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SECURITY IN WSN
By Gaurav Kumar
PROBLEMS APPLYING TRADITIONAL NETWORK SECURITY TECHNIQUES
• Sensor devices are limited in their energy, computation, and
communication capabilities
• Sensor nodes are often deployed in open areas, thus allowing
physical attack
• Sensor networks closely interact with their physical environments
and with peoples, posing new security problems.
WHY HIGH SECURITY LEVEL IS NEEDED?
• Have many applications in military and homeland.
• Could be deployed in hostile environments.
• Could be deployed in uncontrolled environment.
• Wireless communication facilitates eavesdropping.
• Often monitor their surroundings, so it is easy to deduce extra
unwanted information results in privacy violation.
WSN SECURITY CHALLENGES
• Conflicting between minimization of resource consumption
and maximization of security level.
• Advanced anti-jamming techniques are impossible due
to its complex design and high energy consumption. .
• Ad-hoc topology facilitates attackers of different types
and from different directions.
• Most current standard security protocols do not scale to
a large number of participants.
WSN SECURITY CHALLENGES
• Encryption requires extra processing, memory and
battery power.
• Although sensors location information are important
most of current proposal are suitable for static WSNs.
• Most existing time synchronization schemes are
vulnerable to several attacks.
TAXONOMY OF ATTACKS IN WSN.
1. BASED ON CAPABILITY OF THE ATTACKER
• Outsider versus insider attacks.
• Passive versus active attacks.
• Mote-class versus laptop-class attacks.
2. BASED ON ATTACKS ON INFORMATION IN
TRANSIT.
• Interruption.
• Interception.
• Modification.
• Fabrication.
3. BASED ON PROTOCOL STACK.
This protocol stack combines power and routing awareness.
3.1. PHYSICAL LAYER ATTACKS.
• Attacks:
1. Device Tampering.
2. Eavesdropping.
3. Jamming.
• Solutions:
1. Access Restriction
2. Encryption.
3.2. DATA LINK LAYER ATTACKS.
• Attacks:
1. Traffic Manipulation.
2. Identity Spoofing.
ex. Sybil attack.
• Solutions:
1. Misbehavior Detection.
2. Identity Protection
3.3. NETWORK LAYER ATTACKS.
• Attacks:
1. False Routing.
2. Black Hole.
3. Sinkhole
• Solutions:
1. Routing Access Restriction.
2. False Routing Information Detection.
3.4. TRANSPORT LAYER ATTACKS.
• Attacks:
1. Flooding.
2. De-synchronization Attacks.
Solutions:
1. Limit number of connections from a particular node.
2. Header or full packet authentication.
3.5. APPLICATION LAYER ATTACKS.
• Attacks:
1. Selective Message Forwarding.
2. Data Aggregation Distortion.
Solutions:
1. Data Integrity Protection.
2. Data Confidentiality Protection.
IEEE 802.15.4 SECURITY
• The IEEE 802.15.4 specification [1] defines MAC layer and physical
layer (PHY) targeted for the Low Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks (LR-WPAN) using short distance applications with low
power consumption and low cost communication networks,
particularly for the short-range applications such as wireless
sensor networks, residential/industrial setting networks, etc.
• The IEEE 802.15.4 specification supports many applications with
MAC security requirements. If the networks are not secured,
confidentiality, privacy, and integrity could be compromised.
ZIG-BEE
ZigBee is a technological standard, based on IEEE 802.15.4
standard, which was created specifically for control and sensor
networks.
•ZigBee has been designed to transmit slowly. It has a data
rate of 250kbps (kilobits per second).
•Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption as compared to
competing technologies.
•Intended to network inexpensive devices
•Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40 Kbps 915Mhz and
20Kbps for 868Mhz band.
ZIGBEE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps
• Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies
• Support for Low Latency Devices
• CSMA-CA Channel Access
• Handshaking
• Low Power Usage consumption
• 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels
• Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%)
WHAT DOES ZIGBEE DO?
• Designed for wireless controls and sensors
• Operates in Personal Area Networks (PAN’s)
and device-to-device networks
• Connectivity between small packet devices
• Control of lights, switches, thermostats,
appliances, etc.
ZIG-BEE DEVICE TYPES
There are three different types of ZigBee devices:
1. ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device, the coordinator forms the root
of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee
coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally.
It is able to store information about the network, including acting as the Trust
Centre & repository for security keys.
2. ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function, a router can act as
an intermediate router, passing on data from other devices.
3. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent
node (either the coordinator or a router); it cannot relay data from other devices.
This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time
thereby giving long battery life. A ZED requires the least amount of memory, and
therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.
CONCLUSION.
• WSN needs high level of security due to its harsh environment.
• This leads to intense security and survival requirements.
• WSN face attacks of different types.
• Limited resources of sensors make WSN faces a huge security
challenges.
• Some challenges are resolved and many haven’t resolved yet
or under studying.
BY GAURAV KUMAR

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Security in Wireless Sensor Network

  • 1. SECURITY IN WSN By Gaurav Kumar
  • 2. PROBLEMS APPLYING TRADITIONAL NETWORK SECURITY TECHNIQUES • Sensor devices are limited in their energy, computation, and communication capabilities • Sensor nodes are often deployed in open areas, thus allowing physical attack • Sensor networks closely interact with their physical environments and with peoples, posing new security problems.
  • 3. WHY HIGH SECURITY LEVEL IS NEEDED? • Have many applications in military and homeland. • Could be deployed in hostile environments. • Could be deployed in uncontrolled environment. • Wireless communication facilitates eavesdropping. • Often monitor their surroundings, so it is easy to deduce extra unwanted information results in privacy violation.
  • 4. WSN SECURITY CHALLENGES • Conflicting between minimization of resource consumption and maximization of security level. • Advanced anti-jamming techniques are impossible due to its complex design and high energy consumption. . • Ad-hoc topology facilitates attackers of different types and from different directions. • Most current standard security protocols do not scale to a large number of participants.
  • 5. WSN SECURITY CHALLENGES • Encryption requires extra processing, memory and battery power. • Although sensors location information are important most of current proposal are suitable for static WSNs. • Most existing time synchronization schemes are vulnerable to several attacks.
  • 7. 1. BASED ON CAPABILITY OF THE ATTACKER • Outsider versus insider attacks. • Passive versus active attacks. • Mote-class versus laptop-class attacks.
  • 8. 2. BASED ON ATTACKS ON INFORMATION IN TRANSIT. • Interruption. • Interception. • Modification. • Fabrication.
  • 9. 3. BASED ON PROTOCOL STACK. This protocol stack combines power and routing awareness.
  • 10. 3.1. PHYSICAL LAYER ATTACKS. • Attacks: 1. Device Tampering. 2. Eavesdropping. 3. Jamming. • Solutions: 1. Access Restriction 2. Encryption.
  • 11. 3.2. DATA LINK LAYER ATTACKS. • Attacks: 1. Traffic Manipulation. 2. Identity Spoofing. ex. Sybil attack. • Solutions: 1. Misbehavior Detection. 2. Identity Protection
  • 12. 3.3. NETWORK LAYER ATTACKS. • Attacks: 1. False Routing. 2. Black Hole. 3. Sinkhole • Solutions: 1. Routing Access Restriction. 2. False Routing Information Detection.
  • 13. 3.4. TRANSPORT LAYER ATTACKS. • Attacks: 1. Flooding. 2. De-synchronization Attacks. Solutions: 1. Limit number of connections from a particular node. 2. Header or full packet authentication.
  • 14. 3.5. APPLICATION LAYER ATTACKS. • Attacks: 1. Selective Message Forwarding. 2. Data Aggregation Distortion. Solutions: 1. Data Integrity Protection. 2. Data Confidentiality Protection.
  • 15. IEEE 802.15.4 SECURITY • The IEEE 802.15.4 specification [1] defines MAC layer and physical layer (PHY) targeted for the Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) using short distance applications with low power consumption and low cost communication networks, particularly for the short-range applications such as wireless sensor networks, residential/industrial setting networks, etc. • The IEEE 802.15.4 specification supports many applications with MAC security requirements. If the networks are not secured, confidentiality, privacy, and integrity could be compromised.
  • 16. ZIG-BEE ZigBee is a technological standard, based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which was created specifically for control and sensor networks. •ZigBee has been designed to transmit slowly. It has a data rate of 250kbps (kilobits per second). •Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption as compared to competing technologies. •Intended to network inexpensive devices •Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40 Kbps 915Mhz and 20Kbps for 868Mhz band.
  • 17. ZIGBEE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps • Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies • Support for Low Latency Devices • CSMA-CA Channel Access • Handshaking • Low Power Usage consumption • 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels • Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%)
  • 18. WHAT DOES ZIGBEE DO? • Designed for wireless controls and sensors • Operates in Personal Area Networks (PAN’s) and device-to-device networks • Connectivity between small packet devices • Control of lights, switches, thermostats, appliances, etc.
  • 19. ZIG-BEE DEVICE TYPES There are three different types of ZigBee devices: 1. ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device, the coordinator forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network since it is the device that started the network originally. It is able to store information about the network, including acting as the Trust Centre & repository for security keys. 2. ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function, a router can act as an intermediate router, passing on data from other devices. 3. ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node (either the coordinator or a router); it cannot relay data from other devices. This relationship allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery life. A ZED requires the least amount of memory, and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.
  • 20. CONCLUSION. • WSN needs high level of security due to its harsh environment. • This leads to intense security and survival requirements. • WSN face attacks of different types. • Limited resources of sensors make WSN faces a huge security challenges. • Some challenges are resolved and many haven’t resolved yet or under studying.