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Chapter 1
Introduction to Public administration
 Public administration is concerned with the
management of public programs.
 Public administrators work at all levels of
government, both at home and abroad, and
they manage not-for profit organizations,
associations, and interest groups of all kinds.
the design and construction of roads
and bridges
taxation and financial administration
Values of Democracy
 Democracy refers to a political system in
which the interests of the people at large
prevail.
 Democracy involves :
 Individualism,
 Equality, and
 Liberty
 Individualism : refers to the idea that the
dignity and integrity of the individual is of
supreme importance.
 Equality : means that each individual has
an equal claim to life, liberty, and the pursuit
of happiness .
 liberty means that the individual citizen of a
democracy should have a high degree of self
determination.
He / She should have the maximum opportunity to select his /
her own purpose in life and to choose the means to accomplish
them.
Approaches to the study of
public administration :
 There are three approaches to the study of
public administration
1) The Managerial Approach
2) The Political Approach
3) The Legal Approach
1) The Managerial Approach:
• It emphasizes the management and organization of public
organizations
• Suggests that management in the public sector is very much
like that in the private sector, in that it is primarily
concerned with efficiency.
2) The Political Approach :
• related to the legislative function in government
• concerned about assuring constitutional safeguards
• According to this approach. efficiency becomes less a
concern than effectiveness or responsiveness.
3) The Legal Approach:
• is related to the judicial function.
• It emphasizes the administrators role in
applying and enforcing the law in specific
situations
Contrasting Business and
Public Administration:
 There are several differences between public
administration and business administration
those are :
1- Ambiguity
2- Pluralistic decision making
3 - Visibility
4- Publicness
1) Ambiguity :
• In most businesses, even those with service objectives, the
bottom-line profit is the basic measure of evaluating how
good a job the organization is doing.
• In public organizations, where the objectives of the
organization in which one works may be much more
ambiguous and where making or losing money is not the
main criterion for success or failure.
2- Pluralistic decision making :
• In a business enterprise, decisions might be
made rapidly by one individual or a small
group
• In a public organization, decisions require
input from many diverse groups and
organizations.
3 – Visibility
• managers in government seem to operate
with much greater visibility than their
counterparts in business organization.
4- Publicness
 Publicness derives from the simple fact that
the public manager is pursuing public
purposes
Why study Public administration?
1. Many students recognize the vast array of
positions in government that require training in
public administration
2. Other students, whose interests lie in technical
fields such as engineering, recognize that at some
point in their careers their jobs may involve
management in the public sector.
3. As business people or merely as citizens,
they are likely to be called upon to interact
with those in public organizations.
4. A final group of students, a group
overlapping with any of the previous three,
might simply recognize the importance of
public organizations, the governmental
process and the impact of public
organizations on their daily lives.
Themes in Public Administration
theory and Practice :
 There are several popular themes in public
administration .Those include:
1) Politics and Administration
2) Bureaucracy and Democracy
3) Efficiency versus Responsiveness
1) Politics and Administration
 Administration lies outside the proper sphere
of politics.
 Administrative questions are not political
questions
 Although politics sets the tasks for
administration, it should not be allowed to
manipulate its offices
2) Bureaucracy and Democracy:
• The moral commitments of a democracy can
be evaluated according to three standards.
First, democratic principles assume that the
individual is the primary measure of human value
Second, democratic morality suggests that all
persons are created equal
Third, democratic morality emphasizes
widespread participation among the citizens in
the making of major decisions.
 The values of bureaucracy include
the need to bring together the work of many
individuals in order to achieve purposes far beyond
the capabilities of any single individual.
Second, bureaucratic systems were to be structured
hierarchically, with those at the top having far greater
power and discretion than those at the bottom.
Third, bureaucratic organization generally assumes
that power and authority flow from the top of the
organization to the bottom rather than the other way
around.
3) Efficiency versus Responsiveness:
 there is the hope that public organizations will operate in the
most efficient way possible, getting things done quickly and
with the least cost to taxpayers.
 public managers must be constantly attentive to the
demands of the citizenry
Types of Public Managers’ skills
 The general types of skills that all public
managers’ need include :
1. Conceptual skills
2. Technical skills
3. Human skills
1. Conceptual skills include the ability to
think abstractly, especially in regard to the
manager’s concept of the organization
2. Technical skills refer to an understanding of
and proficiency in the methods, processes,
and techniques for accomplishing tasks
3. Human skills involve the capacity to work
effectively as a member of a group, or the
ability to get others to work together
effectively.

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sec 1.ppt

  • 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Public administration
  • 2.  Public administration is concerned with the management of public programs.  Public administrators work at all levels of government, both at home and abroad, and they manage not-for profit organizations, associations, and interest groups of all kinds. the design and construction of roads and bridges taxation and financial administration
  • 3. Values of Democracy  Democracy refers to a political system in which the interests of the people at large prevail.  Democracy involves :  Individualism,  Equality, and  Liberty
  • 4.  Individualism : refers to the idea that the dignity and integrity of the individual is of supreme importance.  Equality : means that each individual has an equal claim to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness .  liberty means that the individual citizen of a democracy should have a high degree of self determination. He / She should have the maximum opportunity to select his / her own purpose in life and to choose the means to accomplish them.
  • 5. Approaches to the study of public administration :  There are three approaches to the study of public administration 1) The Managerial Approach 2) The Political Approach 3) The Legal Approach
  • 6. 1) The Managerial Approach: • It emphasizes the management and organization of public organizations • Suggests that management in the public sector is very much like that in the private sector, in that it is primarily concerned with efficiency. 2) The Political Approach : • related to the legislative function in government • concerned about assuring constitutional safeguards • According to this approach. efficiency becomes less a concern than effectiveness or responsiveness.
  • 7. 3) The Legal Approach: • is related to the judicial function. • It emphasizes the administrators role in applying and enforcing the law in specific situations
  • 8. Contrasting Business and Public Administration:  There are several differences between public administration and business administration those are : 1- Ambiguity 2- Pluralistic decision making 3 - Visibility 4- Publicness
  • 9. 1) Ambiguity : • In most businesses, even those with service objectives, the bottom-line profit is the basic measure of evaluating how good a job the organization is doing. • In public organizations, where the objectives of the organization in which one works may be much more ambiguous and where making or losing money is not the main criterion for success or failure.
  • 10. 2- Pluralistic decision making : • In a business enterprise, decisions might be made rapidly by one individual or a small group • In a public organization, decisions require input from many diverse groups and organizations.
  • 11. 3 – Visibility • managers in government seem to operate with much greater visibility than their counterparts in business organization. 4- Publicness  Publicness derives from the simple fact that the public manager is pursuing public purposes
  • 12. Why study Public administration? 1. Many students recognize the vast array of positions in government that require training in public administration 2. Other students, whose interests lie in technical fields such as engineering, recognize that at some point in their careers their jobs may involve management in the public sector.
  • 13. 3. As business people or merely as citizens, they are likely to be called upon to interact with those in public organizations. 4. A final group of students, a group overlapping with any of the previous three, might simply recognize the importance of public organizations, the governmental process and the impact of public organizations on their daily lives.
  • 14. Themes in Public Administration theory and Practice :  There are several popular themes in public administration .Those include: 1) Politics and Administration 2) Bureaucracy and Democracy 3) Efficiency versus Responsiveness
  • 15. 1) Politics and Administration  Administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics.  Administrative questions are not political questions  Although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not be allowed to manipulate its offices
  • 16. 2) Bureaucracy and Democracy: • The moral commitments of a democracy can be evaluated according to three standards. First, democratic principles assume that the individual is the primary measure of human value Second, democratic morality suggests that all persons are created equal Third, democratic morality emphasizes widespread participation among the citizens in the making of major decisions.
  • 17.  The values of bureaucracy include the need to bring together the work of many individuals in order to achieve purposes far beyond the capabilities of any single individual. Second, bureaucratic systems were to be structured hierarchically, with those at the top having far greater power and discretion than those at the bottom. Third, bureaucratic organization generally assumes that power and authority flow from the top of the organization to the bottom rather than the other way around.
  • 18. 3) Efficiency versus Responsiveness:  there is the hope that public organizations will operate in the most efficient way possible, getting things done quickly and with the least cost to taxpayers.  public managers must be constantly attentive to the demands of the citizenry
  • 19. Types of Public Managers’ skills  The general types of skills that all public managers’ need include : 1. Conceptual skills 2. Technical skills 3. Human skills
  • 20. 1. Conceptual skills include the ability to think abstractly, especially in regard to the manager’s concept of the organization 2. Technical skills refer to an understanding of and proficiency in the methods, processes, and techniques for accomplishing tasks 3. Human skills involve the capacity to work effectively as a member of a group, or the ability to get others to work together effectively.