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© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
13
ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN
DEVELOPMENT
JOHN W. SANTROCK
3e
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-2
CHAPTER OUTLINE
• The nature of middle adulthood
• Physical development
• Cognitive development
• Careers, work, and leisure
• Religion and meaning in life
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-3
THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
• Changing midlife
• Defining middle adulthood
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-4
THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
• Changing midlife
• As adults become older, their age identity is younger than
their chronological age
• An increasing percentage of the population is made up of
middle-aged and older adults
• “Rectangularization” of the age distribution
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-5
THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
• Defining middle adulthood
• Middle adulthood: 40–45 years of age to about 60–65 years
of age
• Declining physical skills and increasing responsibility
• Awareness of the young-old polarity
• Transmitting something meaningful to the next generation
• Reaching and maintaining career satisfaction
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-6
THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
• Late midlife (55 to 65) is likely to be characterized by:
• Death of a parent
• Last child leaving the parental home
• Becoming a grandparent
• Preparation for and actual retirement
• Gains and losses and biological and sociocultural factors
balance each other
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-7
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Physical changes
• Health and disease
• Mortality rates
• Sexuality
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-8
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Physical changes
• Visible signs
• Wrinkling and sagging of skin
• Appearance of aging spots
• Hair becomes thinner and grayer
• Nails become thicker and more brittle
• Yellowing of teeth
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-9
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Height and weight
• Individuals lose height and gain weight
• Being overweight is a critical health problem in middle
adulthood
• Strength, joints, and bones
• Sarcopenia - Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength
• Cushions for bone movement become less efficient
• Leading to joint stiffness and more difficulty in movement
• Progressive bone loss
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-10
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Vision and hearing
• Accommodation of the eye - Ability to focus and maintain an
image on the retina
• Experiences sharp declines between 40–59 years
• Difficulty viewing close objects
• Reduced blood supply decreases visual field
• Hearing can start to decline by the age of 40
• High-pitched sounds are typically lost first
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-11
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Cardiovascular system
• High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular
disease
• Exercise, weight control, and a diet rich in fruits, vegetables,
and whole grains can often help
• Metabolic syndrome: Hypertension, obesity, and insulin
resistance
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-12
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Lungs
• Lung tissue becomes less elastic at about age 55, decreasing
the lung’s capacity
• Sleep
• Wakeful periods become more frequent in the 40’s
• Sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-13
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Health and disease
• Frequency of accidents declines
• Individuals are less susceptible to colds and allergies
• Stress is increasingly being found to be a factor in disease
• Chronic stress can interfere with immune functioning
• Linked to disease through immune system and cardiovascular
factors
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-14
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Mortality rates
• Chronic diseases are the main cause of death during
middle adulthood
• Heart disease
• Cancer
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-15
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Sexuality
• Climacteric: Midlife transition in which fertility declines
• Menopause: Cessation of a woman’s menstrual periods
• During the late forties or early fifties
• Hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat
• Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
• Hormonal changes in middle-aged men
• Decline in sexual hormone level and activity
• Erectile dysfunction - Inability to achieve and maintain an
erection
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-16
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Sexual attitudes and behavior
• Sexual activity occurs less frequently than in early adulthood
• Middle-aged men are more interested in sex than middle-aged
women
• Living with a spouse or partner makes all the difference in terms
of engaging in sexual activity
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-17
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Intelligence
• Information processing
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-18
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Intelligence
• Crystallized intelligence: Accumulated information and
verbal skills
• Continues to increase in middle adulthood
• Fluid intelligence: Ability to reason abstractly
• May begin to decline in middle adulthood
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-19
FIGURE 13.2 - FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE
SPAN
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-20
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• The Seattle Longitudinal Study - Extensive evaluation of
intellectual abilities during adulthood
• Main focus on individual change and stability in intelligence
• Mental abilities tested
• Verbal ability
• Verbal memory
• Numeric ability
• Spatial orientation
• Inductive reasoning
• Perceptual speed
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-21
FIGURE 13.3 - LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN SIX
INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES FROM AGE 25 TO AGE 88
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-22
FIGURE 13.4 - CROSS-SECTIONAL AND
LONGITUDINAL COMPARISONS OF INTELLECTUAL
CHANGE IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-23
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Information processing
• Speed of information processing
• Reaction-time task
• Memory
• Verbal memory declines during middle adulthood
• Linked to changes in working memory and ineffective memory
strategies
• Working memory: Mental “workbench” where individuals
manipulate and assemble information when making decisions,
solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken
language
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-24
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Expertise
• Rely on accumulated experience
• Process information automatically and analyze it more
efficiently
• Have better strategies and shortcuts to solving problems
• Are more creative and flexible in solving problems
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-25
CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE
• Work in midlife
• Career challenges and changes
• Leisure
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-26
CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE
• Work in midlife
• The role of work is central during middle age
• A time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection about
work
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-27
CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE
• Career challenges and changes
• Challenges
• Globalization of work
• Rapid developments in information technologies
• Downsizing of organizations
• Early retirement
• Concerns about pensions and health care
• Changes
• Self-motivated
• Consequence of losing one’s job
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-28
CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE
• Leisure
• Pleasant times after work
• When individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of
their own choosing
• Changes may produce expanded opportunities for leisure
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-29
RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE
• Religion and adult lives
• Religion and health
• Meaning in life
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-30
RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE
• Religion and adult lives
• Important to consider the role of individual differences
• A powerful influence in some adults’ lives
• Whereas it plays little or no role in others’ lives
• Research suggests:
• Significant increase in spirituality between late middle and late
adulthood
• Females more than males participated in organized and
personal forms of religion
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-31
FIGURE 13.5 - LEVEL OF SPIRITUALITY
IN FOUR ADULT AGE PERIODS
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-32
RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE
• Religion and health
• Some cults and religious sects encourage behaviors that
are damaging to health
• Researchers increasingly finding positive links between
religion and physical
• Reasons why religion promotes health:
• Lifestyle issues
• Social networks
• Coping with stress
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
13-33
RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE
• Meaning in life
• Emphasized each person’s uniqueness and the finiteness of
life
• According to Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities
are:
• Spirituality
• Freedom
• Responsibility

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Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch13

  • 1. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 13 ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT JOHN W. SANTROCK 3e
  • 2. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-2 CHAPTER OUTLINE • The nature of middle adulthood • Physical development • Cognitive development • Careers, work, and leisure • Religion and meaning in life
  • 3. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-3 THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • Changing midlife • Defining middle adulthood
  • 4. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-4 THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • Changing midlife • As adults become older, their age identity is younger than their chronological age • An increasing percentage of the population is made up of middle-aged and older adults • “Rectangularization” of the age distribution
  • 5. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-5 THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • Defining middle adulthood • Middle adulthood: 40–45 years of age to about 60–65 years of age • Declining physical skills and increasing responsibility • Awareness of the young-old polarity • Transmitting something meaningful to the next generation • Reaching and maintaining career satisfaction
  • 6. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-6 THE NATURE OF MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • Late midlife (55 to 65) is likely to be characterized by: • Death of a parent • Last child leaving the parental home • Becoming a grandparent • Preparation for and actual retirement • Gains and losses and biological and sociocultural factors balance each other
  • 7. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-7 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Physical changes • Health and disease • Mortality rates • Sexuality
  • 8. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-8 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Physical changes • Visible signs • Wrinkling and sagging of skin • Appearance of aging spots • Hair becomes thinner and grayer • Nails become thicker and more brittle • Yellowing of teeth
  • 9. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-9 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Height and weight • Individuals lose height and gain weight • Being overweight is a critical health problem in middle adulthood • Strength, joints, and bones • Sarcopenia - Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength • Cushions for bone movement become less efficient • Leading to joint stiffness and more difficulty in movement • Progressive bone loss
  • 10. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-10 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Vision and hearing • Accommodation of the eye - Ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina • Experiences sharp declines between 40–59 years • Difficulty viewing close objects • Reduced blood supply decreases visual field • Hearing can start to decline by the age of 40 • High-pitched sounds are typically lost first
  • 11. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-11 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Cardiovascular system • High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease • Exercise, weight control, and a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can often help • Metabolic syndrome: Hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance
  • 12. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-12 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Lungs • Lung tissue becomes less elastic at about age 55, decreasing the lung’s capacity • Sleep • Wakeful periods become more frequent in the 40’s • Sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome
  • 13. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-13 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Health and disease • Frequency of accidents declines • Individuals are less susceptible to colds and allergies • Stress is increasingly being found to be a factor in disease • Chronic stress can interfere with immune functioning • Linked to disease through immune system and cardiovascular factors
  • 14. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-14 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Mortality rates • Chronic diseases are the main cause of death during middle adulthood • Heart disease • Cancer
  • 15. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-15 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Sexuality • Climacteric: Midlife transition in which fertility declines • Menopause: Cessation of a woman’s menstrual periods • During the late forties or early fifties • Hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, and rapid heartbeat • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) • Hormonal changes in middle-aged men • Decline in sexual hormone level and activity • Erectile dysfunction - Inability to achieve and maintain an erection
  • 16. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-16 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Sexual attitudes and behavior • Sexual activity occurs less frequently than in early adulthood • Middle-aged men are more interested in sex than middle-aged women • Living with a spouse or partner makes all the difference in terms of engaging in sexual activity
  • 17. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-17 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Intelligence • Information processing
  • 18. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-18 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Intelligence • Crystallized intelligence: Accumulated information and verbal skills • Continues to increase in middle adulthood • Fluid intelligence: Ability to reason abstractly • May begin to decline in middle adulthood
  • 19. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-19 FIGURE 13.2 - FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
  • 20. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-20 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • The Seattle Longitudinal Study - Extensive evaluation of intellectual abilities during adulthood • Main focus on individual change and stability in intelligence • Mental abilities tested • Verbal ability • Verbal memory • Numeric ability • Spatial orientation • Inductive reasoning • Perceptual speed
  • 21. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-21 FIGURE 13.3 - LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN SIX INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES FROM AGE 25 TO AGE 88
  • 22. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-22 FIGURE 13.4 - CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL COMPARISONS OF INTELLECTUAL CHANGE IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
  • 23. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-23 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Information processing • Speed of information processing • Reaction-time task • Memory • Verbal memory declines during middle adulthood • Linked to changes in working memory and ineffective memory strategies • Working memory: Mental “workbench” where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language
  • 24. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-24 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Expertise • Rely on accumulated experience • Process information automatically and analyze it more efficiently • Have better strategies and shortcuts to solving problems • Are more creative and flexible in solving problems
  • 25. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-25 CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE • Work in midlife • Career challenges and changes • Leisure
  • 26. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-26 CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE • Work in midlife • The role of work is central during middle age • A time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection about work
  • 27. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-27 CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE • Career challenges and changes • Challenges • Globalization of work • Rapid developments in information technologies • Downsizing of organizations • Early retirement • Concerns about pensions and health care • Changes • Self-motivated • Consequence of losing one’s job
  • 28. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-28 CAREERS, WORK, AND LEISURE • Leisure • Pleasant times after work • When individuals are free to pursue activities and interests of their own choosing • Changes may produce expanded opportunities for leisure
  • 29. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-29 RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE • Religion and adult lives • Religion and health • Meaning in life
  • 30. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-30 RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE • Religion and adult lives • Important to consider the role of individual differences • A powerful influence in some adults’ lives • Whereas it plays little or no role in others’ lives • Research suggests: • Significant increase in spirituality between late middle and late adulthood • Females more than males participated in organized and personal forms of religion
  • 31. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-31 FIGURE 13.5 - LEVEL OF SPIRITUALITY IN FOUR ADULT AGE PERIODS
  • 32. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-32 RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE • Religion and health • Some cults and religious sects encourage behaviors that are damaging to health • Researchers increasingly finding positive links between religion and physical • Reasons why religion promotes health: • Lifestyle issues • Social networks • Coping with stress
  • 33. © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13-33 RELIGION AND MEANING IN LIFE • Meaning in life • Emphasized each person’s uniqueness and the finiteness of life • According to Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are: • Spirituality • Freedom • Responsibility