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SDN Traffic Engineering
A Natural Evolution
Cengiz Alaettinoglu
What is Traffic Engineering (TE)?
Minimizes	the	worst	link	utilization
• Alleviates	traffic	congestion
• Better/longer	use	of	capital	expenditure
Routing	traffic	around	congested	links
• Can	use	shortest	as	well	as	non-shortest	paths
• IGP	metric	tuning,	RSVP-TE,	segment	routing
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 2
Evolution of Traffic Engineering
Offline	traffic	engineering
• Optimal	but	not	adaptive
On	device	traffic	engineering
• Adaptive	but	not	optimal	
Software	defined	networking
• Best	of	both	worlds,	yet	simpler;	simplicity	enabled	by
• Segment	routing
• Push	based	telemetry
• SDN	Traffic	Engineering	App
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 3
Offline Traffic Engineering
Topology	model
Traffic	demand	matrix
Optimization	algorithm	computes	routes	so	
that	the	worst	link	utilization	is	minimized
• Linear-programming
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 4
Pros and Cons of Offline Traffic Engineering
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 5
Very	good	link	
utilization	values
Network	model	is	hard	to	keep	
accurate
Traffic	demand	matrix	is	hard	to	
compute
Optimization	algorithm	is	very	
slow
• Hours	to	days
Can	not	adopt	to	failures
Too	many	tunnels	(N^2)
Some	paths	may	be	surprisingly	
long
On Device Traffic Engineering
All	routers	redistribute	available	bandwidth	of	its	links
Each	router
• Sets	up	1-N	tunnels	to	other	routers
• Monitors	the	utilization	of	these	tunnels	(auto-bandwidth)
• Triggers	a	re-optimization	when	utilization	changes	
• Uses	CSPF	(constraint	based	shortest	path	first)	to	
compute	the	paths
• Signals	the	path	and	reserves	bandwidth	using	RSVP
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 6
Pros and Cons of On-Device Traffic Engineering
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 7
Very	good	link	
utilization	values
• Each	router	is	selfish	
in	optimization
• No	network	wide	
optimization
Network	model	is	hard	to	keep	accurate
Traffic	demand	matrix	is	hard	to	compute
Optimization	algorithm	is	very	slow
• Hours	to	days
Can	not	adopt	to	failures
Too	many	tunnels	(N^2)
Some	paths	may	be	surprisingly	long
Impact	on	IGP,	particularly	convergence	
times
Race	conditions	after	failures
• Long-lived	FRR
RSVP-TE	high-state	and	high-refresh	
overhead
Example Deployments
Small Medium Large
Routers 75 450 1900
Links 300 2000 8000
Tunnels 1600 20500 132000
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 8
• Majority	of	the	tunnels	
have	very	small	amount	of	
traffic
• No	TE	needed
Link / Tunnel Distribution
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 9
Most	links	carry	small	number	of	tunnels
Small	number	of	links	carry	a	lot	of	tunnels
Lets See What Happens When a Link Fails
NNOV-CR1-B →	M10-CR1-B	fails	at	2015-12-27	
12:04:05.200490
• Carries	327	tunnels
• 22	head-end	routers
Head	routers	get	a	signal	via	RSVP-TE	and	re-optimize
• Race	to	available	bandwidth
• Each	optimizes	for	itself
• They	donot know	what	the	other	21	routers	need
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 10
5 Routers for 9 tunnels Fail to Find a Path
Time Head-end Operation Tunnel Next State
2015-12-27 12:06:19.831701 VLGD-RGR3 Change Tunnel State RT-VLGD_RGR3-to-M10_CR2A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:06:19.831701 VLGD-RGR3 Change Tunnel State nonRT-VLGD_RGR3-to-M10_CR2A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:07:48.764798 VLGD-RGR2 Change Tunnel State RT-VLGD_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:07:48.764798 VLGD-RGR2 Change Tunnel State nonRT-VLGD_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:11:23.214201 NNOV-RGR1 Change Tunnel State xyz:12389:3456:mvpn:v3456-VGTRK Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:23:55.980877 ARKH-RGR1 Change Tunnel State RT-ARKH_RGR1-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:23:55.980877 ARKH-RGR1 Change Tunnel State nonRT-ARKH_RGR1-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:24:17.097178 SKTV-RGR2 Change Tunnel State RT-SKTV_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
2015-12-27 12:24:17.097178 SKTV-RGR2 Change Tunnel State nonRT-SKTV_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 11
This	can	be	avoided	with	a	centralized	optimization	solution!
An Example Failed Tunnel
This	tunnel	only	requests	34Mbps
• Its	shortest	IGP	path	does	not	have	this	bandwidth
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 12
Stuck FRR Tunnels
What	happens	when	a	tunnel	fails	to	optimize	and	it	is	
FRR	protected?
• FRR	is	stuck
• Usually	no	reservations	are	made	on	these	paths
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 13
AN	SDN	APPROACH
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 14
What do We Really Want
Real-time	model
• Alleviate	congestion	especially	after	a	link	failure
Create	as	few	tunnels	as	necessary
• Very	small	signaling	overhead
• Very	small	IGP	overhead
• No	dynamics	due	to	utilization	changes
Network	wide	centralized	optimization
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 15
SDN Promises a Solution
Segment	routing	(SR)	replaces	RSVP
• Provides	uncompromised	functionality
• Simple	control	plane
Push	based	telemetry	for	traffic	matrices
• YANG	model	based
SDN	Controller	is	part	of	the	network	control	plane
• Has	real-time	topology
• Enables	manipulating	paths	on	the	devices	using	a	standard	south	bound	
protocol
SDN	Traffic	Engineering	App	optimizes	paths	network	wide
• As	few	or	as	many	tunnels	as	policy	allows
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 16
Segment Routing
Segment	routing	simplifies IP/MPLS	control	plane
• No	need	to	run	LDP	or	RSVP-TE
Functionality	is	not	compromised
• Can	forward	traffic	on	none-shortest	paths	for	traffic	
engineering
• Detour,	bypass	FRR	(fast	re-route)	and	IP	LFA	protection
• Secondary	paths
• SLA	conforming	service	specific	paths	(e.g.	L2/L3	VPNs)
• SDN	programmability
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 17
TE Needs Shortest and Non-shortest Paths
SR can Encode Any Path
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 18
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
1 Segment	(shortest	IGP	path)
• Go	to	Z	on	shortest	path	(node	segment)
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
5 Segments
• Go	to	B	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	W	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	Y	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	D on	shortest	path
• Go	to	Z on	shortest	path
A B
Z
DC
V W YX
3	Segments
• Go	to	C	on	shortest	path
• Go	to	X on	link	3	(adjacency	segment)
• Go	to	Z on	shortest	path
Push Based Telemetry
We Still Need Traffic Demand Matrices
How	much	customer	traffic	enters	the	network	in	
Vietnam	and	Destined	to	Tokyo
Demand	does	not	change	based	on	IGP	routing	(less	
ignore	BGP	for	now)
Traditionally	netflow is	used	for	this	and	can	still	be	
used
Push	and	model	based	telemetry	is	has	very	promising	
features,	including	much	more	real-time	view
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 19
YANG Model Pushed by Ingress Routers
Similar	content	to	netflow for	traffic	
matrix	generation
• No	port/proto	level	detail
OpenConfig standardizes	the	model
• Vendor	extensions
Pushed	from	the	routers
• Few	seconds	to	minutes
Efficient	transfer	of	data
• Binary	encoded	using	Google	ProtoBuf
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 20
+--ro	traffic-collector
+--ro	afs
+--ro	af*	[af-name]
+--ro	counters
+--ro	prefixes
+--ro	prefix*
+--ro	ipaddr? string
+--ro	mask? string
+--ro	label? Tc-oper-local-label
+--ro	base-counter-statistics
| +--ro	transmit-packets-per-second-switched? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-bytes-per-second-switched? uint64
| +--ro	count-history*
| +--ro	event-start-timestamp? uint64
| +--ro	event-end-timestamp? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-number-of-packets-switched? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-number-of-bytes-switched? uint64
| +--ro	is-valid? boolean
+--ro	traffic-matrix-counter-statistics
| +--ro	transmit-packets-per-second-switched? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-bytes-per-second-switched? uint64
| +--ro	count-history*
| +--ro	event-start-timestamp? uint64
| +--ro	event-end-timestamp? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-number-of-packets-switched? uint64
| +--ro	transmit-number-of-bytes-switched? uint64
| +--ro	is-valid? boolean
+--ro	prefix? string
Traffic Engineering as an SDN App
SDN	App	manages	traffic	demand
• Current	as	well	as	future
• IGP	does	not	have	to	signal	available	bandwidth
• Push	based	telemetry	or	netflow based	matrices	can	be	generated
SDN	App	computes	paths	and	allocates	bandwidth
• Centralization	yields	better	resource	optimization
• Only	creates	as	many	tunnels	as	necessary
SDN	App	adapts	to	failures	and	repairs
• No	race	conditions	after	failures	and	repairs
Segment	routing	can	be	used	as	a	simplification
• SDN	controller	makes	this	an	abstraction	for	the	APP
21
Reducing the N^2 Tunnels
Only	generated	tunnels	for	traffic	going	over	congested	links
• Tunnels	no	longer	needs	to	be	configured	apriori at	the	routers
• Only	create	them	if	they	will	have	a	positive	impact
• Special	case:
• Under	normal	conditions	don’t	generate	any	tunnels
• Under	failure	conditions	generate	as	necessary
Do	not	create	tunnels	when	IGP	path	satisfies	the	constrains
These	are	easy	to	implement	in	software	but	hard	to	do	in	each	
device	without	a	global	picture
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 22
Illustration
1	Gbps links
Two	elephant	flows
• 850Mbps	west	to	east
• 500Mbps	north	to	south
Lots	of	mice	flows
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 23
Concluding Remarks
SDN	simplifies	running	a	traffic	engineered	network
Magic	is	in	the	SDN	App	on	the	top
This	App	needs	enablers	from	the	infrastructure
• SDN	controllers
• Segment	routing
• Push	based	telemetry
• NetConf/YANG,	PCEP	and	other	south	bound	protocols
Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 24

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SDN Traffic Engineering, A Natural Evolution

  • 1. SDN Traffic Engineering A Natural Evolution Cengiz Alaettinoglu
  • 2. What is Traffic Engineering (TE)? Minimizes the worst link utilization • Alleviates traffic congestion • Better/longer use of capital expenditure Routing traffic around congested links • Can use shortest as well as non-shortest paths • IGP metric tuning, RSVP-TE, segment routing Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 2
  • 3. Evolution of Traffic Engineering Offline traffic engineering • Optimal but not adaptive On device traffic engineering • Adaptive but not optimal Software defined networking • Best of both worlds, yet simpler; simplicity enabled by • Segment routing • Push based telemetry • SDN Traffic Engineering App Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 3
  • 5. Pros and Cons of Offline Traffic Engineering Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 5 Very good link utilization values Network model is hard to keep accurate Traffic demand matrix is hard to compute Optimization algorithm is very slow • Hours to days Can not adopt to failures Too many tunnels (N^2) Some paths may be surprisingly long
  • 6. On Device Traffic Engineering All routers redistribute available bandwidth of its links Each router • Sets up 1-N tunnels to other routers • Monitors the utilization of these tunnels (auto-bandwidth) • Triggers a re-optimization when utilization changes • Uses CSPF (constraint based shortest path first) to compute the paths • Signals the path and reserves bandwidth using RSVP Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 6
  • 7. Pros and Cons of On-Device Traffic Engineering Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 7 Very good link utilization values • Each router is selfish in optimization • No network wide optimization Network model is hard to keep accurate Traffic demand matrix is hard to compute Optimization algorithm is very slow • Hours to days Can not adopt to failures Too many tunnels (N^2) Some paths may be surprisingly long Impact on IGP, particularly convergence times Race conditions after failures • Long-lived FRR RSVP-TE high-state and high-refresh overhead
  • 8. Example Deployments Small Medium Large Routers 75 450 1900 Links 300 2000 8000 Tunnels 1600 20500 132000 Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 8 • Majority of the tunnels have very small amount of traffic • No TE needed
  • 9. Link / Tunnel Distribution Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 9 Most links carry small number of tunnels Small number of links carry a lot of tunnels
  • 10. Lets See What Happens When a Link Fails NNOV-CR1-B → M10-CR1-B fails at 2015-12-27 12:04:05.200490 • Carries 327 tunnels • 22 head-end routers Head routers get a signal via RSVP-TE and re-optimize • Race to available bandwidth • Each optimizes for itself • They donot know what the other 21 routers need Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 10
  • 11. 5 Routers for 9 tunnels Fail to Find a Path Time Head-end Operation Tunnel Next State 2015-12-27 12:06:19.831701 VLGD-RGR3 Change Tunnel State RT-VLGD_RGR3-to-M10_CR2A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:06:19.831701 VLGD-RGR3 Change Tunnel State nonRT-VLGD_RGR3-to-M10_CR2A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:07:48.764798 VLGD-RGR2 Change Tunnel State RT-VLGD_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:07:48.764798 VLGD-RGR2 Change Tunnel State nonRT-VLGD_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:11:23.214201 NNOV-RGR1 Change Tunnel State xyz:12389:3456:mvpn:v3456-VGTRK Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:23:55.980877 ARKH-RGR1 Change Tunnel State RT-ARKH_RGR1-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:23:55.980877 ARKH-RGR1 Change Tunnel State nonRT-ARKH_RGR1-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:24:17.097178 SKTV-RGR2 Change Tunnel State RT-SKTV_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down 2015-12-27 12:24:17.097178 SKTV-RGR2 Change Tunnel State nonRT-SKTV_RGR2-to-M10_CR1A Oper Status: Down Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 11 This can be avoided with a centralized optimization solution!
  • 12. An Example Failed Tunnel This tunnel only requests 34Mbps • Its shortest IGP path does not have this bandwidth Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 12
  • 13. Stuck FRR Tunnels What happens when a tunnel fails to optimize and it is FRR protected? • FRR is stuck • Usually no reservations are made on these paths Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 13
  • 15. What do We Really Want Real-time model • Alleviate congestion especially after a link failure Create as few tunnels as necessary • Very small signaling overhead • Very small IGP overhead • No dynamics due to utilization changes Network wide centralized optimization Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 15
  • 16. SDN Promises a Solution Segment routing (SR) replaces RSVP • Provides uncompromised functionality • Simple control plane Push based telemetry for traffic matrices • YANG model based SDN Controller is part of the network control plane • Has real-time topology • Enables manipulating paths on the devices using a standard south bound protocol SDN Traffic Engineering App optimizes paths network wide • As few or as many tunnels as policy allows Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 16
  • 17. Segment Routing Segment routing simplifies IP/MPLS control plane • No need to run LDP or RSVP-TE Functionality is not compromised • Can forward traffic on none-shortest paths for traffic engineering • Detour, bypass FRR (fast re-route) and IP LFA protection • Secondary paths • SLA conforming service specific paths (e.g. L2/L3 VPNs) • SDN programmability Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 17
  • 18. TE Needs Shortest and Non-shortest Paths SR can Encode Any Path Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 18 A B Z DC V W YX 1 Segment (shortest IGP path) • Go to Z on shortest path (node segment) A B Z DC V W YX 5 Segments • Go to B on shortest path • Go to W on shortest path • Go to Y on shortest path • Go to D on shortest path • Go to Z on shortest path A B Z DC V W YX 3 Segments • Go to C on shortest path • Go to X on link 3 (adjacency segment) • Go to Z on shortest path
  • 19. Push Based Telemetry We Still Need Traffic Demand Matrices How much customer traffic enters the network in Vietnam and Destined to Tokyo Demand does not change based on IGP routing (less ignore BGP for now) Traditionally netflow is used for this and can still be used Push and model based telemetry is has very promising features, including much more real-time view Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 19
  • 20. YANG Model Pushed by Ingress Routers Similar content to netflow for traffic matrix generation • No port/proto level detail OpenConfig standardizes the model • Vendor extensions Pushed from the routers • Few seconds to minutes Efficient transfer of data • Binary encoded using Google ProtoBuf Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 20 +--ro traffic-collector +--ro afs +--ro af* [af-name] +--ro counters +--ro prefixes +--ro prefix* +--ro ipaddr? string +--ro mask? string +--ro label? Tc-oper-local-label +--ro base-counter-statistics | +--ro transmit-packets-per-second-switched? uint64 | +--ro transmit-bytes-per-second-switched? uint64 | +--ro count-history* | +--ro event-start-timestamp? uint64 | +--ro event-end-timestamp? uint64 | +--ro transmit-number-of-packets-switched? uint64 | +--ro transmit-number-of-bytes-switched? uint64 | +--ro is-valid? boolean +--ro traffic-matrix-counter-statistics | +--ro transmit-packets-per-second-switched? uint64 | +--ro transmit-bytes-per-second-switched? uint64 | +--ro count-history* | +--ro event-start-timestamp? uint64 | +--ro event-end-timestamp? uint64 | +--ro transmit-number-of-packets-switched? uint64 | +--ro transmit-number-of-bytes-switched? uint64 | +--ro is-valid? boolean +--ro prefix? string
  • 21. Traffic Engineering as an SDN App SDN App manages traffic demand • Current as well as future • IGP does not have to signal available bandwidth • Push based telemetry or netflow based matrices can be generated SDN App computes paths and allocates bandwidth • Centralization yields better resource optimization • Only creates as many tunnels as necessary SDN App adapts to failures and repairs • No race conditions after failures and repairs Segment routing can be used as a simplification • SDN controller makes this an abstraction for the APP 21
  • 22. Reducing the N^2 Tunnels Only generated tunnels for traffic going over congested links • Tunnels no longer needs to be configured apriori at the routers • Only create them if they will have a positive impact • Special case: • Under normal conditions don’t generate any tunnels • Under failure conditions generate as necessary Do not create tunnels when IGP path satisfies the constrains These are easy to implement in software but hard to do in each device without a global picture Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 22
  • 23. Illustration 1 Gbps links Two elephant flows • 850Mbps west to east • 500Mbps north to south Lots of mice flows Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 23
  • 24. Concluding Remarks SDN simplifies running a traffic engineered network Magic is in the SDN App on the top This App needs enablers from the infrastructure • SDN controllers • Segment routing • Push based telemetry • NetConf/YANG, PCEP and other south bound protocols Confidential. Copyright © 2014 Packet Design 24