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See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
See the atom,
touch the atom.
Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy
Eva Stratilová Urválková
Zdeňka Hájková
Petr Šmejkal
Faculty of Science
Charles University in Prague
Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy
1. How big is nanoworld
2. Nanomaterials – properties; how to prepare
3. Seeing the nanoworld - microscopy
How small is nano? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQzFpP4FSN4
www.sciencenter.org, New York 2009
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Order the cards with sizes 1–100 nm to make an axis.
Match pictures to objects, order it from the least to the biggest.
Activity 1: How big is nanoworld?
molecule of water dog flea protein hemoglobin human hair
red blood cell virus influenza bacteria E.coli chloroplast
nanofibres nanoparticles of silver DNA (width) ribosome
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Fill in the table. Order the objects in each column from the least to
the biggest.
Activity 1: How big is nanoworld?
Objects under the
range of nanoworld
Objects of nanoworld
(1–100 nm)
Objects above the range
of nanoworld
Molecule of water
(0,3 nm)
DNA (width cca 2 nm)
protein hemoglobin
(7 nm)
ribosom (20–30 nm)
Nanoparticles of silver
(10–100 nm;
Fig. 40 nm)
virus influenza(cca 60 nm)
nanofibres (diameter 50–
500 nm; Fig. 200 nm)
nanofibres (50–500 nm;
Fig. 200 nm)
chloroplast (length cca
4 μm)
bacterie E. coli (length 2–
6 μm)
Red blood cell (diameter
7 μm; one of the least
eukaryotes)
Human hair (width 40–
90 μm)
Dog flea (1–3 mm)
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
If 1 nm was 1 cm (nanoworld = 1-100 cm), find appropriate objects
in macroworld to objects that were in previous activity.
Activity 1: How big is nanoworld?
Molecule of water
DNA
protein hemoglobin
ribosom
Nanoparticles of silver
virus influenza
nanofibres
chloroplast
bacterie E. coli
Red blood cell
Human hair
Dog flea
0,3 cm line of a marker
2 cm width of big toe
7 cm tangerine
20-30 cm A4 paper
40 cm chair
60 cm step
cca 2 m men hight
40 m Statue of Liberty (46 m)
20-60 m length of building
70 m Red blood cell
800 m 2x athletic oval
10 000 m ½ Amsterdam-Leiden
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Put the right names from the frame to left grey spaces under.
Activity 1: How big is nanoworld?
10 µm1 nm 10 nm 1 µm
0,1 µm
(100 nm)
0,1 nm
(100 pm)
0,1 mm
(100 µm)
ATOMS
ATOMS, ORGANELLES, MOLECULES, EUKARYOTE, VIRUSES, BACTERIA
MOLECULES
VIRUSES EUKARYOTES
BACTERIA
ORGANELLES
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Nanoparticles, nanostructures  nanomaterials
Created by nature or artificially
Nanosize  unique properties
Nanoscience – studies material properties and phenomena
Nanotechnology – application, produce systems with unique properties
Changes in properties of nanomaterials:
mechanical: strength, hardness, tensibility
magnetic, electric, optic
melting point decreases with lesser size of metals
Nanostructures too small – influenced by atomic forces, character of
chemical bond and quantum effects. (wave behaviour)
2. Nanoworld, nanomaterials: PROPERTIES
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
1. Tyndall effect:
Solution of salt and white egg: what happens to laser beam?
Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties
solution colloid
scattering of light
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
1. Tyndall effect: scattering of light
Find out wheather the material is solution or colloid:
common salt, raw egg white, sugar, vinegar, milk, tea, starch,
laundry detergent, juice
Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties
Solutions Colloids
Common salt (solution)
Solution of sugar
vinegar
Raw egg white
Starch in water
laundry detergent
milk in water
tea
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
2. Nanocheese
Reduce the size of a cube of cheese
two times and fill in the table.
Activity 2: How to prepare nano?
Division
Number
of cubes
A length
of edge
(one cube)
cm
Surface of
one cube
cm2
Surface of
all cubes
cm2
Volume of
one cube
cm3
Volume of
all cubes
cm3
0. 1 2
1.
2.
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Activity 2: How to prepare nano?
Division
Number
of cubes
A length
of edge
(one cube)
cm
Surface of
one cube
cm2
Surface of
all cubes
cm2
Volume of
one cube
cm3
Volume of
all cubes
cm3
0. 1 2 24 24 8 8
1. 8 1 6 48 1 8
2. 64 0,5 1,5 96 0,125 8
2. Nanocheese
Reduce the size of a cube of cheese two times and fill in the table.
Changes?
Surface – reactivity
Physical procedure, decomposing
TOP-DOWN technique
≈ woodcarver, carpenter
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Activity 2: How to prepare nano (2)?
chemical procedure, synthesis
BOTTOM-UP technique
imitating nature: starts with basic particles – atoms, molecules
assembling to more complex units: e.g. ribosome
SELFASSEMBLING
non-covalent interaction, weak bonds
Pelesko, J.A. Self Assembly: The Science of Things That
Put Themselves Together
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
3. Selfassembling
Cut the straws into pieces about 1.5 cm.
Pour water into glass and sink at least ten pieces of straw below the
surface, so that there is no air inside of them.
Activity 2: How to prepare nano (2)?
a) before shaking b) after shaking
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
1. Eye x optical microscopy x electron microscopy?
protein hemoglobin, hydrogen atom, dog flea, bacterium
Escherichia coli, amino acid glycine, flu virus, human hair (diameter),
lysosome
3. Seeing the nanoworld
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
1. Eye x optical microscopy x electron microscopy?
What is the resolution of optical/light microscopy (LM) and electron
microscopy (EM)?
3. Seeing the nanoworld
EM LM eye
hemoglobin
hydrogen
dog fleabakterium
E. coli
AC glycine flu virus
lysosome
human hair
The resolution relates to half of wavelength of particle/object that mediates the interaction.
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
3. Seeing the nanoworld
Electrone microscopy (EM)
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Electrone microscopy
Object mediating the interaction with sample:
ELECTRONE
Electrone microscopy
(EM)
Transmission
electrone microscopy
TEM
Scanning electrone
microscopy
SEM
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Electrone microscopy
TEM
transmission electrone microscopy
Fluorescent screen
Electrone source
(gun)
Sample
Objective lens
Projector lens
Condenser lens
X-ray detector
Condenser lens
Electrone source
(gun)
Objective lens
Deflection coil
Sample
Secondary
electrone
detector
SEM
scanning electrone microscopy
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Electrone microscopy
TEM
transmission electrone microscopy
SEM
scanning electrone microscopy
- Vacuum
- Electromagnetic lens
- Similar to LM
- Electrones transmisse
the sample
- Thin sample (up 100 nm)
KEY POINT
- resolution: 0.2 nm
- Vacuum
- Electromagnetic lens
- Focused electrone
beam scan the surface
of the sample
- Sample is covered
with thin layer of heavy
metal
- resolution: 1 nm
- 3D pictures
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Seeing the nanoworld – activity 2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
http://cellimagelibrary.org/images/10452
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
http://image.rakuten.co.jp/homemade/cabinet/img561
68851.jpg
chloroplast Flu virus
2a. Decide which type of electron microscopy was used for these figures
Butterfly in SEM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LE2v3sUzTH4
Work in pairs: one takes the coin and put it under
paper, but the second does not see which. The second
in pair draw the crayon over the surface (not with the
tip, but with site.)
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Seeing the nanoworld – activity 2
2c. Demonstrate SEM
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Seeing the nanoworld: Scanning Probe Microscopy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aydmT_EGsWk
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Seeing the nanoworld: Scanning Probe Microscopy
Techniques used for studying and 3D
projection of surfaces, up to atomic resolution.
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM: the probe
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM techniques
SPM
Scanning Tunneling
Microscopy
STM
Atomic Force
Microscopy
AFM
Sequential measuring the interaction between surface of the
sample and the tip of the microscope probe.
! The probe usually does not touch the surface !
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM techniques
STM - scanning tunelling m.
- Tunnelling current between tip
of the probe and the sample on
distance max 1 nm
- Current depends on the distance
- (semi)conductive sample
- resolution: 0.1 nm-0.001 nm
AFM – atomic force m.
- Studying fundamental
interactions between tip of the
probe and the sample
- Flexible cantilever reacts on van
der Waals and Pauli forces
- non-conductive sample
- resolution: 1-2 nm
See the atom, touch the atom
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM demonstration: STM (3a activity)
a) b)
d) e)
g) h)
c)
f)
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM demonstration: AFM (3b activity)
What is the shape of magnetic fields?
Back of the magnetic film
?
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM as a manipulator
1990 demonstrated the ability to manipulate 35 individual xenon
atoms using a STM
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM as a manipulator: activity 3c
Create an object: a house, a star
Use staples without touching them.
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
SPM as a manipulator: The smallest movie
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSCX78-8-q0
See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016
Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy
Thank you for attention 

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See the atom, touch the atom

  • 1. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 See the atom, touch the atom. Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy Eva Stratilová Urválková Zdeňka Hájková Petr Šmejkal Faculty of Science Charles University in Prague Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2
  • 8. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy 1. How big is nanoworld 2. Nanomaterials – properties; how to prepare 3. Seeing the nanoworld - microscopy How small is nano? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQzFpP4FSN4 www.sciencenter.org, New York 2009
  • 9. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Order the cards with sizes 1–100 nm to make an axis. Match pictures to objects, order it from the least to the biggest. Activity 1: How big is nanoworld? molecule of water dog flea protein hemoglobin human hair red blood cell virus influenza bacteria E.coli chloroplast nanofibres nanoparticles of silver DNA (width) ribosome
  • 10. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Fill in the table. Order the objects in each column from the least to the biggest. Activity 1: How big is nanoworld? Objects under the range of nanoworld Objects of nanoworld (1–100 nm) Objects above the range of nanoworld Molecule of water (0,3 nm) DNA (width cca 2 nm) protein hemoglobin (7 nm) ribosom (20–30 nm) Nanoparticles of silver (10–100 nm; Fig. 40 nm) virus influenza(cca 60 nm) nanofibres (diameter 50– 500 nm; Fig. 200 nm) nanofibres (50–500 nm; Fig. 200 nm) chloroplast (length cca 4 μm) bacterie E. coli (length 2– 6 μm) Red blood cell (diameter 7 μm; one of the least eukaryotes) Human hair (width 40– 90 μm) Dog flea (1–3 mm)
  • 11. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 If 1 nm was 1 cm (nanoworld = 1-100 cm), find appropriate objects in macroworld to objects that were in previous activity. Activity 1: How big is nanoworld? Molecule of water DNA protein hemoglobin ribosom Nanoparticles of silver virus influenza nanofibres chloroplast bacterie E. coli Red blood cell Human hair Dog flea 0,3 cm line of a marker 2 cm width of big toe 7 cm tangerine 20-30 cm A4 paper 40 cm chair 60 cm step cca 2 m men hight 40 m Statue of Liberty (46 m) 20-60 m length of building 70 m Red blood cell 800 m 2x athletic oval 10 000 m ½ Amsterdam-Leiden
  • 12. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Put the right names from the frame to left grey spaces under. Activity 1: How big is nanoworld? 10 µm1 nm 10 nm 1 µm 0,1 µm (100 nm) 0,1 nm (100 pm) 0,1 mm (100 µm) ATOMS ATOMS, ORGANELLES, MOLECULES, EUKARYOTE, VIRUSES, BACTERIA MOLECULES VIRUSES EUKARYOTES BACTERIA ORGANELLES
  • 13. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Nanoparticles, nanostructures  nanomaterials Created by nature or artificially Nanosize  unique properties Nanoscience – studies material properties and phenomena Nanotechnology – application, produce systems with unique properties Changes in properties of nanomaterials: mechanical: strength, hardness, tensibility magnetic, electric, optic melting point decreases with lesser size of metals Nanostructures too small – influenced by atomic forces, character of chemical bond and quantum effects. (wave behaviour) 2. Nanoworld, nanomaterials: PROPERTIES
  • 14. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties
  • 15. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 1. Tyndall effect: Solution of salt and white egg: what happens to laser beam? Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties solution colloid scattering of light
  • 16. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 1. Tyndall effect: scattering of light Find out wheather the material is solution or colloid: common salt, raw egg white, sugar, vinegar, milk, tea, starch, laundry detergent, juice Activity 2: Nanomaterials - properties Solutions Colloids Common salt (solution) Solution of sugar vinegar Raw egg white Starch in water laundry detergent milk in water tea
  • 17. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 2. Nanocheese Reduce the size of a cube of cheese two times and fill in the table. Activity 2: How to prepare nano? Division Number of cubes A length of edge (one cube) cm Surface of one cube cm2 Surface of all cubes cm2 Volume of one cube cm3 Volume of all cubes cm3 0. 1 2 1. 2.
  • 18. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Activity 2: How to prepare nano? Division Number of cubes A length of edge (one cube) cm Surface of one cube cm2 Surface of all cubes cm2 Volume of one cube cm3 Volume of all cubes cm3 0. 1 2 24 24 8 8 1. 8 1 6 48 1 8 2. 64 0,5 1,5 96 0,125 8 2. Nanocheese Reduce the size of a cube of cheese two times and fill in the table. Changes? Surface – reactivity Physical procedure, decomposing TOP-DOWN technique ≈ woodcarver, carpenter
  • 19. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Activity 2: How to prepare nano (2)? chemical procedure, synthesis BOTTOM-UP technique imitating nature: starts with basic particles – atoms, molecules assembling to more complex units: e.g. ribosome SELFASSEMBLING non-covalent interaction, weak bonds Pelesko, J.A. Self Assembly: The Science of Things That Put Themselves Together
  • 20. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 3. Selfassembling Cut the straws into pieces about 1.5 cm. Pour water into glass and sink at least ten pieces of straw below the surface, so that there is no air inside of them. Activity 2: How to prepare nano (2)? a) before shaking b) after shaking
  • 21. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 1. Eye x optical microscopy x electron microscopy? protein hemoglobin, hydrogen atom, dog flea, bacterium Escherichia coli, amino acid glycine, flu virus, human hair (diameter), lysosome 3. Seeing the nanoworld
  • 22. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 1. Eye x optical microscopy x electron microscopy? What is the resolution of optical/light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM)? 3. Seeing the nanoworld EM LM eye hemoglobin hydrogen dog fleabakterium E. coli AC glycine flu virus lysosome human hair The resolution relates to half of wavelength of particle/object that mediates the interaction.
  • 23. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 3. Seeing the nanoworld Electrone microscopy (EM) Scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
  • 24. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Electrone microscopy Object mediating the interaction with sample: ELECTRONE Electrone microscopy (EM) Transmission electrone microscopy TEM Scanning electrone microscopy SEM
  • 25. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Electrone microscopy TEM transmission electrone microscopy Fluorescent screen Electrone source (gun) Sample Objective lens Projector lens Condenser lens X-ray detector Condenser lens Electrone source (gun) Objective lens Deflection coil Sample Secondary electrone detector SEM scanning electrone microscopy
  • 26. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Electrone microscopy TEM transmission electrone microscopy SEM scanning electrone microscopy - Vacuum - Electromagnetic lens - Similar to LM - Electrones transmisse the sample - Thin sample (up 100 nm) KEY POINT - resolution: 0.2 nm - Vacuum - Electromagnetic lens - Focused electrone beam scan the surface of the sample - Sample is covered with thin layer of heavy metal - resolution: 1 nm - 3D pictures
  • 27. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Seeing the nanoworld – activity 2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae http://cellimagelibrary.org/images/10452 Saccharomyces cerevisiae http://image.rakuten.co.jp/homemade/cabinet/img561 68851.jpg chloroplast Flu virus 2a. Decide which type of electron microscopy was used for these figures Butterfly in SEM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LE2v3sUzTH4
  • 28. Work in pairs: one takes the coin and put it under paper, but the second does not see which. The second in pair draw the crayon over the surface (not with the tip, but with site.) See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Seeing the nanoworld – activity 2 2c. Demonstrate SEM
  • 29. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Seeing the nanoworld: Scanning Probe Microscopy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aydmT_EGsWk
  • 30. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Seeing the nanoworld: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques used for studying and 3D projection of surfaces, up to atomic resolution.
  • 31. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM: the probe
  • 32. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM techniques SPM Scanning Tunneling Microscopy STM Atomic Force Microscopy AFM Sequential measuring the interaction between surface of the sample and the tip of the microscope probe. ! The probe usually does not touch the surface !
  • 33. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM techniques STM - scanning tunelling m. - Tunnelling current between tip of the probe and the sample on distance max 1 nm - Current depends on the distance - (semi)conductive sample - resolution: 0.1 nm-0.001 nm AFM – atomic force m. - Studying fundamental interactions between tip of the probe and the sample - Flexible cantilever reacts on van der Waals and Pauli forces - non-conductive sample - resolution: 1-2 nm
  • 35. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM demonstration: STM (3a activity) a) b) d) e) g) h) c) f)
  • 36. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM demonstration: AFM (3b activity) What is the shape of magnetic fields? Back of the magnetic film ?
  • 37. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM as a manipulator 1990 demonstrated the ability to manipulate 35 individual xenon atoms using a STM
  • 38. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM as a manipulator: activity 3c Create an object: a house, a star Use staples without touching them.
  • 39. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 SPM as a manipulator: The smallest movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSCX78-8-q0
  • 40. See the atom, touch the atom. eva.urvalkova@gmail.com Leiden, TEMI konference, 15. 4. – 17. 4. 2016 Workshop on nanotechnology and microscopy Thank you for attention 