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Securing BGP: Operational Strategies and
Best Practices for Network Defenders
Md. Zobair Khan
zobair.khan@apnic.net
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• Network engineer and enthusiast for a long time
• Working as a Trainer/Analyst @ APNIC
• Have an exposer with multi-vendor multi-platform different
technologies
• A security minded person
• Would love to contribute to the community
zobair.khan@apnic.net
$ whois MD ZOBAIR KHAN
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Acknowledgement
• This material is developed from different R&D, RFCs & APNIC Workshop Slides
& Slides developed by APNIC, NSRC, MANRS, Dr. Philip Smith & Barry Greene.
• This material is open & free to use as long as it is acknowledged and the
notice remains in place
• This material is designed considering that the audience will be predominantly
technical people
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BGP – Border Gateway Protocol
• Routing protocol for different network connection
• Path vector protocol
• Runs on TCP 179
• Lots of policy implement scope
• Majorly used for Internet Networks
• AS Number is a must
• e-BGP & i-BGP
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BGP – A TCP Protocol
https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/what-is-transmission-control-protocol-tcp/
https://medium.com/@R00tendo/tcp-connection-hijacking-deep-dive-9bbe03fce9a9
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BGP Vulnerabilities
TCP Session Hijacking
TCP SYN Floods
Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
TCP Sequence Number Prediction
TCP Connection Teardown Attacks
TCP ACK Storms
Route Hijacking
Route Leaks
BGP Session Hijacking
BGP Session Reset Attacks
BGP Attribute Manipulation
Resource Exhaustion Attacks
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TCP Session Hijack
https://www.kareemccie.com/2018/01/what-is-tcp-session-hijacking.html
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TCP SYN Flood
https://www.cloudflare.com/img/learning/ddos/syn-flood-ddos-attack/syn-flood-attack-ddos-attack-diagram-2.png
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MiTM
https://www.apriorit.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/scheme-of-an-mitm-attack.jpg
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TCP Sequence Number Prediction
https://www.kareemccie.com/2018/01/what-is-tcp-session-hijacking.html
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TCP Connection Tear Down
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Flearningnetwork.cisco.com%2Fs%2Fquestion%2F0D53i00000KswSeCAJ%2Ftcp-connection-termination-is-the-diagram-
correct&psig=AOvVaw31fN48L66D8FzJ1JBapdFr&ust=1716015638995000&source=images&cd=vfe&opi=89978449&ved=0CBQQjhxqGAoTCKChy8aOlIYDFQAAAAAdAAAAABD
qBA
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TCP ACK Storms
https://kb.mazebolt.com/knowledgebase/ack-flood/
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Route Hijacking
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Route Leaks
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BGP Session Reset
https://slideplayer.com/slide/9598472/
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BGP Session Hijacking
https://slideplayer.com/slide/9598472/
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BGP Attribute Manipulation
https://www.kwtrain.com/blog/bgp-pt2
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Resource Exhaustion
https://www.cloudflare.com/learning/ddos/syn-flood-ddos-attack/
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BGP Security Measures
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RPKI – Resource Public Keying
Infrastructure
ROAs
ROAs
VALIDATOR SOFTWARE
Verification
Validated
Cache
RPKI-RTR
ROUTERS
RIR REPOSITORIES
• Create ROA for owned resources for RPKI
• Implementing Validator relying software
for ROV
• RIR Repositories send ROA information to
Validator software
• Software builds a validated cache and
feed it to router infrastructure over RTR
session
• Routers enforces policies based on
Validated Cache
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IRR Database
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Filtering – BCP 194
Discard Special Case, Bogons, Prefixes
Longer than /24(v4) & /48(v6), Own
Prefixes, LAN Prefixes, Default Routes
Special-Purpose Prefixes
Unallocated Prefixes
Prefixes That Are Too Specific
Filtering Prefixes Belonging to the Local AS and Downstreams
IXP LAN Prefixes
The Default Route
Filters with Internet Peers
Filters with Customers
Filters with Upstream Providers
Inbound Filtering
Outbound Filtering
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Tools for Filtering
https://github.com/snar/bgpq3
IRRPT
BGPQ4
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RTBH
https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/security/i
ntelligence/blackhole.pdf
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URPF
https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/security/i
ntelligence/blackhole.pdf
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GTSM
• Prevent 3rd party attack on eBGP peers. Works best with MD5 Authentication. Must be configured on both peers.
• (neighbor <ipv4-ptp> ttl-security hops 1)
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-Generalized-TTL-
Security-Mechanism-GTSM-in-operation-Routers-set-the-TTL-
on-a_fig4_228910855
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MD5 Authentication
• Must be configured on both peers with same password. (neighbor <ipv4-ptp> password CISCO)
https://costiser.ro/uploads/tcp-options-
calculating-bgp-md5-digest.png
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Community Scrubbing
Ingress BGP peering policy
applied to transit/public/private
and downstream peers should
remove all inbound communities
with SP’s number in the high-
order bits, except for the ones
used for signaling (e.g. setting
BGP Local Preference)
https://bgphelp.com/2017/02/02/bgp-best-practices-or-dissecting-rfc-7454/
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Bogon Filter
https://www.team-cymru.com/bogon-networks
https://rickfreyconsulting.com/mikrotik-router-bgp-peering-with-team-cymru-for-bogons/
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Prefix Limit
• neighbor <x.x.x.x> maximum-prefix <max> [restart N] [<threshold>] [warning-only]
https://flylib.com/books/en/4.208.1.66/1/
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AS Path Length
https://aboutnetworks.net/bgp-load-sharing/
• router bgp X0
• bgp maxas-limit 5
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Customer Route Preference
https://networklessons.com/bgp/bgp-attributes-and-
path-selection
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Transit AS Filter
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Removing Private AS
https://knowledgebase.paloaltonetworks.com/KCSArticleDetail?id=k
A10g000000ClInCAK
• neighbor <ipv4-ptp> remove-private-as
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BGP Admin Distance
BGP Admin Distance Higher than IGP &
making external, internal, local same
distance bgp 200 200 200
https://study-ccna.com/floating-static-route/
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MANRS Actions
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MANRS Observatory
https://observatory.manrs.org/#/overview
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BGP Security Measures
– ROA & RPKI
• Trust Anchor, Validator Software like Routinator 3000/Fort/OctoRPKI/RPKI-Client, RTR Session, Drop Invalids
– Due Diligence Checking with IRR
• Whois query, radb, IRR of RIRs – (whois –h whois.apnic.net –i or AS10075 | grep route:)
– Filtering (Prefix & AS)
• Discard Special Case, Bogons, Prefixes Longer than /24(v4) & /48(v6), Own Prefixes, LAN Prefixes, Default Routes
– Using Tools for Filter Generation (bgpq3, rtconfig etc.)
• bgpq3 -4 –l NAME AS10075
– RTBH
• Black holing unwanted traffic to null
– URPF
• Difficult for multihoming networks. Can be used in feasible mode
– GTSM
• Prevent 3rd party attack on eBGP peers. Works best with MD5 Authentication. Must be configured on both peers.
• (neighbor <ipv4-ptp> ttl-security hops 1)
– MD5 Authentication
• Must be configured on both peers with same password. (neighbor <ipv4-ptp> password CISCO)
– Community Scrubbing
• AS should scrub communities used internally but forward foreign communities.
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BGP Security Measures
– Bogon Filtering
• Private and reserved addresses defined by RFC 1918, RFC 5735, and RFC 6598 and unallocated number resources to RIR by the Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority. Bogon Route Server Project by Team Cymru is a very helpful way to handle bogons.
– Prefix Limit
• neighbor <x.x.x.x> maximum-prefix <max> [restart N] [<threshold>] [warning-only]
– AS Path Length Limit
• router bgp X0
• bgp maxas-limit 5
– Customer Route Preference
• Setting high local preference on receiving customer routes
– Transit AS Filter
• Carefully making filters on upstream peers so that prefix leaking doesn’t happen.
– Removing Private ASN
• neighbor <ipv4-ptp> remove-private-as
– BGP Admin Distance Higher than IGP & making external, internal, local same
• distance bgp 200 200 200
– MANRS Actions
• Filtering, Global Validation, Co-ordination, Anti-Spoofing
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References
RFC-7454 (BGP Operations and Security)
RFC-2827 (Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing)
https://bgp4all.com/pfs/_media/conferences/lknog5-bgp-bcp.pdf
https://nsrc.org/activities/agendas/en/riso-5-days/networking/routing-security/en/labs/securing-bgp.html
https://wq.apnic.net/static/search.html
https://github.com/team-cymru/network-security-templates/tree/master/Secure-Router-Templates
https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-gill-btsh-01.txt
https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-murphy-bgp-vuln-02#section-2
https://www.manrs.org
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https://conference.apnic.net/58
APNIC 58 – Save the Date
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Questions !!!

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