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Business	Sense	• IP	MattersBusiness	Sense	• IP	Matters 1
Secondary	Patent	Market:	
Buyers,	Sellers,	Pricing,	and	
Trends
Kent	Richardson
SVIPLA	– May	23,	2017
Contact	Information:
+1	(650)	967-6555
kent@richardsonoliver.com
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Agenda
Look	back
Market	dynamics
Prediction
Copyright	2017	ROL 2
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
What’s	the	Secondary	Patent	Market?
3
Seller Buyer
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
What	Is	in	a	Brokered	Patent	Package?
• List	of	patents	for	sale,	applicable	market,	infringement	analysis	(claim	chart),	background	on	the	
seller
• Asking	price,	bid	dates,	special	circumstances	(license	back,	specific	encumbrances)
Typical	package
• Confluence	Patent	Portfolio
• Single	family	(15	US	Patents	and	7	open	applications)	relating	to	social	network	data	aggregation.	
• 2006	priority	date.
• Received	July	2013
• Sold	October	2014
• Asking	prices:	“7	figures”
• Multiple	claim	charts	presented	for
• Apple
• Google
• Facebook
• Purchased	by	an	operating	company
• Fingerprint	Cards	AB
Example	package	from	Patent	Profit	(Will	Plut)
4Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
LinkedIn	– What	You	Can	Do	Over	Four	Years
2011 2016
5
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
#	of	Assets
Portfolio	Growth	by	Priority	Year
Organic	Portfolio Projected	Organic	Portfolio
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
#	Assets
Total	Portfolio	by	Priority	Year
Acquired	Portfolio Organic	Portfolio
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Where	Is	the	Patent	Market	Today?
6Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Ten	Years	Ago
Secondary	Market
7
2007
IV	the	
biggest	
buyer
Few	
brokers
AST	and	
RPX
Few	
capable	
buyers
What’s	
a	good	
deal?
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Five	Years	Makes	a	Difference
8
2012 2017
Sources
Transactions
Pricing
Capabilities
Private Public
Only	WSJ	published	deals Quarterly	public	data
Skewed
Intellectual	Ventures	plus	
select	companies
Quarterly	public	data
SMEs	buying
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Agenda
Look	back
Market	dynamics
Prediction
9Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Deal	Flow	
10
Sellers
Buyers
Direct	Sales
>1000	deals	per	year	hit	the	market
And	50+	more	…
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
How	Big	Is	the	Patent	Market?
11
$0
$2
$4
$6
$8
$10
$12
$14
2011-Q1 2012-Q1 2013-Q1 2014-Q1 2015-Q1 2016-Q1 2017-Q1
ROL	Group	Tracked	Brokered	and	Private	Market
Cumulative	Sum	($B)
Cum	Sum	Asking	Price	(Entire	Market)
Cum	Sum	Total	Asking	Price	(Sold)
Predicted	Cum	Sum	Asking	Price	(Entire	Market)
Predicted	Cum	Sum	Total	Asking	Price	(Sold)
$11	billion	plus	in	patent	packages
90	thousand	plus	patent	assets	
100	technology	categories
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
What’s	the	Asking	Price	of	a	Patent?
$260,640
12Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Caveats	– Sure	There	Are	a	Few
13Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Asking	Prices	Reported	Quarterly
14
Source:	“Intellectual	Ventures	Back	in	Brokered	Market	in	Q4,”	Bloomberg	BNA,	March	10,	2017.	
https://www.bna.com/intellectual-ventures-back-n57982085043/
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Asking	Prices	Are	Stabilizing
15
$0
$50
$100
$150
$200
$250
$300
$350
$400
$450
$500
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
$K
Listing	Year
Average	Asking	Prices	($K)
Price	per	US	Issued
Price	per	Asset
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
What’s	Hot	in	the	Patent	Market	Today
16Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Sales	Rate
Listing	Year
Projected	Sales	Rate	by	Listing	Year
Sales	Rates	Dropping	or	Shifting?
%	Sold	by	Year	Listed	– Bad	Trend
17Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Sales	Rate
Listing	Year
Projected	Sales	Rate	by	Listing	Year
Sales	Rates	Dropping	or	Shifting?
%	Sold	by	Year	Listed	– Bad	Trend %	Sold	as	%	Listed	Per	Year	– OK?
18
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Year
Sales	in	Calendar	Year	as	%	of	Listings	in	
Calendar	Year
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Some	Brokers	Are	More	Effective	Than	Others
19
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Sales	Rate
Number	of	Listings
2015	broker	sales	rate	by	number	of	listed	packages
Broker's	2015	Sales	Rate 2015	Sales	Rate	10.4%
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Value	for	business	purposes	of	a	specific	buyer
Proportion	of	the	patent	market	
Value	Distribution	in	the	Secondary	
Market
20
Goal:	Identify	high-value	patents	to	
purchase	(1-2%	of	market)
✓
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Sequencing	Diligence	is	Critical
21Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
66%
17%
10%
3%
2% 1%
Distribution	of	seller	type	by	sale	year	2015-2016
Operating	company
NPE
Inventor
University/research
Defensive	aggregator
Other
Distribution	of	Seller	Type	by	2016	Sale	Year
Operating	Companies	Dominate	the	Market
22
Source	Richardson	Oliver	Law	Group	LLP,	2016	Brokered	Market	Report
Operating	companies	represent	over	66%	of	the	patents	on	the	market	down	from	71%
NPEs	increased	their	sales	up	last	year,	this	has	continued	- 17%	up	from	16%	- likely	as	a	
result	of	difficulties	enforcing	their	patents
Cross-licensing	prior	to	competitor	patent	sales	is	a	benefit
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Sales	by	Sales	Year	– Five	Years
23
OpCos	are	the	biggest	sellers
NPE	sales	increasing	– IV	expected	sell	large	number	of	assets
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
48%
34%
15%
3%
Distribution	of	buyer	type	by	sale	year	2015-2016
Operating	company
NPE
Defensive	aggregator
Other
Distribution	of	Buyer	Type	by	2016	Sale	Year
24
Operating	companies	now	top	buyers
NPE	buying	is	down	to	32%	from	42%
IV	buying	dropped	to	only	13	packages	down	from	40
RPX	is	top	single	buyer
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Buyers	by	Sales	Year	– Five	Years
25
OpCos	increasing	their	buying
NPE	down	but	not	out
Non-public	companies	buying	increased	from	~0%	to	30%	of	company	purchases
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Other 0% 3% 7% 2% 5% 4%
Defensive	Aggregator 11% 16% 22% 19% 19% 19%
OpCo 41% 45% 31% 42% 41% 39%
NPE 48% 37% 40% 36% 35% 38%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
%	of	Package	Sales
Sale	year
Buyers	by	entity	type
Other
Defensive	Aggregator
OpCo
NPE
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Top	Sellers	and	Buyers	2016
Top	Sellers	by	Package	Count
Alcatel	Lucent
Allied	Security	Trust	(AST)
ATT
BAE	Systems,	Inc.	
British	Telecom
Caveo
Elizabeth	Dyor
Empire	IP,	LLC
Harris	Corporation
IBM
Imation	Corporation
Intel
NEC
Netsocket
Nokia	Solutions	and	Networks	(NSN)
Panasonic	Corporation
Petnote	LLC
QinetiQ	Limited
Rockstar
Rovi	Corporation
TP	Lab,	Inc.
Tyco	Electronics
Verisign,	Inc.
Verizon
VideoMining	Corporation
Xerox/PARC
26
Top	Buyers	by	Package	Countc
9051147	Canada	Inc.
Alliacense	Limited	Llc
Allied	Security	Trust	(AST)
Beijing	Xiaomi	Mobile	Software	Co.,	Ltd.
Carlow	Innovations	LLC
Commscope	Emea	Limited
Domo,	Inc.
Empire	IP	LLC
Facebook,	Inc.
Finnavations	LLC	
Gemalto	SA
Google	Inc.
Huawei	Technologies	Co.,	Ltd.
Intellectual	Discovery	Co.,	Ltd.
Intellectual	Ventures
Knapp	Investment	Company
Linkedin	Corporation
Marking	Object	Virtualization	Intelligence,	LLC
Microsoft	Technology	Licensing	LLC
Open	Invention	Network,	LLC
Optimum	Communications	Services,	Inc.
Palo	Alto	Networks,	Inc.
Rakuten,	Inc.
Red	Hat,	Inc.
RPX	Corporation
Taiwan	Semiconductor	Manufacturing	Co.,	Ltd.
Twitter,	Inc.
Uniloc	Luxembourg	S.A.
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Litigation	Analysis:	You	Can	Model	Your	Risk
Has	Litigation Has	IPR
Package	Type Prior	to	
listing	date
After	listing	
date
Prior	to	
listing	date
After	listing	
date
Sold	packages 5.4% 10.2% 0.0% 3.0%
All	packages 3.8% 3.5% 0.0% 1.4%
27
10.2%	of	sold	packages	are	litigated	– time	to	update	models?
Both	sold	and	unsold	packages	are	litigated	post	listing
Defensive	aggregator	value	may	be	greater	than	anticipated
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Agenda
Look	back
Market	dynamics
Prediction
28Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Where	Is	the	Market	Going?
29Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Trends	and	Predictions
More	international	sales
Prices	– stabilized
Sales	rates	– remain	low
Faster	and	simpler	transactions	expand	market
NPEs	continue	to	buy	– fewer	buyers	drive	this	part	of	the	
market
More	brokers	leave
30Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters Copyright	2015	ROL 31
BUSINESS	SENSE	•	IP	MATTERS
ROL	Group	has	over	60	years	of	IP	strategy	and	execution	
experience.	We	ask	the	business	questions	first.	We	
blend	in-house	and	large	law	firm	experience	to	create	
clear	steps	for	success.
We	guide	companies	through	unique	IP	challenges—like	
buying	and	selling	patents,	developing	licensing	
programs,	defending	against	patent	assertions,	and	
creating	a	value-driven	IP	portfolio.	We	give	direction	to	
businesses	that	share	our	passion	for	new	ideas,	creative	
problem	solving	and	forward	motion.
Contact	Information:
+1	(650)	967-6555
kent@richardsonoliver.com
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Corporate	Buying	Program	- Overview
•Reduce	exposure	to	corporate	patent	assertions	by	building	a	counter-assertion	portfolio
•Examples	of	active	corporate	asserters	include	IBM,	Qualcomm,	Microsoft
•New	asserters	rise,	especially	when	revenues	are	down
Primary	goal:	Defensive	counter-assertion
•Buy	patents	to	reduce	the	risk	that	those	patents	can	be	used	against	your	company
•Other	techniques	work	here	too,	buying	consortium	(e.g.	AST,	OIN,	RPX,	Unified)
Secondary	goal
•Agree	on	qualities	for	desired	patents
•Buying	criteria	anchored	with	business	rules	can	help	filter	packages	quickly	and	efficiently
•Cost	of	diligence
•Legal	patent	diligence	can	cost	$5-50K,	other	diligence	is	cheaper	and	can	filter	out	many	
packages
•Over	98%	of	the	packages	will	not	meet	your	business	needs
•Eliminate	low	value	packages	quickly
•Bidding	and	pricing
•Management	buy-in
Key	challenges
32Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Operational	Challenges	of	Patent	Buying
• Too	many	potential	deals	(more	than	500	per	year,	~8K	assets)
• Too	few	deals	that	will	meet	your	needs
• 1-2%	of	the	deals	have	the	potential	to	meet	your	needs
• Looks	like	a	corporate	development	or	VC	problem
Problems	of	abundance	and	scarcity
• Define	success	in	an	actionable	way.	Define	business	driven	criteria	that	
automatically	eliminates	undesirable	patents
• Prioritize	low	cost/high	impact	diligence	first
• Work	with	Finance	to	budget	and	model	your	program
• Sell	your	program	internally
• Building	the	community	relationships	with	the	brokers	and	sellers
• Tag	and	track	your	deals.	Allows	you	to	analyze	your	program	and	reduces	
duplicate	work
• Where	problems	in	otherwise	good	patents	are	identified,	find	answers
• Accept	that	you	will	miss	some	deals
Best	practices	for	patent	buying
33Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Importance	of	Sequencing	Diligence:	Value	
Distribution	in	the	Brokered	Market
34
Stage	1:	General	Tech	
Filter	($)
Stage	2:	Targeted	Tech	
Filter	($$)
Stage	3:	Patent	Validity	
and	Prior	Art	Analysis	
($$$)
Stage	4:	Building	
and	Testing	EOUs	
($$$$)
X
X
X
X
✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
✓
100%	of	the	Patent	Market
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Process	Overview:	Example	Filtering	and	
Relative	Diligence	Costs
35
ROL	
package	
database
Search	
results	
candidate	
pool
Preliminary	
human	
filtering
Detailed	
filtering
Test	
availability	
and	EOU	
creation
Further	
testing
Bidding	
and	buying
2050 500 100 50 10 5-7 1-3
Packages	Remaining
$ $ $$ $$ $$$ $$$$ $$
Relative	Diligence	Costs
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Company	A’s
Patents
Company	A’s	
Revenue LinkedIn’s	Revenue
Product	A
Product	BProduct	C
Typical	Patent	Defense	Considerations
36
Company	to	Company
• Revenue	generation
• Create	freedom	to	operate	– remove	patent	risk
• Strategic/business	interference
Patent	asserter’s	goals
Patents
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
LinkedIn’s	Ecosystem	of	Patent	Risk
37
Patent	threats	come	from	LinkedIn’s	near	ecosystem	What	is	LinkedIn’s	business	ecosystem? Corporate	asserters
LinkedIn’s	potential	patent	
risk
Partners
Suppliers
Competitors
Customers
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
LinkedIn’s	Ecosystem	of	Patent	Risk	- Filtered
38
LinkedIn’s	potential	patent	risk
?? ? ?? ? ?
LinkedIn
Which	risks	is	LinkedIn	going	to	address?
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Pre-2012 2016
Portfolio
Internal Purchased
?
LinkedIn’s	Patent	Strategy	Planning	and	
Execution
• Ecosystem	risk	analysis
• Identify	target	organic	patent	
development	and	patent	purchase	
technology	areas
• Develop	budgets	and	authorization	
process
Planning
• Substantial	increase	in	organic	filings
• Directed	patent	purchasing	program	
to	fill	in	gaps	in	LinkedIn’s	counter-
assertion	portfolio
• Ongoing	continuation	practice	of	
current	portfolio
Execution
39Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Target	Filing	Rate	(Based	on	R&D	Spend)
40
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
No	Defined	Goal Product	Coverage	to	Deter	Copying Freedom	to	Operate Outbound	Licensing
Fillings	per	$M	R&D	
Goal	of	Patent	Program
Target	Patent	Filings	per	$1M	of	R&D	Spend
2.0
LinkedIn’s	Target	
Filing	Rate
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
LinkedIn’s	Addresses	Patent	Deficit	with	Bought	
and	Organic	Growth
Pre	Implementation:	Gap	Between	
LinkedIn	and	Likely	Asserters
Post	Implementation:	Organic	Filings	and	
Patent	Purchases	Address	the	Challenge
41
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
#	of	Assets
Portfolio	Growth	by	Priority	Year
Organic	Portfolio Large	Corprate	Asserter
Projected	Organic	Portfolio
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
#	Assets
Total	Portfolio	by	Priority	Year
Acquired	Portfolio Organic	Portfolio
Large	Corprate	Asserter
Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Pre-2012 2016
Portfolio
Internal Purchased
LinkedIn’s	Patent	Strategy	Actuals
•Growth	of	>1000%	increase	in	new	filings	versus	
pre-2012
•Idea	harvesting	sessions	increased
•Internal	evangelizing
•Inventor	recognition	increase
•Internal	capabilities	for	managing	the	flow	of	
new	inventions	and	new	filings
Organic	patent
•More	than	910	patents	purchased
•Strategic	purchases
•Failed	high	profile	startups
•Brokered	patent	market
•Private	corporate	sellers
•Bulk	purchases
•Large	purchases	from	select	corporate	sellers
Patent	purchases
42Copyright	2017	ROL
Business	Sense	• IP	Matters
Asserting	Company's	2003	
Organic	Filings
LinkedIn's	2013-2016	
Targeted	Buying
#	of	Patents
Targeted	Buying
Not	applicable	to	current	negotiation
Valuable	to	current	negotiation
LinkedIn’s	Actionable	Results
Prepared	Counter-assertion	Strategy
Company Pre-Program	
Strategy
Today’s	Strategy
Company1 Assumed	Low	Risk Business	Relationship
Company2 Assumed	Low	Risk Business	Relationship
Company3 Assumed	Low	Risk Business	Relationship
Company4 Assumed	Low	Risk Business	Relationship
Company5 Assumed	Low	Risk Business	Relationship
Company6 Unknown	Risk Key	Patents	Identified
Company7 High	Risk Key	Patents	Identified
Company8 High	Risk EOUs	Created
Company9 High	Risk EOUs	Created
Company10 Unknown	Risk EOUs	Created
Company11 Unknown	Risk EOUs	Created
•Actionable	response	strategies	for	licensing	approaches	were	created	for	companies	of	
concern
•Facilitated	by	targeted	buying	to	build	playbooks	with	EOUs	on	companies	of	concerns
•Targeted	buying	makes	our	portfolio	relevant	to	licensing	negotiations;	comparable	
proportion	to	the	asserter’s	organic	portfolio	in	many	instances
Playbooks
43Copyright	2017	ROL

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