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São Paulo, Brazil




Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science
            science in a nation on the move

                                                                Roberto A. Kraenkel
                                                             Institute for Theoretical Physics
                                                         São Paulo State University - UNESP
                                                                             São Paulo, Brazil




    R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
São Paulo, Brazil



            The Context
               reading economic history through the GDP




R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          2
São Paulo, Brazil



                              The Context
                                 reading economic history through the GDP
World Bank Data



                                   GDP ( in current U$)




                  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          2
São Paulo, Brazil



                              The Context
                                 reading economic history through the GDP
World Bank Data



                                   GDP ( in current U$)


                                                  Debt crisis




                  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          2
São Paulo, Brazil



                              The Context
                                 reading economic history through the GDP
World Bank Data



                                   GDP ( in current U$)
                                                                 Stabilisation of currency


                                                  Debt crisis




                  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          2
São Paulo, Brazil



                              The Context
                                 reading economic history through the GDP
World Bank Data



                                   GDP ( in current U$)
                                                                 Stabilisation of currency


                                                  Debt crisis




                                                                                      1998 crisis



                  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          2
São Paulo, Brazil



                              The Context
                                 reading economic history through the GDP
                                                                                                      sustained growth
World Bank Data



                                   GDP ( in current U$)
                                                                 Stabilisation of currency


                                                  Debt crisis




                                                                                      1998 crisis



                  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011             2
São Paulo, Brazil



                           The Context
                                            changes everywhere
Population under poverty
           line




                  30% 10% in 5 years




                                                   Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of
                                20%
                                                                         income




               R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          3
World Bank Data
                                                                                                         São Paulo, Brazil



                           The Context
                                            changes everywhere
Population under poverty
           line




                  30% 10% in 5 years




                                                   Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of
                                20%
                                                                         income




               R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          3
World Bank Data
                                                                                                         São Paulo, Brazil



                           The Context
                                            changes everywhere
Population under poverty
           line




                  30% 10% in 5 years




                                                   Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of
                                20%
                                                                         income

                                                     But still one of the highest in the world

               R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          3
São Paulo, Brazil



                   The Context

Brazil is quickly improving economically and socially

                                             but

           inequalities ate still very strong.


       R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          4
Brazilian Science at the
                                                                                             São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60
          Brazilian science is very young!
                    exempli gratia


                 1950
 Brazil ==> only 12 physicists with PhD.
USA ==> 7 Nobel prize winners in Physics.

   R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          5
Brazilian Science at the                                                                   São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60




 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          6
Brazilian Science at the                                                                      São Paulo, Brazil




            age of 60

Since the fifties the nation has seen the consolidation of a
network of Universities with strong research commitments, as
well as funding agencies and research institutes. However, only
very recently has Brazilian science come to the international
stage.


        R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          6
Brazilian Science at the                                                                   São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60
                      Science and Technology expenditures


                           from 2003 to 2009: 60% increase




 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          6
Brazilian Science at the                                                                   São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60




 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          6
São Paulo, Brazil


                How many ?




                                              adapted from S.M. Rezende: The role of Physics in Brazil and challenges
                                                                 for the 21st century, available at
                                               http://www.sbf1.sbfisica.org.br/eventos/enf/2011/sys/resumos/
                                                                            A3195-1.pdf



R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011                        7
Brazilian Science at the
                                                                                            São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60
                    THE problem:
            transform science into welfare

                            sucess stories
                Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas

                       Embraer - planes ( now, private)

              Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness

          Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies)
  R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          8
Brazilian Science at the
                                                                                             São Paulo, Brazil




        age of 60
                 THE problem:
         transform science into welfare
       Success stories ==> state initiatives
                             sucess stories
Low number of science based tech companies
                 Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas

                        Embraer - planes ( now, private)
 Lack of R&D investment by most companies
               Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness

           Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies)
   R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          8
Education in Brazil
                                                                                                         São Paulo, Brazil




Brazilian educational landscape is framed by the strong inequalities of the
society. The changes in the Brazilian social structure over the last decade have
exerted stresses on the educational system, which still strives to adapt to a
changing reality.


                                           15-17 years old
  7-14 years old
                                             youngsters
  youngsters in
                                           attending high-                                      Need of more
     school
                                               school                                            schools and
                                                                                                 teachers at
    98% - 2010
                                               50% -2008                                         high school.
    86% - 1992
                                               30% - 1998

                                                                 strong growth

              R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011           9
São Paulo, Brazil

Education in Brazil: what about science?


                                                         demand (estimated)

                                                      teachers with a science
                                                              degree

                                                       number of persons that
                                                       obtained an undergrad
                                                     degree in science education
                                                         in the last 10 years




Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school
          R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011         10
São Paulo, Brazil

Education in Brazil: what about science?


                                                         demand (estimated)

                                                      teachers with a science
                                                              degree                     These people are
                                                       number of persons that             not becoming
                                                       obtained an undergrad                teachers !
                                                     degree in science education
                                                         in the last 10 years




Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school
          R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011         10
São Paulo, Brazil

Education in Brazil: what about science?


                                                         demand (estimated)                         why?
                                                      teachers with a science
                                                              degree                     These people are
                                                       number of persons that             not becoming
                                                       obtained an undergrad                teachers !
                                                     degree in science education
                                                         in the last 10 years




Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school
          R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011         10
São Paulo, Brazil

Education in Brazil: what about science?
                                                                                           Low wages, low
                                                                                           prestige, social
                                                                                              tensions

                                                         demand (estimated)                          why?
                                                      teachers with a science
                                                              degree                     These people are
                                                       number of persons that             not becoming
                                                       obtained an undergrad                teachers !
                                                     degree in science education
                                                         in the last 10 years




Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school
          R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011          10
Education in Brazil: what about science?                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil




Ministry of            Build                                   Teachers are
Education              knowledge                               largely not
                       taking into                  p          prepared!                               Universities
Establishes            account the                  r                                                  based
national               reality of                   o                                                  experimental
                       students.                               Teachers
parameters.                                         b                                                  techniques
                                                               largely rely
                                                    l
                       Does not                                on textbooks
Defines the                                         e
                       defines precise                         and pre-                                High-Profile
large lines of                                      m
                       contents. Put                           prepared                                Private
the curricula.
                       emphasis on                             classes                                 Schools
                       skills and
                       process.
                                                               dead science,
                                                               “no-science”.
                                                                                                 transpose?
                                                                                                 large scale?



                 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011              11
Science Illiteracy                                               Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                   São Paulo, Brazil




Causes: rather obvious from the preceding
facts about science education at high-schools


                        proxys of science in society

                                          number of researchers per million of inhabitants
   PISA ranking
                                          USA: 4666
      53 in 65
                                          France: 3496
     very bad !
                                          China: 1070
                                          Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW,
     however:
  one of the fastest
 improving country

      R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            12
Science Illiteracy                                               Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                   São Paulo, Brazil




Causes: rather obvious from the preceding
facts about science education at high-schools


                        proxys of science in society

                                          number of researchers per million of inhabitants
   PISA ranking
                                          USA: 4666
      53 in 65
                                          France: 3496
     very bad !
                                          China: 1070
                                          Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW, BUT: raised
     however:
                                                                 from 400 to 656
  one of the fastest
                                                                    in five years
 improving country

      R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            12
Science Illiteracy                                              Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil

 Economic issues




Low number
     of                    Engineering is
Science and                  the main
                             problem
 Technology
  students




           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            13
Science Illiteracy                                              Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil

 Economic issues




Low number
     of                    Engineering is
Science and                  the main
                             problem
 Technology
  students

                           tens of thousands of
                           engineers are needed
                             in the next years



           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            13
Science Illiteracy                                              Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil

 Economic issues




Low number
     of                    Engineering is
Science and                  the main
                             problem
 Technology
  students

                           tens of thousands of
                           engineers are needed
                             in the next years                         Education for Science and Technology
                                                                        is one of the main priorities of the
                                                                              Ministry of Education.

           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            13
Science Illiteracy                                              Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil

 Economic issues



                                                                                          Program of international
Low number                                                                                 fellowships of 3 billion
                           Engineering is                                                          dollars
     of
Science and                  the main
                             problem
 Technology                                                                        13 new universities in
                                                                                   the last 8 years. New
  students                                                                         campi. New programs



                           tens of thousands of
                           engineers are needed
                             in the next years                         Education for Science and Technology
                                                                        is one of the main priorities of the
                                                                              Ministry of Education.

           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            13
Science Illiteracy                                              Brazilian specific analysis
                                                                                                        São Paulo, Brazil

 Economic issues
                                                                      full PhD
                                                                    employment
                                                                                          Program of international
Low number                                                                                 fellowships of 3 billion
                           Engineering is                                                          dollars
     of
Science and                  the main
                             problem
 Technology                                                                        13 new universities in
                                                                                   the last 8 years. New
  students                                                                         campi. New programs



                           tens of thousands of
                           engineers are needed
                             in the next years                         Education for Science and Technology
                                                                        is one of the main priorities of the
                                                                              Ministry of Education.

           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011            13
Final Comments                                                                         São Paulo, Brazil




• Very rapid economic and social changes exert strong
             stresses on the educational system

•         Science education is particularly needed

• High-school education is presently the main bottleneck
•     Opportunities for new methods, new curricula.


           R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
São Paulo, Brazil



Thank you for your
    attention
                     kraenkel@ift.unesp.br




R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011

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Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science

  • 1. São Paulo, Brazil Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science science in a nation on the move Roberto A. Kraenkel Institute for Theoretical Physics São Paulo State University - UNESP São Paulo, Brazil R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
  • 2. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 3. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP World Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 4. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP World Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Debt crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 5. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP World Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 6. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP World Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis 1998 crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 7. São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP sustained growth World Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis 1998 crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
  • 8. São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywhere Population under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
  • 9. World Bank Data São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywhere Population under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
  • 10. World Bank Data São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywhere Population under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income But still one of the highest in the world R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
  • 11. São Paulo, Brazil The Context Brazil is quickly improving economically and socially but inequalities ate still very strong. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 4
  • 12. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 Brazilian science is very young! exempli gratia 1950 Brazil ==> only 12 physicists with PhD. USA ==> 7 Nobel prize winners in Physics. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 5
  • 13. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
  • 14. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 Since the fifties the nation has seen the consolidation of a network of Universities with strong research commitments, as well as funding agencies and research institutes. However, only very recently has Brazilian science come to the international stage. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
  • 15. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 Science and Technology expenditures from 2003 to 2009: 60% increase R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
  • 16. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
  • 17. São Paulo, Brazil How many ? adapted from S.M. Rezende: The role of Physics in Brazil and challenges for the 21st century, available at http://www.sbf1.sbfisica.org.br/eventos/enf/2011/sys/resumos/ A3195-1.pdf R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 7
  • 18. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 THE problem: transform science into welfare sucess stories Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas Embraer - planes ( now, private) Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 8
  • 19. Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 THE problem: transform science into welfare Success stories ==> state initiatives sucess stories Low number of science based tech companies Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas Embraer - planes ( now, private) Lack of R&D investment by most companies Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 8
  • 20. Education in Brazil São Paulo, Brazil Brazilian educational landscape is framed by the strong inequalities of the society. The changes in the Brazilian social structure over the last decade have exerted stresses on the educational system, which still strives to adapt to a changing reality. 15-17 years old 7-14 years old youngsters youngsters in attending high- Need of more school school schools and teachers at 98% - 2010 50% -2008 high school. 86% - 1992 30% - 1998 strong growth R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 9
  • 21. São Paulo, Brazil Education in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) teachers with a science degree number of persons that obtained an undergrad degree in science education in the last 10 years Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
  • 22. São Paulo, Brazil Education in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 years Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
  • 23. São Paulo, Brazil Education in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) why? teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 years Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
  • 24. São Paulo, Brazil Education in Brazil: what about science? Low wages, low prestige, social tensions demand (estimated) why? teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 years Strong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
  • 25. Education in Brazil: what about science? São Paulo, Brazil Ministry of Build Teachers are Education knowledge largely not taking into p prepared! Universities Establishes account the r based national reality of o experimental students. Teachers parameters. b techniques largely rely l Does not on textbooks Defines the e defines precise and pre- High-Profile large lines of m contents. Put prepared Private the curricula. emphasis on classes Schools skills and process. dead science, “no-science”. transpose? large scale? R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 11
  • 26. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Causes: rather obvious from the preceding facts about science education at high-schools proxys of science in society number of researchers per million of inhabitants PISA ranking USA: 4666 53 in 65 France: 3496 very bad ! China: 1070 Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW, however: one of the fastest improving country R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 12
  • 27. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Causes: rather obvious from the preceding facts about science education at high-schools proxys of science in society number of researchers per million of inhabitants PISA ranking USA: 4666 53 in 65 France: 3496 very bad ! China: 1070 Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW, BUT: raised however: from 400 to 656 one of the fastest in five years improving country R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 12
  • 28. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues Low number of Engineering is Science and the main problem Technology students R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
  • 29. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues Low number of Engineering is Science and the main problem Technology students tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
  • 30. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues Low number of Engineering is Science and the main problem Technology students tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
  • 31. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues Program of international Low number fellowships of 3 billion Engineering is dollars of Science and the main problem Technology 13 new universities in the last 8 years. New students campi. New programs tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
  • 32. Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues full PhD employment Program of international Low number fellowships of 3 billion Engineering is dollars of Science and the main problem Technology 13 new universities in the last 8 years. New students campi. New programs tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
  • 33. Final Comments São Paulo, Brazil • Very rapid economic and social changes exert strong stresses on the educational system • Science education is particularly needed • High-school education is presently the main bottleneck • Opportunities for new methods, new curricula. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
  • 34. São Paulo, Brazil Thank you for your attention kraenkel@ift.unesp.br R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011