic
• Segment	routed	or	not
Same	protection	path	as	post-convergence	path
100%	coverage
For	most	networks,	very	few	segments	necessary
• Usually	just	one	more
• Up	to	3	in	some	networks
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 12
Operational Challenges
Each	router	needs	to	have	a	large	enough	SRGB	for	the	network
• Network	is	growing
Max	SID	depth	(very	large	label	stack)	is	a	problem	for	old	routers
• For	most	networks,	TE	paths	can	be	encoded	by	less	than	5	labels
• TI-LFA	needs	even	less	labels	than	this
• Unfortunately,	some	old	hardware	can	handle	only	4	or	5	labels
• They	can	swap	but	can	not	push	these	many	labels
• Recent	hardware	can	handle	more	than	15	labels
• Location	of	entropy	label	is	also	problematic	with	deep	stack
• Binding	SID	can	remedy	these	problems
Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 13

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Segment Routing

  • 1. Segment Routing A Control Plane Simplification Cengiz Alaettinoglu
  • 2. Motivation Forwarding traffic over non-shortest paths is necessary for: • Traffic engineering • Protection against failures (link/node/srlg) • BGP exit selection • SLA conforming service paths (e.g. low delay paths) • … Network operators have two choices: • RSVP-TE • Segment routing Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Segment Routing Provides Uncompromised Functionality With Simplicity Segment routing simplifies the IP/MPLS control plane • No need to run LDP or RSVP-TE • No signaling overhead • Small overhead in IGP and BGP in comparison to RSVP-TE overhead in IGP Functionality is not compromised • Traffic engineering • Shortest and non-shortest paths • ECMP-aware TE • Protection against link/node/SRLG failures • Primary/secondary paths • SLA conforming service paths (e.g. L2/L3 VPNs) • Egress BGP exit selection (mainly for content providers/data centers) Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 3
  • 4. Why Simplify? It is a challenge to operate LDP and RSVP-TE at large scale • N^2 RSVP-TE tunnels • N^2 LDP sessions over these tunnels • RSVP-TE signaling overhead on the routers and race conditions • Excessive IGP churn due to available link bandwidth changes • IGP/LDP synchronization issues As a result, many SPs are reluctant to run RSVP-TE Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. State of RSVP-TE in the Network More than 6% of the tunnels are down due to race conditions Traffic is forced to IGP paths or stuck on FRR paths • Creates congestion Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. Segment Routing (by SPRING WG) Each packet contains its path as a list of path segments • Similar to “source” routing • Any router along the path can insert segments • Typically ingress router or protecting router 6 A B Z DC V W YX 3 Segments • Segment to C • Segment to X • Segment to Z All link costs are 1 Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
  • 7. IGP Distributes SIDs and SRGBs Z announces SID 9 to reach Z C announces SID 3 to reach C X announces SID 7 to reach X Each router announces its Segment Routing Global Block (SRGB) • MPLS label = SID + offset • Let’s assume that offset is 0 • MPLS label = SID All routers set up MPLS forwarding state for these labels • ECMP-aware shortest paths to each Z, C and X 7 A B Z DC V W YX 3 Segments • Go to C on shortest path • Go to X on shortest path • Go to Z on shortest path All link costs are 1 Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
  • 8. A Wants Path A B C X Y Z Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 8 A B Z DC V W YX 3 Segments: 3 -> 7-> 9 • Go to C on shortest path (SID 3) • Go to X on shortest path (SID 7) • Go to Z on shortest path (SID 9) OSPF says SIDs for • C is 3 • X is 7 • Z is 9 7 9 Payload 9 Payload 9 Payload Payload 3 7 9 Payload MPLS Label Stack
  • 9. Any Path Can Be Encoded Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 9 A B Z DC V W YX 1 Segment (shortest IGP path) • Go to Z on shortest path (node segment) A B Z DC V W YX 5 Segments • Go to B on shortest path • Go to W on shortest path • Go to Y on shortest path • Go to D on shortest path • Go to Z on shortest path A B Z DC V W YX 3 Segments • Go to C on shortest path • Go to X on link 3 (adjacency segment) • Go to Z on shortest path
  • 10. How Does SPRING Eliminate LDP? LDP distributes MPLS labels for prefixes • Usually these are BGP next hops IGP distributes prefix-SID for BGP next hops (I am conveniently ignoring PWE signaling) 10Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved.
  • 11. SDN TE Use Case Using on-device RSVP-TE for optimization is problematic • Not network-wide optimization • Race conditions lead to failed tunnels or stuck FRRs • See my Apricot talk yesterday SDN application centralizes bandwidth allocation • No need to signal intermediate routers these bandwidth reservations • No need to carry available bandwidth in IGP and interfere with IGP convergence • No need for a reservation protocol • No need for refreshes Still need to encode shortest and non-shortest paths • Segment routing can do this without any of this overhead • Segment routing IGP overhead is small and not changing with bw reservations; hence small Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 11
  • 13. Operational Challenges Each router needs to have a large enough SRGB for the network • Network is growing Max SID depth (very large label stack) is a problem for old routers • For most networks, TE paths can be encoded by less than 5 labels • TI-LFA needs even less labels than this • Unfortunately, some old hardware can handle only 4 or 5 labels • They can swap but can not push these many labels • Recent hardware can handle more than 15 labels • Location of entropy label is also problematic with deep stack • Binding SID can remedy these problems Copyright © 2017 Packet Design. All rights reserved. 13