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MIT SOLAR DECATHLON
PV TECHNOLOGY FOUNDAMENTALS
PV MANUFACTURERS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SOLAR POWER OVERVIEW 2
PV TECHNOLOGY BASICS 3-13
PV MANUFACTURES-PROFILES 14-24
AVAILABLE SOLAR PANELS 26-50
PV PERIPHERALS 51
THE FUTURE
NANOCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS 52-64
POWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06
.
By Lawrence Kazmerski and Thomas Surek,
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
GENERAL OVERVIEW
•PV was recognized as an important source of space power in
the 1950s,
•Terrestrial PV development began in response to the 1970s
oil crises.
•Concern for the environment, as well as global efforts to seek
indigenous sources of energy, drives the investment in PV
research and deployment.
•Today, PV is a several-billion-dollar industry worldwide, with
more than 520 MW of PV modules shipped in 2002.
•These include large, multi-megawatt installations feeding into
the utility grid, kilowatt rooftop systems supplying power to a
home or business, and single 50- or 100-W PV modules on
homes in developing countries.
Photovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the lab to the market.
PV technology basics
Solar cells are semiconductor devices
that produce electricity from sunlight via the photovoltaic effect.
Sunlight strikes the cell, photons with energy above the
semiconductor bandgap impart enough energy to create
electron-hole pairs.
A junction between dissimilarly doped semiconductor layers sets
up a potential barrier in the cell, which separates the light-
generated charge carriers.
This separation induces a fixed electric current and voltage in the
device. The electricity is collected and transported by metallic
contacts on the top and bottom surfaces of
the cell.
Diagram of photovoltaic cell.
A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a
thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of
phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of
a thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type)
silicon.
An electrical field is created near the top
surface of the cell where these two materials
are in contact, called the
P-N junction.
When sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell,
this electrical field provides momentum and
direction to light-stimulated electrons, resulting
in a flow of current when the solar cell is
connected to an electrical load
How PV Cells Work
PV technology basics
•silicon (Si),
•gallium arsenide (GaAs),
•cadmium telluride (CdTe),
•copper indium diselenide (CIS),
•hydrogenated amorphous silicon.
There are significant differences between the best performance and the theoretically predicted value for each
material; closing these gaps is the subject of ongoing research (see figure).
Applicable semiconductor materials> Cell Efficiencies

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By now, we are all familiar with the concept of generating electricity from the sun. The notion is almost an afterthought when we have mobile access to GPS satellites and apps for seemingly anything the mind can imagine. The calculator on my desk, and perhaps on yours, is solar-powered. If your cell phone goes dead on a hiking trip, hook it up to any number of solar phone chargers available on the market and you’re back in business. Even those GPS satellites are powered by the sun as they whirl through space 12,000 miles above Earth.

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Simulation of grid connected photovoltaic system using MATLAB/ Simulink
Simulation of grid connected photovoltaic system using MATLAB/ SimulinkSimulation of grid connected photovoltaic system using MATLAB/ Simulink
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In this paper, a whole simulation model of grid connected PV system with the practically of harmonics compensation is introduced during the simulation. The simulation model of grid connected PV system embrace a PV array, a dc to dc buck boost converter and a dc to ac inverter. Grid connected PV system is electricity generating solar system that is connected to the utility grid. Within the world, energy sources just like fossil fuels and nuclear reaction area unit wide used for electrical power generation. However burning fossil fuels and nuclear area unit wide used for electrical power generation. we tend to get I-V & P-V characteristics of the model. These are often desired by mathematical equation that is nonlinear.

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N01.1 Photovoltaic Technology.pptx
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This document provides information on the history and basics of photovoltaic technology. It discusses the evolution of wafer sizes used in solar cells from early 125mm wafers to the current standard sizes of M6 (166mm), M10 (182mm), and G12 (210mm). Larger wafers have benefits like higher power output and reduced balance of system costs per watt installed. The document also summarizes the basic workings of solar cells and modules as well as different photovoltaic materials like silicon, thin film, and III-V cells.

solarcells. modulesseries
In the case of a single-junction device, the
efficiency of the solar cell, the ratio of the
power produced, and the incident light
power are limited.
Photons with energies below the bandgap of
the material produce only heat. Excess
energy above that needed to generate
electron-hole pairs also produces heat.
A multijunction device, in which two or
more solar cells are stacked on top of
each other, can exploit different portions
of the solar spectrum.
For example, a four-junction device with
bandgaps of 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 electron
volts (eV) results in a theoretical efficiency of
more than 52%.
The multijunction approach, however,
presents significant challenges in both
materials preparation and device design.
PV technology basics
Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel
circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels.
Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an
environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental
building block of PV systems.
Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled
as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is the
complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV
modules and panels.
PV Cells, Modules, & Arrays
PV systems are like any other electrical power generating systems, just the equipment used is different than that used
for conventional electromechanical generating systems.
Depending on the functional and operational requirements of the system,
the specific components required, and may include major components
DC-AC power inverter,
battery bank,
system and battery controller,
auxiliary energy sources
and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances).
In addition, an assortment of balance of system (BOS) hardware,
Including wiring, overcurrent, surge protection and disconnect
devices, and other power processing equipment.
PV technology basics
How a PV System Works
Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy
produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads
as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather).
Other reasons batteries are used in PV systems are to operate the PV array
near its maximum power point, to power electrical loads at stable voltages,
and to supply surge currents to electrical loads and inverters.
In most cases, a battery charge controller is used in these systems to protect
the battery from overcharge and overdischarge.
In many stand-alone PV
systems, batteries are used
for energy storage. Figure
shows a diagram of a typical
stand-alone PV system
powering DC and AC loads
PV technology basics
Diagram of stand-alone PV system
with battery storage powering DC and AC loads.
Why Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems?
How Are Photovoltaic Systems Classified?
Photovoltaic power systems are generally
classified according to:
• functional and operational
requirements,
• component configurations,
• how the equipment is
connected to other power
sources and electrical
loads.
The two principle classifications are
grid-connected or utility-
interactive systems
stand-alone systems.
Photovoltaic systems can be designed to
provide DC and/or AC power service, can
operate interconnected with or independent
of the utility grid, and can be connected
with other energy sources and energy
storage systems.1.7.1 Grid-Connected
(Utility-Interactive) PV Systems.
Diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system
PV technology basics
Types of PV Systems

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Solar photovoltaics convert light energy from the sun into electricity through photovoltaic cells. PV cells consist of layers of semiconducting materials that produce electricity when struck by sunlight. The electricity is produced as electrons are freed from the semiconducting material by photons, causing them to flow and produce an electric current. There are different types of PV cells including monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin film technologies that have varying efficiencies and costs. The cells are connected together in modules and arrays to produce usable voltages and powers for applications like charging batteries and powering electronics.

Stand-alone PV systems are
designed to operate independent of
the electric utility grid, and are
generally designed and sized to
supply certain DC and/or AC electrical
loads.
These types of systems may be
powered by a PV array only, or may
use wind, an engine-generator or
utility power as an auxiliary power
source in what is called a PV-hybrid
system.
PV technology basics
photovoltaic hybrid system.
The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC
output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC load
Since there is no electrical energy storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems, the load
only operates during sunlight hours, making these designs suitable for common
applications such as ventilation fans, water pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar
thermal water heating systems.
Matching the impedance of the electrical load to the maximum power output of the PV array
is a critical part of designing well-performing direct-coupled system.
For certain loads such as positive-displacement water pumps, a type of electronic DC-DC
converter, called a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used between the array and
load to help better utilize the available array maximum power output.
PV technology basics
Direct-coupled PV system.
The process of fabricating conventional single- and polycrystalline silicon PV
cells begins very pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon - a material processed
from quartz and used extensively throughout the electronics industry.
The polysilicon is then heated to melting temperature, and trace amounts of
boron are added to the melt to create a P-type semiconductor material.
Next, an ingot, or block of silicon is formed, commonly using one of two methods:
1) by growing a pure crystalline silicon ingot from a seed crystal
drawn from the molten polysilicon
or 2) by casting the molten polysilicon in a block, creating a
polycrystalline silicon material.
Individual wafers are then sliced from the ingots using wire saws and then
subjected to a surface etching process. After the wafers are cleaned, they are
placed in a phosphorus diffusion furnace, creating a thin N-type semiconductor
layer around the entire outer surface of the cell.
Next, an anti-reflective coating is applied to the top surface of the cell, and
electrical contacts are imprinted on the top (negative) surface of the cell.
An aluminized conductive material is
deposited on the back (positive) surface of
each cell, restoring the P-type properties of
the back surface by displacing the diffused
phosphorus layer.
Each cell is then electrically tested, sorted
based on current output, and electrically
connected to other cells to form cell
circuits for assembly in PV modules.
PV technology basics
crystalline silicon
The conventional technology that supports
more than 85% of today's PV market is
based on wafers of crystalline Si.
Production capacities are expected to more
than double in the next three to five years,
and the products are proven and accepted
in the markets.
Single-crystal ingots are pulled from the
melt, or polycrystalline ingots are cast in a
crucible that is consumed in the process.
Technical advances include the growth of
ingots as big as 300 kg, the growth of
multiple ingots with melt replenishment,
and the reduction of consumable materials
and energy costs. Significant R&D effort
has been focused on reducing defects,
improving doping, and automating the
growth process. Still, for single-crystal Si,
the best commercial module efficiencies
are only about 15%.
Image: A solar cell, made from a poly-crystalline silicon wafer
How PV Cells Are Made
Thin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured by
depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor material
on a glass or thin stainless-steel substrate in a
vacuum chamber.
A laser scribing process is used to separate and weld
the electrical connections between individual cells in
a module.
Thin-film photovoltaic materials offer great promise
for reducing the materials requirements and
manufacturing costs for PV modules and systems.
PV technology basics
Si ribbon and sheet technologies,
which avoid the cost and material
losses associated with slicing ingots,
are the first of the new PV technologies
to be commercialized. About 6% of
today's PV modules are made using
these methods. Most notable are the
edge-defined, film-fed growth process,
the string ribbon process, and the Si-
film process (growth of a high-speed,
continuous Si sheet of a variety of
substrates). Cell and module
efficiencies are similar to those for
polycrystalline Si wafers from
ingots—about 12% at best—with
somewhat lower efficiencies for the
small-grained sheet materials.
Ongoing incremental improvements will
probably reduce manufacturing costs
and increase module performance,
keeping these technologies as the
mainstay of PV markets for years to
come.
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This document provides an overview of photovoltaic (PV) power systems and their components. It discusses the different types of PV system configurations, including grid-connected and standalone systems. Grid-connected systems can range in size from residential to utility-scale solar power plants. The document also covers factors that affect PV system performance such as temperature, shading, and dirt. Maintaining clean panels and allowing air flow can help increase output and panel lifespan.

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This document provides an overview of photovoltaic (PV) power systems and their components. It discusses the different types of PV system configurations, including grid-connected and standalone systems. Grid-connected systems can range in size from residential to utility-scale solar power plants. The document also covers factors that affect PV system performance such as temperature, shading, and dirt. Maintaining clean panels and allowing air flow can help increase output and lifespan.

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This document discusses the integration of distributed solar power generation using battery energy storage systems. It provides an overview of the challenges of integrating solar power into the electricity distribution system and discusses how battery energy storage systems can help mitigate issues related to the intermittent and variable nature of solar power generation, such as rapid ramp rates, frequency and voltage fluctuations. Specifically, it describes the operation and control of grid-scale battery energy storage systems designed to improve the reliability and efficiency of the power distribution system when coupled with solar photovoltaic installations.

Photovoltaic systems have a number of merits and unique advantages
over conventional power-generating technologies.
PV systems can be designed for a variety of
applications and operational requirements, and
can be used for either centralized or distributed
power generation.
PV systems have no moving parts, are modular, easily expandable
and even transportable in some cases. Energy independence and
environmental compatibility are two attractive features of PV
systems.
The fuel (sunlight) is free, and no noise or pollution is created from
operating PV systems. In general, PV systems that are well designed
and properly installed require minimal maintenance and have long
service lifetimes.
At present, the high cost of PV modules and equipment (as
compared to conventional energy sources) is the primary limiting
factor for the technology. Consequently, the economic value of PV
systems is realized over many years. In some cases, the surface area
requirements for PV arrays may be a limiting factor. Due to the diffuse
nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy
conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area
requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2
(86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity.
PV technology basics
Pros and Cons of PV
http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php
Spire offers SPI-LINE turnkey production lines for
module manufacturing at production capacities ranging
from a few hundred kilowatt up to 50 megawatts per
year and beyond.
http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php
Spire provides state of the art production lines for the
manufacture of silicon wafers and solar cells.
BIPV is Building Integrated Photovoltaics.
It’s more than just mounting solar panels on a roof. It’s
integrating solar electricity into the design of a building or
structure so that the solar components also serve as
structural or design elements.
PV manufacturers> Spire BIPV
Spire Corporation - Headquarters
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396 (USA)
Toll Free:
800-510-4815
Phone:
781-275-6000
Fax:
781-275-7470
Email:
email@spirecorp.com
PV manufacturers> Spire > considered leading in BIPV
Roof Systems
Ground Mounted Systems
Pole & Structure Mounted Systems
Spire installation examples
Spire manufactured and retrofitted two BIPV systems for a
commercial building that serves as a vital community center. The
systems include a 25-kilowatt roof tile system and a 7-kilowatt
awning system.
Awning Systems
Curtain Wall Systems
BIPV panels can be mounted vertically on an exterior wall. An
opaque panel can take the place of traditional siding. A
transparent or semi-transparent panel can be mounted on an
exterior wall, or on the roof, acting as a power-generating
skylight. This allows the panel to be visible from indoors,
providing partial shade and casting attractive dapple patterns.
PV manufacturers > Spire > considered leading in BIPV
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Custom BIPV
Spire manufactures its own BIPV modules, so it has the flexibility to produce
custom and one-of-a-kind designs. These can be integrated into unique
application solutions.
BIPV systems enable architects and designers to develop customized
photovoltaic applications, going beyond the typical installations afforded
by standard module design. To learn how Spire has developed and
implemented innovative solar solutions for its customers, read the Case
Studies
InSpire Solar Data Monitoring
InSpire systems are among the most user friendly monitoring
systems on the market, available only from Spire Solar. InSpire
systems range in capability from simplistic energy performance
data monitoring, to complex platforms that can be expanded
upon for whole building commissioning. With real time data
monitoring, the value of your PV system becomes a tangible
asset available for instant use for educational or marketing
purposes.
* State of the art, user friendly technology
* Touch screen monitors for desktop displays
* Kiosks with integrated touch screen monitors for lobby or
museum displays
* Online data monitoring that is available from anywhere with
Internet access
This InSpire graph shows the energy produced by several Spire
solar systems during a one week period in January 2006. These
systems are located in the northeast United States. InSpire lets
you easily monitor your own solar system.
PV manufacturers >Spire > considered leading in BIPV
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The capacity of a PV system is stated in terms of the
number of watts, kilowatts, or megawatts it can
produce in standard sunlight conditions. For example,
in the city of Chicago, Illinois, U.S., Spire has installed solar
modules for which each kilowatt (kW) of PV capacity
produces about 1,200 - 1,400 kilowatt-hours per year,
depending on the angle at which the panels are
mounted.
The electricity you purchase from the utility is measured in
kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most single-family homes in the
U.S. use 20 kWh or more per day. A refrigerator uses
1.2 kWh per day and a computer uses 2.4 kWh per 8-
hour workday.
PV manufacturers> Spire
How much roof space do I need for a PV system?
A typical PV system requires about 100 square feet for every
kilowatt installed on a pitched roof, and up to 200 square feet per
kilowatt on a flat roof. PV systems should be installed facing south
for maximum electricity production.
Spire's in-house manufacturing provides exceptional flexibility to
produce unique BIPV modules to meet almost any specifications
and design requirements. Spire has extensive experience working
through the US Green Building Council and working with architects,
designers and builders
to produce BIPV systems for integration into LEED-certified buildings.
Let Spire produce your next custom BIPV modules. Contact Spire at
pvsales@spirecorp.com to discuss your manufacturing needs.
Spire general facts
138 Bartlett Street | Marlboro, MA 01752-3016 USA |
TL: +1.508.357.2221 | FX: +1.508.229.0747
www.evergreensolar.com
Cedar Series Photovoltaic Modules
* Each module is individually tested to ensure field performance meets or exceeds specifications.
* Solar cells are matched to reduce internal losses and the possibility of hot spots.
* Rugged, durable anodized aluminum frame makes for strong, stable mechanical mounting.
* Industry standard EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) and Tedlar™ construction protects solar cells from
mechanical and environmental stress.
Advanced technology with promise for the future
* String Ribbon™ polycrystalline solar cells outperform thin
films and achieve comparable performance to bulk crystalline
technologies while using half as much silicon.
* The proprietary cell fabrication process is among the most environmentally friendly in the business.
The power of PV
* Photovoltaics (PV) provide clean, quiet, reliable electricity from sunlight.
* No moving parts to wear out.
* No emmisions - power that's good for the environment.
* The Sun - a limitless, readily-available power source.
PV manufacturers> Evergreen
Leading Solar Silicon Supplier Joins EverQ Venture
MARLBORO, Massachusetts, & THALHEIM, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 28,
2005--Evergreen Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq: ESLR), a manufacturer of solar power products with its
proprietary, low-cost String Ribbon(TM) wafer technology, and Q-Cells AG, the world's largest
independent manufacturer of crystalline silicon solar cells, today announced a partnership with
Renewable Energy Corporation ASA (REC), based in Hovik, Norway. The world's largest manufacturer
of solar-grade silicon and multicrystalline wafers, REC is joining EverQ, a strategic partnership
between Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells that is currently building a 30-megawatt solar wafer, cell and
module manufacturing plant in Thalheim, Germany.
PV manufacturers > > LOCAL INNOVATIVE PV COMPANY
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The Company maintains strong ties to the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
including the active involvement of String
Ribbon's inventor, Prof. Emanuel Sachs.
The figure above illustrates the patented String Ribbon
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right.
PV manufacturers> Evergreen
SunPower Solar
SunPower Corporation designs, manufactures and sells
high efficiency solar cells and solar panels that generate
electricity from sunlight for residential, commercial and
remote power applications.
Our proprietary all back contact silicon solar cell
technology produces up to 50% more power per square
foot compared to conventional solar cells.
Our SPR-200 solar panels feature a unique, uniformly
black design that many home and business owners
prefer.
Our Company headquarters and
research and development facilities are
located in Sunnyvale, California, the
heart of Silicon Valley.
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metal contacts needed to collect and conduct
electricity are on the back surface of the solar cells
– away from the sunlight.
This design eliminates reflective metal contacts on
the front of the solar cell. In addition to improving
cell performance, this design leaves the front
surface with a uniformly black appearance.
PV manufacturers> Sunpower
Dr. Swanson (n 1988 Dr. Swanson founded SunPower to
commercialize high-efficiency photovoltaic cell technology for
use in solar concentrators) and his team at SunPower
discovered that their solar cell technology designed for
concentrators offered great advantages in other applications as
well. In 2001, SunPower solar cells were used to power NASA’s
Helios solar powered airplane to a world record powered-flight
altitude of 96,863 feet.
The 22%-efficient lightweight solar cells were
incorporated directly into the curved wing surfaces.
PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY
SunPower’s Technology Path
SunPower's high performance solar cells and solar panels offer both maximum power from your roof as well
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solar cell technology, (see attached pdf)
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GaN as Semiconductor Material for Solar Photovoltaic: A Review
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This document discusses using gallium nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material for solar photovoltaics to increase efficiency and reduce costs compared to silicon. GaN has several advantages for this application - it has a wider bandgap than silicon allowing for higher efficiencies. Replacing silicon with GaN in solar cells and their inverters could increase power efficiency up to 5 times while reducing size and weight. This may enable reducing the installed cost of solar power systems with battery storage by up to 50%. The document reviews the properties and fabrication of GaN as well as its potential applications in solar photovoltaic technology to harness its benefits.

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PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY
Solar cells are semiconductor devices that directly convert sunlight into
electricity. Our A-300 solar cell has a rated power value of 3.1 watts and a
conversion efficiency of between 20% to 21.5%.
Our A-300 solar cell is designed without highly reflective metal contact
grids or current collection ribbons on the front of the solar cells. This
feature enables our solar cells to be assembled into solar panels that exhibit a
more uniform appearance than conventional
solar panels.
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Unavailable in 2005
BP Solar BP 4170S
170 Watt 24V Monocrystalline Solar Panel
The BP 4170 solar panel is designed to provide superior performance for
residential, commercial, and industrial grid-connect systems. By increasing the
diameter of the cell, performance is maximized while improving aesthetics. With
time-tested monocrystalline silicon solar cells and installation-speeding
polarized connectors, it provides cost-effective power for systems that demand
premium module efficiency.
Electrical Specifications
Maximum Power: 170 Watts
Nominal Voltage: 34.7 volts
Voltage at Pmax: 34.7 Volts
Current at Pmax: 4.9 Amps
Warranted minimum Pmax: 161.5 Watts
Short-circuit current: 5.4 Amps
Open-circuit voltage: 44.0 Volts
Mechanical Specifications
Dimensions (LxWxD): 62.8 x 31.1 x 1.97 inches (1595x790x50) mm
Weight: 34 lbs (15.4kg)
Solar Cells: 72 cells in a 6x12 matrix connected in series
Output Cables: MC Connectors RHW AWG# 12 cable with polarized
weatherproof DC rated connectors
Diodes: Three 9A, 45V Schottky by-pass diodes included
Construction: Front: High-transmission 3mm (1/8th inch) tempered glass; Back:
Tedlar; Encapsulant: EVA
Frame: Rugged clear anodized aluminum alloy type universal frame
Limited Warranty: 25 years
Quality and Safety Listings
ESTI, CE, TUV, UL Listed
Note: These panels must ship via truck freight due to size. Please call or email
for a shipping quote and to order.
***Unavailable in 2005***
BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
1561 Your price: $999.00 pad
BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel

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- CEA/LITEN is a research organization that works on developing new energy technologies including batteries, fuel cells, solar energy, biomass/hydrogen. - They are looking at critical material substitutes for energy storage, conversion and transport applications to address cost and supply issues. This includes alternatives to cobalt in batteries and platinum in fuel cells. - For solar energy, they are researching silicon nanowire and thin film technologies like CIGS as lower cost alternatives to bulk silicon, with potential efficiencies over 15%.

Cheapest
10 watt Solar panel- 149.00
Most expensive
170 watt- 999.00
50Watt=354.00 40watt+353.00 30Watt 259.00 20watt 234.00
170 watt-783.00 160 watt 799. 160 watt 725. 150 watt 699.
125 watt 629.00 125 watt 599. 80 watt 520. 65 watt 457. 60 watt 462.00
PV solar panel specifications
Evergreen Solar EC-102-GD, 102 Watt Solar Panel
$499.00
Evergreen Solar EC-110-GD, 110 Watt Solar
Panel - Limited Supply
Your price: $524.00
$539.00
Electrical Specifications
Maximum Power: 115 Watts
Voltage @ Power Maximum: 17.3 Volts
Current @ Power Maximum: 6.65 Amps
Open-circuit Voltage: 21.5 Volts
Short-Circuit Current: 7.26 Amps
No. of Cells: 72
Max. Series Fuse: 15 Amps
UL System Voltage Rating: 600V
TUV System Voltage Rating: 800V
Mechanical Specifications
Length: 62.5"/1588 mm
Width: 25.69"/653 mm
Depth: 1.39"/35 mm
Weight: 28 lbs/12.7 kg
Safety and Quality Tests
IEC 1215 (IEC 503, ISPRA) Certified
UL Listed, Class C Fire Rating
TUV Safety Class II Certified
CE
25 year limited power warranty
Temporarily Out of Stock
Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD, 115 Watt Solar Panel
PV solar panel specifications
Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD
GE Energy 165, 165 Watt Solar Panel
$719.00
GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel
$599.00
GE Energy GEPV-072, 72 Watt Solar Panel
Your price: $459.00
GE Energy GEPV-065, 65 Watt Solar Panel
Your price: $449.00
GE Energy GEPV-050-M 50 Watt Solar Panel
$365.00 GE Energy GEPV-030-M 30 Watt Solar Panel
$239.00
PV solar panel specifications
GE Energy Solar Panels
GE Energy's technologically advanced solar electric power products offer
high quality and customer value. They are all based on crystalline silicon,
the material of choice for efficiency and reliability for more than 25 years.
Our single-crystal solar cells are among the most efficient commercially
available today. We offer a full line of photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar
modules which utilize a series of cells wired together and complete
packages for residential, commercial and industrial systems.
Designed for optimum use in residential, commercial and battery charging
applications, the GEPV-110-M solar module
contains 36 single-crystal cells connected in
series, and generates a peak power of 110
watts at 16.7 volts.
Electrical Performance
Typical Performance Characteristics
Peak Power (Wp): Watts 110
Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp): Volts 16.7
Maximum Power Current (Imp): Amps 6.6
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): Volts 21.2
Short Circuit Current (Isc): Amps 7.4
Short Circuit Temperature Coefficient: mA/?C +3
Open Circuit Voltage Coefficient: V/?C -0.08
Maximum Power Temperature Coefficient: %/?C -0.5
Maximum Series Fuse: Amps 15
Overall Physical Properties
Length: 58.1 inches (1,477 mm)
Width: 26.0 inches (661 mm)
Depth of Frame: 1.4 inches (35 mm)
Depth Including J-box: 2.2 inches (55 mm)
Connector Length (when applicable): 15.0 inches (381 mm)
Weight: 26.1 pounds (11.9 kg)
Mounting Hole Locations
Center Spacing: 25.3 inches (643 mm)
Edge Distance: 16.4 inches (417 mm)
Width Spacing: 24.3 inches (616 mm)
Mounting Hole Diameter: 0.26 inches (6.7 mm)
Physical Design Properties
Weight (Wind) Bearing Potential: 50 lb/ft (125 mph equivalent)
Hailstone Impact Resistance: 1 inch at 50 mph (25 mm at 80 kph)
PV solar panel specifications
GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel

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http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/gse-solar-apps.html
GSE SUNLINQ 12 Watt Portable Solar Panel
$167.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 24 Volt Desert Camo
Your price: $789.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo
Your price: $789.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 55 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo
Your price: $869.00
PV solar panel specifications
Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels
GSE P3 55 Watt 12 Volt Flexible Solar Panel Desert Camo
In Stock and Ready to Ship
Global Solar's thin-film photovoltaic technology is enabling solar power products to be portable, flexible, foldable, durable and
lightweight. As a result we are able to create solutions for a wide range of military power requirements. The overall benefits of
our military solar power products are to, enable extended missions, improve logistics by enabling field charging thereby reducing
the number of batteries in the field and provide a significant cost reduction when compared to primary batteries. Global Solar
Energy works closely with CECOM and the US Army's Rechargeable Battery Program.
Portable Power Pack (P3)
The P3 is a solar-energized power generator for mobile power needs. Incorporating solid state, thin-film, PowerFLEX™ solar
technology, the P3 provides an excellent choice for situations that require lightweight, durable, silent power. Re-charge batteries,
power communication equipment and mobile electronics, plus reduce the battery logistic challenge with the P3. It provides silent
energy independence to the user.
The P3 Portable Power Pack is used worldwide to provide users an alternate power generator for charging lead-acid, Nickel
Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. The P3 will enable extended missions,
provide energy security, restore power silently and can provide power for remote, portable surveillance equipment.
A primary battery can only be used once. Secondary batteries can be recharged several hundred times. Recent studies show
that a P3 solar charger pays for itself in fewer than fifteen recharges. That is equivalent to several hundred FREE BATTERIES!
Twice the power to weight ratio of alternative solar generators, the P3 is ideal for situations requiring power renewal to batteries
and mobile electronics. The P3 Portable Power Pack folds for easy transport and storage
Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels
PV solar panel specifications
Isofoton 150 Watt
24 Volt Solar Panel
$665.00
Applications
Water pumping
Communications
Outdoor lighting
Rural electrification
Recreational vehicles
Stand-alone or grid-connected AC applications
Electrical Characteristics
Nominal Voltage: 24 volt
Maximum Power: 150 W
Short-Circuit Current: 4.45 Amps
Open Circuit Voltage: 43.2 Volts
Maximum Power Current: 4.35 Amps
Maximum Power Voltage: 34.6 Volts
Physical Characteristics
Cell type: 125 mm Mono Crystal
Number of cells: 72
Length: 1224mm/48.19"
Width: 1047mm/41.22"
Depth: 39.5mm/1.56"
Weight: 17.0kg/37.5 lb
Type of Output Terminal: J-box with MC cables
Certifications
IEC 61215 Certified
UL Listing, Class C Fire Rating
TÜ– Safety Class II Certified
CEC Rating: 134.3
Warranty: 25 years
Note: Minimum order of 4 panels. These panels
must ship via truck due to size. Please call for a
shipping quote and to order. There is a quantity
price break if you are ordering 20+ panels.
Isofoton is the leading solar panel
manufacturer in Europe and their panels
are now available in the USA. Since its
founding in 1981, Isofoton has grown to
become the leading supplier of PV in
Europe and is the 8th largest PV
manufacturer in the world. Their
steadfast commitment to research and
development has lead to the
development of a reliable, proven mono-
crystalline cell that is then chemically
textured with an anti-reflective layer and
finally trimmed almost square for
maximum power density. The finished
cells are covered with tempered, anti-
relective glass that maximizes light
transfer, providing a high quality finished
module that meets the highest level of
compliance with ISO, TUV, CE, and UL
standards for photovotaic products.
Approved by the California Energy
Commission.
PV solar panel specifications
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Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel
Kyocera KC190GT, 190 Watt Solar Panel
Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel
$879.00
d.Blue is ideal for installation on all types of
buildings, from residential to large scale commercial
systems. The stylish dark blue cells, combined with
black panel frames, allow the panels to blend in with
the buildings architecture while producing energy at
exceptional efficiencies.
The d.Blue panels are available in 190-watt, 170-
watt and 125-watts panels. All of these feature Multi-
Contact output cables, a heavy-duty box-style
anodized aluminum frame, and an industry-high 25
year power output warranty.
Applications
* Residential roof top system
* Large commercial grid tie system
* Water Pumping Systems
* High Voltage stand alone systems
Specifications:
Max Power: 190 Watts
Max Voltage: 26.1 Volts
Max Current: 7.28 Amps
Dimensions (LxWxD): 56.2"x39"x1.4"
Weight: 40.7 pounds
KYOCERA has perfected its new surface
treatment technology and is introducing it
on a new line of panels named d.Blue, for
its dark blue color.
The newly developed treatment method
processes multi-crystalline silicon cells in
order to produce a surface texture that
minimizes surface reflectance and
maximizes output. The result is a
maximum conversion efficiency of 15%,
one of the highest conversion efficiencies
in the polycrystalline panel industry.
PV solar panel specifications
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315 watt, 300 watt and 285 watt modules. Prices
start are $4.03/watt for cases of (20) modules.
Call for availablity.
Independently Certified
* The ASE-270/DGF-50 is independently certified to meet IEEE 1262,
IEC 61215 and UL 1703 standards
* It is also the only panel in the industry to receive a UL (Underwriters
Laboratories) Class A fire rating
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Electrical Data
Power (max): 270 Watts
Voltage: 49.5 Volts
Current: 5.45 Amps
Open-circuit voltage: 60.0 Volts
Short-circuit Current: 6.1 Amps
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Length: 74.5"/1892.3 mm
Width: 50.5"/1282.7 mm
Weight: 107 (+/- 5) lbs/46.6 (+/- 2) kg
Area: 26.13 ft sq/ 2.43 sq meters
Characteristic Data
Solar cells per panel: 216
Type of solar cell: Semi-crystalline solar cells (EFG process)
Connections: 10 AWG single conductor, stranded copper with Multi-
Contact connector. Junction box comes with 6 built-in bypass diodes.
Certifications and Warranty
The ASE-270-DGF/50 has been independently certified to IEC 1215 and
IEEE 1262, UL 1703 (Class A Fire rating)
The ASE-270-DGF-50 comes with a 20 year power warranty.
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ASE is possibly the finest module
currently available on the market.
More Reliability
* Bypass diode protection for every 18 solar cells in series, thus minimizing power loss, and
mitigating overheating/safety problems
* Advanced encapsulation system ensures steady long-term panel performance by
eliminating degradation associated with traditional EVA-encapsulated panels
* A weather barrier system on both sides of the panel protects against tears, perforations, fire,
electrical conductivity, delamination and moisture
* Patented no-lead, high-reliability soldering system guarantees long life and ensures against
environmental harm should the panel break or be discarded
Higher Quality
* Each of the panel's 216 individual semi-crystalline silicon cells is inspected and power
matched to ensure consistent performance between panels
* Every panel is tested utilizing a calibrated solar simulator to ensure that the electrical ratings
are within the specified tolerance for power, voltage and current
* Panel-to-panel wiring loss is factored into the panel's labeled electrical ratings by testing
through the panel's cable/connector assemblies
ASE-300-DGF/50,
315 Watt Solar Panel
$1,329.00
ASE-300-DGF/50,
300 Watt Solar
Panel
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ASE-300-DGF/50,
285 watt
$1,334.00
PV solar panel specifications
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Insulated Facade Opaque Cladding
Schott BIPV - Photovoltaics with ASI® Glass
The maximum size of ASI® Glass modules is
1.2m x 2.4m (~4’ x 7’ 10”)
Today, building integrated
photovoltaic systems are able to
provide:
# Solar electricity
# Light management
# Comfort
# Effective shading
# Glare protection
# Thermal management
# Innovative architecture
PV solar panel specifications
Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel
The HIT 190 panel has a cell conversion efficiency of 18.5%
and a panel conversion efficiency of 16.1% that is significantly
higher than conventional SANYO solar cells.
High conversion efficiency and lightweight design conserve space
and weight. The outstanding conversion efficiency and high power
output of the HIT 190 save approximately 20% of installation space.
HIT 190 panels can be installed on narrow roof spaces which
previously presented difficulties. In addition, with fewer solar
panels, there is less weight on the roof.
SANYO HIT 190 Specifications:
Model Number: HIP-190BA3
Max. Power (Pmax): 190 Watts
Max. Power Voltage (Vpm): 54.8 Volts
Max. Power Current (Ipm): 3.47 Amps
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 67.5 Volts
Short Circuit Voltage (Isc): 3.75 Amps
Cell Conversion Efficiency: 18.5%
Panel Conversion Efficiency: 16.1%
Warranted Minimum (Pmin): 171.0 Watts
PTC Rating: 178.7 Watts
Max. System Voltage: 600 Volts
Series Fuse: 15 Amps
Temp. Coefficient of Pmax (%/C): -0.3
Dimensions: 51.9" x 35.2" X 1.4" (1319mm X 894mm x 35mm)
Weight: 30.9 lbs. (14kg)
Certificate: UL 1703
Class C fire rating
HIT panels can withstand 1 inch diameter hailstones at 50 mph.
Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel
$975.00
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PV solar panel specifications
Since 1959, Sharp has been harnessing the power of the sun
to improve the quality of life. Today, we are the world's #1
manufacturer of solar cells. In fact, Sharp's high quality,
Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems are used for
everything from satellites to lighthouses, industrial
applications to residential use.
Sharp's solar energy systems take advantage of the natural,
inexhaustible resource of sunlight to generate electricity. No
environmentally harmful compounds, no fossil fuel pollution,
no global warming. Just clean, safe, reliable solar energy for
living.
Sharp 208 Watt Solar Panel SHARP NT-185U1, 185 Watt Solar Panel
$882.00 $969.00
Sharp ND-167U1,
167 Watt Solar Panel
$779.00
Sharp ND-070ERU,
70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle
$429.00
Sharp ND-070ELU,
70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle
$429.00
$669.00
SHARP NE-165U1,
165 Watt Solar Panel
price: $727.00
Sharp ND-N0ECU,
140 Watt Solar Panel
Features
Left and right triangular modules offer greater flexibility and greater
integration for roofline aesthetics
High-power module (70W) using 21 square multi-crystal silicon solar
cells with 13.44% cell conversion efficiency
Bypass diode minimizes the power drop caused by shade
Black anodized aluminum frame and "L" hook design located along
frame perimeter for easy integration with residential sytem mounting
hardware
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yield long-life modules while enhancing cell performance
Nominal 7 VDC output is ideal for residential system applications
Manufactured in ISO 9001 certified facilities
25-year limited warranty on power output
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No. of Cells and Connections: 21 in series
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Short Circuit Current (Isc): 7.81 Amps
Maximum Power Current (Ipm): 7.02 Amps
Maximum Power (Pm): 70 Watts
Minimum Power (Pm): 63 Watts
Encapsulated Solar Cell Efficiency: 13.44%
PTC Rating (W): 61.46 Watts
Maximum System Voltage: 600VDC
Series Fuse Rating: 15 Amps
Type of Output Terminal: Lead Wire with MC Connector
Mechanical Characteristics
Dimensions: 45.86" x 38.98" x 1.81" (1165mm x 990mm x 46mm)
Weight: 26.9lbs/12.2kg
Packing Configuration: 2 pcs per carton
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Your price: $779.00
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$499.00
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$276.00
Junction Box
The junction box provides a high quality,
dust protected and splash proof IP44-rated
housing. The housing contains a rigid
connection block with screw terminals and
by-pass diodes providing "hot spot"
protection for the solar cells.
Electrical Characteristics
Rated Power: 40 watts
Peak Power: 40 watts
Peak Power Voltage: 16.6 volts
Peak Power Current: 2.41 amps
Open Circuit Voltage: 23.3 volts
Short Circuit Current: 2.68 amps
Series Fuse Rating: 5 amps
Minimum Peak Power: 36 Watt
Mechanical Specifications
A torsion and corrosion-resistant anodized
aluminum frame ensures dependable
performance, even under harsh weather
conditions. Pre-drilled mounting holes are
provided for ease of installation.
Dimensions (LxWxD): 50.9" x 12.9" x 1.3"
(1293x328x35mm)
Weight: 15.4lbs
Shell ST40, 40 Watt CIS Thin Film Solar Panel
Shell ST40, 40 Watt 12 Volt Thin Film Solar Panel
The Shell ST40 solar panel is composed of a monolithic
structure of series connected Copper Indium Diselenide
(CIS) based solar cells. It can generate a peak power of
40 watt at 16.6 volts. The Shell ST40 solar panel has been
designed for rural and industrial applications.
The Shell Solar CIS/thin film modules deliver high power and
reliable performance in all operational conditions backed by a
10 year warranty. The range is particularly suitable for low
light level environments and where uniform appearance and
aesthetics is important.
Benefits
* Exceptional performance under low light conditions,
shade and high temperature tolerance that offers reliable
power in adverse or changeable conditions.
* Class leading efficiency and stable output power
delivering reliable high performance for many years.
* Highly transparent tempered glass delivering more power
and ensuring high impact resistance and protection against
hail, snow, ice, and storms.
* Uniform appearance ideal for applications where
aesthetics are an important factor.
* 10 years research and over 3 years commercial
manufacturing experience has been appllied to the
development of our CIS thin-film range to ensure that our
products have a long and reliable service life backed by a 10
year warranty.
Qualifications and Certificates
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* All Shell Solar Panels are produced in EN-ISO 9001
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PV solar panel specifications
SunWize SW90, 90 Watt Solar Pane
SunWize SW85, 85 Watt Solar Panel
SunWize OEM40, 40 Watt Solar Panel
$269.00
SunWize OEM20, 20 Watt Solar Panel
$165.00
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$115.00
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UniSolar FLX-32 Flexible 32 Watt Solar Panel
$275.00
Specifications
Rated power: 32 Watts
Battery Voltage: 12 Volts
Typical Amp Hours/Day: 12
Bypass Diode Included: Yes
Blocking Diode Included: Yes
Length: 55.77"
Width: 16.7"
Weight: 4.7 lbs.
Cable Length: 8 ft
Warranty on Power Output: 5 yr
How are Panels Connected to an Electrical System?
Each panel comes with 8 ft. of tinned wire with a 2-pin SAE-connector and is packaged
with a 2 ft fused battery cable. An extension cable of 10 feet is also available. Typically
the solar panel is connected directly to the battery. It can also be connected to any point
on the electrical system where 12 volt is present. If a charge controller is used, it is
placed in the line between the solar panel and the battery.
Bypass diodes are connected across each cell, allowing the modules to produce power
even when partially shaded. Blocking diodes are included within each potted junction
box (edge connector) to prevent battery discharge into the module.
The cell assembly is sealed in flexible an durable weather resistant polymers that
provide longlife and high reliability.
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UniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar Panel
UniSolar UNI-PAC 30 - 34 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel
$729.00
UniSolar UNI-PAC 15 - 15.5 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel
$595.00
Unique and Durable
The unique design of the UNI-PAC™ features a lightweight construction
without glass or fragile crystalline to break, crack, or add on extra weight.
The tough nylon fabric covering allows the unit to be folded to a
convenient book size, for easy storage and transport. The UNI-PAC™ 10
offers dual voltage charging for 12V and 24V, the UNI-PAC™ 15 and the
UNI-PAC™ 30 are for 12V charging. The UNI-PAC™ was designed to
meet military requirements for durability, performance and reliability.
Tefzel (by DuPont) serves as a strong, long-lasting front cover. Individual
solar laminates contain by-pass diodes, making the UNI-PAC™ solar
chargers tolerant of severe shadow or partial covering. Charging rate and
voltage can even be adjusted to meet specific needs.
Dimensions & Specifications
Rated Power: 34.0 Watts
Operating Voltage: 17.6 Volts
Operating Current: 1.9 Amps
Open Circuit Voltage: 26.0 Volts
Short Circuit Current: 2.4 Amps
Size, Folded (LxWxH): 17" x 7" x 2"
Size, Deployed: 55.9" x 33.9"
Weight: 4.7 lbs
PV solar panel specifications
Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Module
Highlights:
* Thin-film amorphous silicon panel
* Superior performance under high temperature
* High shade tolerance
* MC Connectors
* Black frame
* Dimensions 39" x 37.8"
*
Model GEA / GSA
Nominal Power (W) 60
OC Voltage (V) 92
SC Current (A) 1.19
Voltage in mpp (V) 67
Current in mpp (A) 0.9
Weight (kg) 13.7
Dimensions (mm) 990x960x40
Certifications and Qualifications
GEA GSA
- IEC61646
- Safety Class II equipment
- CE mark - UL Listed
- CEC registered
*25 Year Power Output Warranty
GEA/GSA PV module will maintain more than 80% of minimum
rated power for 25 years (based on data from silicon PV modules
installed over a month under conditions of 25ºC, A.M. 1.5 and
100mW / cm2).
Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Modules
$269.00
PV solar panel specifications
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Yingli makes high efficiency polycrystalline solar modules. Power tolerance is a
respectable 5% so you can be assured you will be receiving at least 95% of the
wattage specified.
Modules are made with tempered high transmission glass with antireflective
coating, EVA encapsulant, TPT backsheet and aluminum frame with predrilled
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Weight (lbs) 1.9
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Unrolled Dimensions (in) 12x73
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SDPV31306.ppt

  • 1. MIT SOLAR DECATHLON PV TECHNOLOGY FOUNDAMENTALS PV MANUFACTURERS TABLE OF CONTENTS SOLAR POWER OVERVIEW 2 PV TECHNOLOGY BASICS 3-13 PV MANUFACTURES-PROFILES 14-24 AVAILABLE SOLAR PANELS 26-50 PV PERIPHERALS 51 THE FUTURE NANOCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS 52-64 POWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06
  • 2. . By Lawrence Kazmerski and Thomas Surek, National Renewable Energy Laboratory GENERAL OVERVIEW •PV was recognized as an important source of space power in the 1950s, •Terrestrial PV development began in response to the 1970s oil crises. •Concern for the environment, as well as global efforts to seek indigenous sources of energy, drives the investment in PV research and deployment. •Today, PV is a several-billion-dollar industry worldwide, with more than 520 MW of PV modules shipped in 2002. •These include large, multi-megawatt installations feeding into the utility grid, kilowatt rooftop systems supplying power to a home or business, and single 50- or 100-W PV modules on homes in developing countries. Photovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the lab to the market.
  • 3. PV technology basics Solar cells are semiconductor devices that produce electricity from sunlight via the photovoltaic effect. Sunlight strikes the cell, photons with energy above the semiconductor bandgap impart enough energy to create electron-hole pairs. A junction between dissimilarly doped semiconductor layers sets up a potential barrier in the cell, which separates the light- generated charge carriers. This separation induces a fixed electric current and voltage in the device. The electricity is collected and transported by metallic contacts on the top and bottom surfaces of the cell. Diagram of photovoltaic cell. A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of a thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type) silicon. An electrical field is created near the top surface of the cell where these two materials are in contact, called the P-N junction. When sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell, this electrical field provides momentum and direction to light-stimulated electrons, resulting in a flow of current when the solar cell is connected to an electrical load How PV Cells Work
  • 4. PV technology basics •silicon (Si), •gallium arsenide (GaAs), •cadmium telluride (CdTe), •copper indium diselenide (CIS), •hydrogenated amorphous silicon. There are significant differences between the best performance and the theoretically predicted value for each material; closing these gaps is the subject of ongoing research (see figure). Applicable semiconductor materials> Cell Efficiencies
  • 5. In the case of a single-junction device, the efficiency of the solar cell, the ratio of the power produced, and the incident light power are limited. Photons with energies below the bandgap of the material produce only heat. Excess energy above that needed to generate electron-hole pairs also produces heat. A multijunction device, in which two or more solar cells are stacked on top of each other, can exploit different portions of the solar spectrum. For example, a four-junction device with bandgaps of 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 electron volts (eV) results in a theoretical efficiency of more than 52%. The multijunction approach, however, presents significant challenges in both materials preparation and device design. PV technology basics Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels. Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental building block of PV systems. Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is the complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV modules and panels. PV Cells, Modules, & Arrays
  • 6. PV systems are like any other electrical power generating systems, just the equipment used is different than that used for conventional electromechanical generating systems. Depending on the functional and operational requirements of the system, the specific components required, and may include major components DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances). In addition, an assortment of balance of system (BOS) hardware, Including wiring, overcurrent, surge protection and disconnect devices, and other power processing equipment. PV technology basics How a PV System Works
  • 7. Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). Other reasons batteries are used in PV systems are to operate the PV array near its maximum power point, to power electrical loads at stable voltages, and to supply surge currents to electrical loads and inverters. In most cases, a battery charge controller is used in these systems to protect the battery from overcharge and overdischarge. In many stand-alone PV systems, batteries are used for energy storage. Figure shows a diagram of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC and AC loads PV technology basics Diagram of stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC and AC loads. Why Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems?
  • 8. How Are Photovoltaic Systems Classified? Photovoltaic power systems are generally classified according to: • functional and operational requirements, • component configurations, • how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads. The two principle classifications are grid-connected or utility- interactive systems stand-alone systems. Photovoltaic systems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems.1.7.1 Grid-Connected (Utility-Interactive) PV Systems. Diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system PV technology basics Types of PV Systems
  • 9. Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid, and are generally designed and sized to supply certain DC and/or AC electrical loads. These types of systems may be powered by a PV array only, or may use wind, an engine-generator or utility power as an auxiliary power source in what is called a PV-hybrid system. PV technology basics photovoltaic hybrid system.
  • 10. The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC load Since there is no electrical energy storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems, the load only operates during sunlight hours, making these designs suitable for common applications such as ventilation fans, water pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar thermal water heating systems. Matching the impedance of the electrical load to the maximum power output of the PV array is a critical part of designing well-performing direct-coupled system. For certain loads such as positive-displacement water pumps, a type of electronic DC-DC converter, called a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used between the array and load to help better utilize the available array maximum power output. PV technology basics Direct-coupled PV system.
  • 11. The process of fabricating conventional single- and polycrystalline silicon PV cells begins very pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon - a material processed from quartz and used extensively throughout the electronics industry. The polysilicon is then heated to melting temperature, and trace amounts of boron are added to the melt to create a P-type semiconductor material. Next, an ingot, or block of silicon is formed, commonly using one of two methods: 1) by growing a pure crystalline silicon ingot from a seed crystal drawn from the molten polysilicon or 2) by casting the molten polysilicon in a block, creating a polycrystalline silicon material. Individual wafers are then sliced from the ingots using wire saws and then subjected to a surface etching process. After the wafers are cleaned, they are placed in a phosphorus diffusion furnace, creating a thin N-type semiconductor layer around the entire outer surface of the cell. Next, an anti-reflective coating is applied to the top surface of the cell, and electrical contacts are imprinted on the top (negative) surface of the cell. An aluminized conductive material is deposited on the back (positive) surface of each cell, restoring the P-type properties of the back surface by displacing the diffused phosphorus layer. Each cell is then electrically tested, sorted based on current output, and electrically connected to other cells to form cell circuits for assembly in PV modules. PV technology basics crystalline silicon The conventional technology that supports more than 85% of today's PV market is based on wafers of crystalline Si. Production capacities are expected to more than double in the next three to five years, and the products are proven and accepted in the markets. Single-crystal ingots are pulled from the melt, or polycrystalline ingots are cast in a crucible that is consumed in the process. Technical advances include the growth of ingots as big as 300 kg, the growth of multiple ingots with melt replenishment, and the reduction of consumable materials and energy costs. Significant R&D effort has been focused on reducing defects, improving doping, and automating the growth process. Still, for single-crystal Si, the best commercial module efficiencies are only about 15%. Image: A solar cell, made from a poly-crystalline silicon wafer How PV Cells Are Made
  • 12. Thin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured by depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor material on a glass or thin stainless-steel substrate in a vacuum chamber. A laser scribing process is used to separate and weld the electrical connections between individual cells in a module. Thin-film photovoltaic materials offer great promise for reducing the materials requirements and manufacturing costs for PV modules and systems. PV technology basics Si ribbon and sheet technologies, which avoid the cost and material losses associated with slicing ingots, are the first of the new PV technologies to be commercialized. About 6% of today's PV modules are made using these methods. Most notable are the edge-defined, film-fed growth process, the string ribbon process, and the Si- film process (growth of a high-speed, continuous Si sheet of a variety of substrates). Cell and module efficiencies are similar to those for polycrystalline Si wafers from ingots—about 12% at best—with somewhat lower efficiencies for the small-grained sheet materials. Ongoing incremental improvements will probably reduce manufacturing costs and increase module performance, keeping these technologies as the mainstay of PV markets for years to come. Thin-Film Photovoltaics
  • 13. Photovoltaic systems have a number of merits and unique advantages over conventional power-generating technologies. PV systems can be designed for a variety of applications and operational requirements, and can be used for either centralized or distributed power generation. PV systems have no moving parts, are modular, easily expandable and even transportable in some cases. Energy independence and environmental compatibility are two attractive features of PV systems. The fuel (sunlight) is free, and no noise or pollution is created from operating PV systems. In general, PV systems that are well designed and properly installed require minimal maintenance and have long service lifetimes. At present, the high cost of PV modules and equipment (as compared to conventional energy sources) is the primary limiting factor for the technology. Consequently, the economic value of PV systems is realized over many years. In some cases, the surface area requirements for PV arrays may be a limiting factor. Due to the diffuse nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2 (86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity. PV technology basics Pros and Cons of PV
  • 14. http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php Spire offers SPI-LINE turnkey production lines for module manufacturing at production capacities ranging from a few hundred kilowatt up to 50 megawatts per year and beyond. http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php Spire provides state of the art production lines for the manufacture of silicon wafers and solar cells. BIPV is Building Integrated Photovoltaics. It’s more than just mounting solar panels on a roof. It’s integrating solar electricity into the design of a building or structure so that the solar components also serve as structural or design elements. PV manufacturers> Spire BIPV Spire Corporation - Headquarters One Patriots Park Bedford, MA 01730-2396 (USA) Toll Free: 800-510-4815 Phone: 781-275-6000 Fax: 781-275-7470 Email: email@spirecorp.com
  • 15. PV manufacturers> Spire > considered leading in BIPV Roof Systems Ground Mounted Systems Pole & Structure Mounted Systems Spire installation examples
  • 16. Spire manufactured and retrofitted two BIPV systems for a commercial building that serves as a vital community center. The systems include a 25-kilowatt roof tile system and a 7-kilowatt awning system. Awning Systems Curtain Wall Systems BIPV panels can be mounted vertically on an exterior wall. An opaque panel can take the place of traditional siding. A transparent or semi-transparent panel can be mounted on an exterior wall, or on the roof, acting as a power-generating skylight. This allows the panel to be visible from indoors, providing partial shade and casting attractive dapple patterns. PV manufacturers > Spire > considered leading in BIPV Spire BIPV system case studies
  • 17. Custom BIPV Spire manufactures its own BIPV modules, so it has the flexibility to produce custom and one-of-a-kind designs. These can be integrated into unique application solutions. BIPV systems enable architects and designers to develop customized photovoltaic applications, going beyond the typical installations afforded by standard module design. To learn how Spire has developed and implemented innovative solar solutions for its customers, read the Case Studies InSpire Solar Data Monitoring InSpire systems are among the most user friendly monitoring systems on the market, available only from Spire Solar. InSpire systems range in capability from simplistic energy performance data monitoring, to complex platforms that can be expanded upon for whole building commissioning. With real time data monitoring, the value of your PV system becomes a tangible asset available for instant use for educational or marketing purposes. * State of the art, user friendly technology * Touch screen monitors for desktop displays * Kiosks with integrated touch screen monitors for lobby or museum displays * Online data monitoring that is available from anywhere with Internet access This InSpire graph shows the energy produced by several Spire solar systems during a one week period in January 2006. These systems are located in the northeast United States. InSpire lets you easily monitor your own solar system. PV manufacturers >Spire > considered leading in BIPV InSpire Solar Data Monitoring
  • 18. The capacity of a PV system is stated in terms of the number of watts, kilowatts, or megawatts it can produce in standard sunlight conditions. For example, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, U.S., Spire has installed solar modules for which each kilowatt (kW) of PV capacity produces about 1,200 - 1,400 kilowatt-hours per year, depending on the angle at which the panels are mounted. The electricity you purchase from the utility is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most single-family homes in the U.S. use 20 kWh or more per day. A refrigerator uses 1.2 kWh per day and a computer uses 2.4 kWh per 8- hour workday. PV manufacturers> Spire How much roof space do I need for a PV system? A typical PV system requires about 100 square feet for every kilowatt installed on a pitched roof, and up to 200 square feet per kilowatt on a flat roof. PV systems should be installed facing south for maximum electricity production. Spire's in-house manufacturing provides exceptional flexibility to produce unique BIPV modules to meet almost any specifications and design requirements. Spire has extensive experience working through the US Green Building Council and working with architects, designers and builders to produce BIPV systems for integration into LEED-certified buildings. Let Spire produce your next custom BIPV modules. Contact Spire at pvsales@spirecorp.com to discuss your manufacturing needs. Spire general facts
  • 19. 138 Bartlett Street | Marlboro, MA 01752-3016 USA | TL: +1.508.357.2221 | FX: +1.508.229.0747 www.evergreensolar.com Cedar Series Photovoltaic Modules * Each module is individually tested to ensure field performance meets or exceeds specifications. * Solar cells are matched to reduce internal losses and the possibility of hot spots. * Rugged, durable anodized aluminum frame makes for strong, stable mechanical mounting. * Industry standard EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) and Tedlar™ construction protects solar cells from mechanical and environmental stress. Advanced technology with promise for the future * String Ribbon™ polycrystalline solar cells outperform thin films and achieve comparable performance to bulk crystalline technologies while using half as much silicon. * The proprietary cell fabrication process is among the most environmentally friendly in the business. The power of PV * Photovoltaics (PV) provide clean, quiet, reliable electricity from sunlight. * No moving parts to wear out. * No emmisions - power that's good for the environment. * The Sun - a limitless, readily-available power source. PV manufacturers> Evergreen
  • 20. Leading Solar Silicon Supplier Joins EverQ Venture MARLBORO, Massachusetts, & THALHEIM, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 28, 2005--Evergreen Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq: ESLR), a manufacturer of solar power products with its proprietary, low-cost String Ribbon(TM) wafer technology, and Q-Cells AG, the world's largest independent manufacturer of crystalline silicon solar cells, today announced a partnership with Renewable Energy Corporation ASA (REC), based in Hovik, Norway. The world's largest manufacturer of solar-grade silicon and multicrystalline wafers, REC is joining EverQ, a strategic partnership between Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells that is currently building a 30-megawatt solar wafer, cell and module manufacturing plant in Thalheim, Germany. PV manufacturers > > LOCAL INNOVATIVE PV COMPANY Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells Announce Partnership with REC
  • 21. The Company maintains strong ties to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including the active involvement of String Ribbon's inventor, Prof. Emanuel Sachs. The figure above illustrates the patented String Ribbon manufacturing process ongoing within the furnace shown to the right. PV manufacturers> Evergreen
  • 22. SunPower Solar SunPower Corporation designs, manufactures and sells high efficiency solar cells and solar panels that generate electricity from sunlight for residential, commercial and remote power applications. Our proprietary all back contact silicon solar cell technology produces up to 50% more power per square foot compared to conventional solar cells. Our SPR-200 solar panels feature a unique, uniformly black design that many home and business owners prefer. Our Company headquarters and research and development facilities are located in Sunnyvale, California, the heart of Silicon Valley. SunPower’s A-300 Solar Cell A-300 SunPower solar cells are unique because the metal contacts needed to collect and conduct electricity are on the back surface of the solar cells – away from the sunlight. This design eliminates reflective metal contacts on the front of the solar cell. In addition to improving cell performance, this design leaves the front surface with a uniformly black appearance. PV manufacturers> Sunpower
  • 23. Dr. Swanson (n 1988 Dr. Swanson founded SunPower to commercialize high-efficiency photovoltaic cell technology for use in solar concentrators) and his team at SunPower discovered that their solar cell technology designed for concentrators offered great advantages in other applications as well. In 2001, SunPower solar cells were used to power NASA’s Helios solar powered airplane to a world record powered-flight altitude of 96,863 feet. The 22%-efficient lightweight solar cells were incorporated directly into the curved wing surfaces. PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY SunPower’s Technology Path
  • 24. SunPower's high performance solar cells and solar panels offer both maximum power from your roof as well as a uniquely attractive system design. To review a slide presentation about our proprietary back contact solar cell technology, (see attached pdf) PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY Superior Performance, Superior Aesthetics
  • 25. PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY Solar cells are semiconductor devices that directly convert sunlight into electricity. Our A-300 solar cell has a rated power value of 3.1 watts and a conversion efficiency of between 20% to 21.5%. Our A-300 solar cell is designed without highly reflective metal contact grids or current collection ribbons on the front of the solar cells. This feature enables our solar cells to be assembled into solar panels that exhibit a more uniform appearance than conventional solar panels.
  • 27. PV manufacturers > AVAILABLE SOLAR PANELS http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/solarpanels.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/ase.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/sasopa.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/siemens.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/sunwize.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/unisolar.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/kaneka.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/yingli.html http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/iowathinfilm.html
  • 28. Unavailable in 2005 BP Solar BP 4170S 170 Watt 24V Monocrystalline Solar Panel The BP 4170 solar panel is designed to provide superior performance for residential, commercial, and industrial grid-connect systems. By increasing the diameter of the cell, performance is maximized while improving aesthetics. With time-tested monocrystalline silicon solar cells and installation-speeding polarized connectors, it provides cost-effective power for systems that demand premium module efficiency. Electrical Specifications Maximum Power: 170 Watts Nominal Voltage: 34.7 volts Voltage at Pmax: 34.7 Volts Current at Pmax: 4.9 Amps Warranted minimum Pmax: 161.5 Watts Short-circuit current: 5.4 Amps Open-circuit voltage: 44.0 Volts Mechanical Specifications Dimensions (LxWxD): 62.8 x 31.1 x 1.97 inches (1595x790x50) mm Weight: 34 lbs (15.4kg) Solar Cells: 72 cells in a 6x12 matrix connected in series Output Cables: MC Connectors RHW AWG# 12 cable with polarized weatherproof DC rated connectors Diodes: Three 9A, 45V Schottky by-pass diodes included Construction: Front: High-transmission 3mm (1/8th inch) tempered glass; Back: Tedlar; Encapsulant: EVA Frame: Rugged clear anodized aluminum alloy type universal frame Limited Warranty: 25 years Quality and Safety Listings ESTI, CE, TUV, UL Listed Note: These panels must ship via truck freight due to size. Please call or email for a shipping quote and to order. ***Unavailable in 2005*** BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel 1561 Your price: $999.00 pad BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel PV solar panel specifications BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
  • 29. Cheapest 10 watt Solar panel- 149.00 Most expensive 170 watt- 999.00 50Watt=354.00 40watt+353.00 30Watt 259.00 20watt 234.00 170 watt-783.00 160 watt 799. 160 watt 725. 150 watt 699. 125 watt 629.00 125 watt 599. 80 watt 520. 65 watt 457. 60 watt 462.00 PV solar panel specifications
  • 30. Evergreen Solar EC-102-GD, 102 Watt Solar Panel $499.00 Evergreen Solar EC-110-GD, 110 Watt Solar Panel - Limited Supply Your price: $524.00 $539.00 Electrical Specifications Maximum Power: 115 Watts Voltage @ Power Maximum: 17.3 Volts Current @ Power Maximum: 6.65 Amps Open-circuit Voltage: 21.5 Volts Short-Circuit Current: 7.26 Amps No. of Cells: 72 Max. Series Fuse: 15 Amps UL System Voltage Rating: 600V TUV System Voltage Rating: 800V Mechanical Specifications Length: 62.5"/1588 mm Width: 25.69"/653 mm Depth: 1.39"/35 mm Weight: 28 lbs/12.7 kg Safety and Quality Tests IEC 1215 (IEC 503, ISPRA) Certified UL Listed, Class C Fire Rating TUV Safety Class II Certified CE 25 year limited power warranty Temporarily Out of Stock Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD, 115 Watt Solar Panel PV solar panel specifications Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD
  • 31. GE Energy 165, 165 Watt Solar Panel $719.00 GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel $599.00 GE Energy GEPV-072, 72 Watt Solar Panel Your price: $459.00 GE Energy GEPV-065, 65 Watt Solar Panel Your price: $449.00 GE Energy GEPV-050-M 50 Watt Solar Panel $365.00 GE Energy GEPV-030-M 30 Watt Solar Panel $239.00 PV solar panel specifications GE Energy Solar Panels
  • 32. GE Energy's technologically advanced solar electric power products offer high quality and customer value. They are all based on crystalline silicon, the material of choice for efficiency and reliability for more than 25 years. Our single-crystal solar cells are among the most efficient commercially available today. We offer a full line of photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar modules which utilize a series of cells wired together and complete packages for residential, commercial and industrial systems. Designed for optimum use in residential, commercial and battery charging applications, the GEPV-110-M solar module contains 36 single-crystal cells connected in series, and generates a peak power of 110 watts at 16.7 volts. Electrical Performance Typical Performance Characteristics Peak Power (Wp): Watts 110 Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp): Volts 16.7 Maximum Power Current (Imp): Amps 6.6 Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): Volts 21.2 Short Circuit Current (Isc): Amps 7.4 Short Circuit Temperature Coefficient: mA/?C +3 Open Circuit Voltage Coefficient: V/?C -0.08 Maximum Power Temperature Coefficient: %/?C -0.5 Maximum Series Fuse: Amps 15 Overall Physical Properties Length: 58.1 inches (1,477 mm) Width: 26.0 inches (661 mm) Depth of Frame: 1.4 inches (35 mm) Depth Including J-box: 2.2 inches (55 mm) Connector Length (when applicable): 15.0 inches (381 mm) Weight: 26.1 pounds (11.9 kg) Mounting Hole Locations Center Spacing: 25.3 inches (643 mm) Edge Distance: 16.4 inches (417 mm) Width Spacing: 24.3 inches (616 mm) Mounting Hole Diameter: 0.26 inches (6.7 mm) Physical Design Properties Weight (Wind) Bearing Potential: 50 lb/ft (125 mph equivalent) Hailstone Impact Resistance: 1 inch at 50 mph (25 mm at 80 kph) PV solar panel specifications GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel
  • 33. http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/gse-solar-apps.html GSE SUNLINQ 12 Watt Portable Solar Panel $167.00 GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 24 Volt Desert Camo Your price: $789.00 GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo Your price: $789.00 GSE Portable Power Pack 55 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo Your price: $869.00 PV solar panel specifications Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels
  • 34. GSE P3 55 Watt 12 Volt Flexible Solar Panel Desert Camo In Stock and Ready to Ship Global Solar's thin-film photovoltaic technology is enabling solar power products to be portable, flexible, foldable, durable and lightweight. As a result we are able to create solutions for a wide range of military power requirements. The overall benefits of our military solar power products are to, enable extended missions, improve logistics by enabling field charging thereby reducing the number of batteries in the field and provide a significant cost reduction when compared to primary batteries. Global Solar Energy works closely with CECOM and the US Army's Rechargeable Battery Program. Portable Power Pack (P3) The P3 is a solar-energized power generator for mobile power needs. Incorporating solid state, thin-film, PowerFLEX™ solar technology, the P3 provides an excellent choice for situations that require lightweight, durable, silent power. Re-charge batteries, power communication equipment and mobile electronics, plus reduce the battery logistic challenge with the P3. It provides silent energy independence to the user. The P3 Portable Power Pack is used worldwide to provide users an alternate power generator for charging lead-acid, Nickel Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. The P3 will enable extended missions, provide energy security, restore power silently and can provide power for remote, portable surveillance equipment. A primary battery can only be used once. Secondary batteries can be recharged several hundred times. Recent studies show that a P3 solar charger pays for itself in fewer than fifteen recharges. That is equivalent to several hundred FREE BATTERIES! Twice the power to weight ratio of alternative solar generators, the P3 is ideal for situations requiring power renewal to batteries and mobile electronics. The P3 Portable Power Pack folds for easy transport and storage Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels PV solar panel specifications
  • 35. Isofoton 150 Watt 24 Volt Solar Panel $665.00 Applications Water pumping Communications Outdoor lighting Rural electrification Recreational vehicles Stand-alone or grid-connected AC applications Electrical Characteristics Nominal Voltage: 24 volt Maximum Power: 150 W Short-Circuit Current: 4.45 Amps Open Circuit Voltage: 43.2 Volts Maximum Power Current: 4.35 Amps Maximum Power Voltage: 34.6 Volts Physical Characteristics Cell type: 125 mm Mono Crystal Number of cells: 72 Length: 1224mm/48.19" Width: 1047mm/41.22" Depth: 39.5mm/1.56" Weight: 17.0kg/37.5 lb Type of Output Terminal: J-box with MC cables Certifications IEC 61215 Certified UL Listing, Class C Fire Rating TÜ– Safety Class II Certified CEC Rating: 134.3 Warranty: 25 years Note: Minimum order of 4 panels. These panels must ship via truck due to size. Please call for a shipping quote and to order. There is a quantity price break if you are ordering 20+ panels. Isofoton is the leading solar panel manufacturer in Europe and their panels are now available in the USA. Since its founding in 1981, Isofoton has grown to become the leading supplier of PV in Europe and is the 8th largest PV manufacturer in the world. Their steadfast commitment to research and development has lead to the development of a reliable, proven mono- crystalline cell that is then chemically textured with an anti-reflective layer and finally trimmed almost square for maximum power density. The finished cells are covered with tempered, anti- relective glass that maximizes light transfer, providing a high quality finished module that meets the highest level of compliance with ISO, TUV, CE, and UL standards for photovotaic products. Approved by the California Energy Commission. PV solar panel specifications Isofoton Solar Panels
  • 36. Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel Kyocera KC190GT, 190 Watt Solar Panel Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel $879.00 d.Blue is ideal for installation on all types of buildings, from residential to large scale commercial systems. The stylish dark blue cells, combined with black panel frames, allow the panels to blend in with the buildings architecture while producing energy at exceptional efficiencies. The d.Blue panels are available in 190-watt, 170- watt and 125-watts panels. All of these feature Multi- Contact output cables, a heavy-duty box-style anodized aluminum frame, and an industry-high 25 year power output warranty. Applications * Residential roof top system * Large commercial grid tie system * Water Pumping Systems * High Voltage stand alone systems Specifications: Max Power: 190 Watts Max Voltage: 26.1 Volts Max Current: 7.28 Amps Dimensions (LxWxD): 56.2"x39"x1.4" Weight: 40.7 pounds KYOCERA has perfected its new surface treatment technology and is introducing it on a new line of panels named d.Blue, for its dark blue color. The newly developed treatment method processes multi-crystalline silicon cells in order to produce a surface texture that minimizes surface reflectance and maximizes output. The result is a maximum conversion efficiency of 15%, one of the highest conversion efficiencies in the polycrystalline panel industry. PV solar panel specifications Kyocera Solar Panels
  • 37. 315 watt, 300 watt and 285 watt modules. Prices start are $4.03/watt for cases of (20) modules. Call for availablity. Independently Certified * The ASE-270/DGF-50 is independently certified to meet IEEE 1262, IEC 61215 and UL 1703 standards * It is also the only panel in the industry to receive a UL (Underwriters Laboratories) Class A fire rating Flexible Versions •A variety of wiring and framing options • are available upon request. Electrical Data Power (max): 270 Watts Voltage: 49.5 Volts Current: 5.45 Amps Open-circuit voltage: 60.0 Volts Short-circuit Current: 6.1 Amps Dimensions and Weights Length: 74.5"/1892.3 mm Width: 50.5"/1282.7 mm Weight: 107 (+/- 5) lbs/46.6 (+/- 2) kg Area: 26.13 ft sq/ 2.43 sq meters Characteristic Data Solar cells per panel: 216 Type of solar cell: Semi-crystalline solar cells (EFG process) Connections: 10 AWG single conductor, stranded copper with Multi- Contact connector. Junction box comes with 6 built-in bypass diodes. Certifications and Warranty The ASE-270-DGF/50 has been independently certified to IEC 1215 and IEEE 1262, UL 1703 (Class A Fire rating) The ASE-270-DGF-50 comes with a 20 year power warranty. PV solar panel specifications RWE Schott Solar Panels ASE is possibly the finest module currently available on the market.
  • 38. More Reliability * Bypass diode protection for every 18 solar cells in series, thus minimizing power loss, and mitigating overheating/safety problems * Advanced encapsulation system ensures steady long-term panel performance by eliminating degradation associated with traditional EVA-encapsulated panels * A weather barrier system on both sides of the panel protects against tears, perforations, fire, electrical conductivity, delamination and moisture * Patented no-lead, high-reliability soldering system guarantees long life and ensures against environmental harm should the panel break or be discarded Higher Quality * Each of the panel's 216 individual semi-crystalline silicon cells is inspected and power matched to ensure consistent performance between panels * Every panel is tested utilizing a calibrated solar simulator to ensure that the electrical ratings are within the specified tolerance for power, voltage and current * Panel-to-panel wiring loss is factored into the panel's labeled electrical ratings by testing through the panel's cable/connector assemblies ASE-300-DGF/50, 315 Watt Solar Panel $1,329.00 ASE-300-DGF/50, 300 Watt Solar Panel $1,404.00 ASE-300-DGF/50, 285 watt $1,334.00 PV solar panel specifications RWE Schott Solar Panels
  • 39. Insulated Facade Opaque Cladding Schott BIPV - Photovoltaics with ASI® Glass The maximum size of ASI® Glass modules is 1.2m x 2.4m (~4’ x 7’ 10”) Today, building integrated photovoltaic systems are able to provide: # Solar electricity # Light management # Comfort # Effective shading # Glare protection # Thermal management # Innovative architecture
  • 40. PV solar panel specifications Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel The HIT 190 panel has a cell conversion efficiency of 18.5% and a panel conversion efficiency of 16.1% that is significantly higher than conventional SANYO solar cells. High conversion efficiency and lightweight design conserve space and weight. The outstanding conversion efficiency and high power output of the HIT 190 save approximately 20% of installation space. HIT 190 panels can be installed on narrow roof spaces which previously presented difficulties. In addition, with fewer solar panels, there is less weight on the roof. SANYO HIT 190 Specifications: Model Number: HIP-190BA3 Max. Power (Pmax): 190 Watts Max. Power Voltage (Vpm): 54.8 Volts Max. Power Current (Ipm): 3.47 Amps Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 67.5 Volts Short Circuit Voltage (Isc): 3.75 Amps Cell Conversion Efficiency: 18.5% Panel Conversion Efficiency: 16.1% Warranted Minimum (Pmin): 171.0 Watts PTC Rating: 178.7 Watts Max. System Voltage: 600 Volts Series Fuse: 15 Amps Temp. Coefficient of Pmax (%/C): -0.3 Dimensions: 51.9" x 35.2" X 1.4" (1319mm X 894mm x 35mm) Weight: 30.9 lbs. (14kg) Certificate: UL 1703 Class C fire rating HIT panels can withstand 1 inch diameter hailstones at 50 mph. Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel $975.00 SANYO Solar Panels
  • 41. PV solar panel specifications Since 1959, Sharp has been harnessing the power of the sun to improve the quality of life. Today, we are the world's #1 manufacturer of solar cells. In fact, Sharp's high quality, Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems are used for everything from satellites to lighthouses, industrial applications to residential use. Sharp's solar energy systems take advantage of the natural, inexhaustible resource of sunlight to generate electricity. No environmentally harmful compounds, no fossil fuel pollution, no global warming. Just clean, safe, reliable solar energy for living. Sharp 208 Watt Solar Panel SHARP NT-185U1, 185 Watt Solar Panel $882.00 $969.00 Sharp ND-167U1, 167 Watt Solar Panel $779.00 Sharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle $429.00 Sharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle $429.00 $669.00 SHARP NE-165U1, 165 Watt Solar Panel price: $727.00 Sharp ND-N0ECU, 140 Watt Solar Panel
  • 42. Features Left and right triangular modules offer greater flexibility and greater integration for roofline aesthetics High-power module (70W) using 21 square multi-crystal silicon solar cells with 13.44% cell conversion efficiency Bypass diode minimizes the power drop caused by shade Black anodized aluminum frame and "L" hook design located along frame perimeter for easy integration with residential sytem mounting hardware Water white, tempered glass, EVA laminate, and a weather-proof film yield long-life modules while enhancing cell performance Nominal 7 VDC output is ideal for residential system applications Manufactured in ISO 9001 certified facilities 25-year limited warranty on power output Electrical Characteristics Cell: Multi-crystal silicon No. of Cells and Connections: 21 in series Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 12.43 Volts Max. Power Voltage (Vpm): 9.98 Volts Short Circuit Current (Isc): 7.81 Amps Maximum Power Current (Ipm): 7.02 Amps Maximum Power (Pm): 70 Watts Minimum Power (Pm): 63 Watts Encapsulated Solar Cell Efficiency: 13.44% PTC Rating (W): 61.46 Watts Maximum System Voltage: 600VDC Series Fuse Rating: 15 Amps Type of Output Terminal: Lead Wire with MC Connector Mechanical Characteristics Dimensions: 45.86" x 38.98" x 1.81" (1165mm x 990mm x 46mm) Weight: 26.9lbs/12.2kg Packing Configuration: 2 pcs per carton Sharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle Sharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle PV solar panel specifications Left and right triangular modules
  • 43. Shell Solar SQ175-PC, 175 Watt Solar Panel $805.00 Shell Solar SQ165-PC, 165 Watt Solar Panel Your price: $779.00 Shell Solar 85-P, 85 Watt Solar Panel Shell Solar 80-P, 80 Watt Solar Panel $499.00 PV solar panel specifications Shell Solar Panels
  • 44. Shell Solar Panels PV solar panel specifications Shell ST40, 40 Watt Thin Film Solar Panel $276.00 Junction Box The junction box provides a high quality, dust protected and splash proof IP44-rated housing. The housing contains a rigid connection block with screw terminals and by-pass diodes providing "hot spot" protection for the solar cells. Electrical Characteristics Rated Power: 40 watts Peak Power: 40 watts Peak Power Voltage: 16.6 volts Peak Power Current: 2.41 amps Open Circuit Voltage: 23.3 volts Short Circuit Current: 2.68 amps Series Fuse Rating: 5 amps Minimum Peak Power: 36 Watt Mechanical Specifications A torsion and corrosion-resistant anodized aluminum frame ensures dependable performance, even under harsh weather conditions. Pre-drilled mounting holes are provided for ease of installation. Dimensions (LxWxD): 50.9" x 12.9" x 1.3" (1293x328x35mm) Weight: 15.4lbs Shell ST40, 40 Watt CIS Thin Film Solar Panel Shell ST40, 40 Watt 12 Volt Thin Film Solar Panel The Shell ST40 solar panel is composed of a monolithic structure of series connected Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) based solar cells. It can generate a peak power of 40 watt at 16.6 volts. The Shell ST40 solar panel has been designed for rural and industrial applications. The Shell Solar CIS/thin film modules deliver high power and reliable performance in all operational conditions backed by a 10 year warranty. The range is particularly suitable for low light level environments and where uniform appearance and aesthetics is important. Benefits * Exceptional performance under low light conditions, shade and high temperature tolerance that offers reliable power in adverse or changeable conditions. * Class leading efficiency and stable output power delivering reliable high performance for many years. * Highly transparent tempered glass delivering more power and ensuring high impact resistance and protection against hail, snow, ice, and storms. * Uniform appearance ideal for applications where aesthetics are an important factor. * 10 years research and over 3 years commercial manufacturing experience has been appllied to the development of our CIS thin-film range to ensure that our products have a long and reliable service life backed by a 10 year warranty. Qualifications and Certificates * UL-Listing 1703 * All Shell Solar Panels are produced in EN-ISO 9001 certified factories
  • 45. PV solar panel specifications SunWize SW90, 90 Watt Solar Pane SunWize SW85, 85 Watt Solar Panel SunWize OEM40, 40 Watt Solar Panel $269.00 SunWize OEM20, 20 Watt Solar Panel $165.00 SunWize OEM10, 10 Watt Solar Panel $115.00 SunWize Solar Panels
  • 46. UniSolar FLX-32 Flexible 32 Watt Solar Panel $275.00 Specifications Rated power: 32 Watts Battery Voltage: 12 Volts Typical Amp Hours/Day: 12 Bypass Diode Included: Yes Blocking Diode Included: Yes Length: 55.77" Width: 16.7" Weight: 4.7 lbs. Cable Length: 8 ft Warranty on Power Output: 5 yr How are Panels Connected to an Electrical System? Each panel comes with 8 ft. of tinned wire with a 2-pin SAE-connector and is packaged with a 2 ft fused battery cable. An extension cable of 10 feet is also available. Typically the solar panel is connected directly to the battery. It can also be connected to any point on the electrical system where 12 volt is present. If a charge controller is used, it is placed in the line between the solar panel and the battery. Bypass diodes are connected across each cell, allowing the modules to produce power even when partially shaded. Blocking diodes are included within each potted junction box (edge connector) to prevent battery discharge into the module. The cell assembly is sealed in flexible an durable weather resistant polymers that provide longlife and high reliability. PV solar panel specifications UniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar Panel
  • 47. UniSolar UNI-PAC 30 - 34 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel $729.00 UniSolar UNI-PAC 15 - 15.5 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel $595.00 Unique and Durable The unique design of the UNI-PAC™ features a lightweight construction without glass or fragile crystalline to break, crack, or add on extra weight. The tough nylon fabric covering allows the unit to be folded to a convenient book size, for easy storage and transport. The UNI-PAC™ 10 offers dual voltage charging for 12V and 24V, the UNI-PAC™ 15 and the UNI-PAC™ 30 are for 12V charging. The UNI-PAC™ was designed to meet military requirements for durability, performance and reliability. Tefzel (by DuPont) serves as a strong, long-lasting front cover. Individual solar laminates contain by-pass diodes, making the UNI-PAC™ solar chargers tolerant of severe shadow or partial covering. Charging rate and voltage can even be adjusted to meet specific needs. Dimensions & Specifications Rated Power: 34.0 Watts Operating Voltage: 17.6 Volts Operating Current: 1.9 Amps Open Circuit Voltage: 26.0 Volts Short Circuit Current: 2.4 Amps Size, Folded (LxWxH): 17" x 7" x 2" Size, Deployed: 55.9" x 33.9" Weight: 4.7 lbs PV solar panel specifications
  • 48. Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Module Highlights: * Thin-film amorphous silicon panel * Superior performance under high temperature * High shade tolerance * MC Connectors * Black frame * Dimensions 39" x 37.8" * Model GEA / GSA Nominal Power (W) 60 OC Voltage (V) 92 SC Current (A) 1.19 Voltage in mpp (V) 67 Current in mpp (A) 0.9 Weight (kg) 13.7 Dimensions (mm) 990x960x40 Certifications and Qualifications GEA GSA - IEC61646 - Safety Class II equipment - CE mark - UL Listed - CEC registered *25 Year Power Output Warranty GEA/GSA PV module will maintain more than 80% of minimum rated power for 25 years (based on data from silicon PV modules installed over a month under conditions of 25ºC, A.M. 1.5 and 100mW / cm2). Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Modules $269.00 PV solar panel specifications Kaneka Solar Panels
  • 49. Yingli makes high efficiency polycrystalline solar modules. Power tolerance is a respectable 5% so you can be assured you will be receiving at least 95% of the wattage specified. Modules are made with tempered high transmission glass with antireflective coating, EVA encapsulant, TPT backsheet and aluminum frame with predrilled holes for mounting. Water proof junction box contains cord grip connectors, bypass diodes and barrel sleeve connector for use with special pinout connectors (available with 10’ USE 10 ga. below). Warranty is 25 years. Modules larger than 65 watts are packaged 2 per shipping box. PV solar panel specifications YingliYL80 80 Watt Solar Module
  • 50. R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger Because PowerFilm® integrated solar panels (thin film on plastic) are developed and manufactured with a proprietary roll-to-roll process, by Iowa Thin Film Technologies, they are truly rollable unlike other thin film technologies that are only somewhat flexible. PowerFilm® solar panels are monolithically integrated which eliminates the need for damage-prone manual connections of individual solar cells. PowerFilm® is made of silicon, a natural resource in abundant supply. Also PowerFilm® performs well in diverse enviroments, including hot sun, and does not suffer from wasted over-voltage. Cadmium Free. Direct Power 12V systems can be directly powered with PowerFilm® Rollable Solar Panels. As with any solar technology, the solar panel power output must be greater than the power consumption of the 12V system. Technical Specifications Operating Voltage (V) 15.4 Operating Current (Amps) 1.2 Weight (lbs) 1.9 Rolled Dimensions (in )) 12x4.25x4.5 Unrolled Dimensions (in) 12x73 R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger $274.00 PV solar panel specifications Iowa Thin Film Technologies
  • 51. Zomeworks Universal Trackers Universal* Track Rack Sizes: UTR 020 - 20 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTRK 040 - 40 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F64 - 64 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F90 - 90 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F120 - 120 Sq. Ft. Module Space UTR F168 - 168 Sq. Ft. Module Space Six Sizes Fit All The Zomeworks Universal Rack System allows for almost limitless adjustment in both the east-west and north-south directions. Available in six standard sizes for holding 2 to 32 modules, Universal Track Racks are designed to fit all common photovoltaic modules, including ASE, Astro Power/PV, BP/Solarex, Evergreen, First Solar, Kyocera, Photowatt/Matrix, Sanyo, Sharp, Shell/Siemens/Arco, SunWize, UniSolar, and most other popular modules. This flexibility translates to faster delivery, better quality and overall economy. PV solar panel PERIPHIRALS specifications UTRF 168 Zomeworks Universal Tracker
  • 52. Solar Decathlon 2005 PV panel Specifications