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All for one and one for all?
A Spanish experience of research about media convergence
Ramón Salaverría
rsalaver@unav.es
9th International Symposyum on Online Journalism.
Austin (Texas), 5th April 2008
1st
research project
“The impact of the Internet
on the mass media in Spain”
(Funded by MCyT/MEC 2002-05)
Main results:
National census of online media (01/2005)
A multidisciplinary analysis of the first decade of online
media in Spain (1995-2005)
4 universities (UPV, USC, UMA, UN); 15 researchers
Papers
135 Magazines
> 7.000
TV
> 900
Radio
> 4.000
Online
1.274
media landscape in Spain
(January 2005)
• Procedence
• Type of content
• Geographical distribution
• Language
• Timeliness
variables of analysis
web-only &
others
9,1%
TV
8,7%
Newspapers &
magazines
54,6%Radio
27,6%
procedence
Specialized
information
40,2%
General
information
59,8%
type of content
type of content, by region
General information
Specialized information
Europe
Spain
type of content, by region
General information
Specialized information
Catalonia
type of content, by region
General information
Specialized information
Catalonia
type of content, by region
General information
Specialized information
Catalonia
Madrid
type of content, by cathegory
Specialized content online media %
Culture 120 23,4%
Leisure & travel 51 9,9%
Economy 49 9,6%
Communication & media 45 8,8%
Services 43 8,4%
Sports 40 7,8%
Science, health & technology 35 6,8%
Society 34 6,6%
New technologies 25 4,9%
Childhood 19 3,7%
New social trends 18 3,5%
Poitics 10 2,0%
Religion 10 2,0%
Law 4 0,8%
Other 10 2,0%
TOTAL 513 100%
online media %
Spanish 972 76,3%
Catalan 148 11,6%
Basque 57 4,5%
Galician 29 2,3%
English 11 0,9%
German 7 0,5%
Other & bilingual 50 3,9%
language
CIBERMEDIOS
Sevilla: Comunicación Social
(11/2005)
PRINT AND ONLINE NEWSPAPERS
IN EUROPE
Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis Publishers
(12/2005)
2nd
research project
“Digital convergence on the media”
(MEC 2006-09)
12 universities; 24 researchers
Divided into 4 thematic groups:
- technology
- management
- professionals
- content
Santiago de
Compostela
Madrid
Málaga
Sevilla
Murcia
Pamplona
Alicante
Tarragona
Bilbao
Elche
Valencia
Barcelona
Europe
Spain
Technology
Content
Management
Professionals
2nd
research project
“Digital convergence on the media”
(MEC 2006-09)
Expected results:
A comprehensive understanding of convergence processes
and a proposal of theoretical definition
Analysis of main media convergence cases in Spain (2009)
Why researching about
convergence?
But, what is the real meaning of
CONVERGENCE?
All for one and one for all?...
...or a just medicine for a declining medium?
convergence = integration
PROCES
S
EFFECT
there is a convergence process
running in almost every media group
...but...
there is NOT a result of integration
almost in any of these groups
CONVERGENCE
does not deal only with newsrooms:
is a multidimensional process
technology
management
professional
content
areas of convergence
journalistic production
TECHNOLOGICAL convergence
media usage & consumption
increasing
portability
TECHNOLOGICAL convergence
Old media blurring
..., ,
..., ,
..., ,
TECHNOLOGICAL convergence
self
competition
cross -
promotion coordination integration
still many most some anyone?
MANAGEMENT convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
1 task for
1 medium
N tasks for
1 medium
1 task for
N media
N tasks for
N media
PROFESSIONAL convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
PROFESSIONAL convergence
Monomedia MultimediaMany media
text | image |
sound
text + image +
sound
textimagesound
CONTENT convergence
Semantic tags
CONTENT convergence
Video
Sound
Photo
Links
Body
Teaser (web)
Lead (paper)
2nd
headline
Headline
Section
print
mobile
TV
web
PDA
Now, we finally have a comprehensive
DEFINITION of CONVERGENCE
Media convergence is a multidimensional process
which, facilitated by the implementation of digital
technologies of telecommunication, involves the
technological, management, professional and
editorial spheres of the mass media, favouring an
integration of tools, spaces, work methods and
languages, so journalists produce contents that are
distributed through multiple platforms, using the
specific language of each one.
Now, our research question is:
is this happening in Spain? To what
extent?
That’s our goal
for the forthcoming months
111
66
19
234
38
Final thoughts
• Media convergence is inevitable
• However, convergence is a process that consists
of different spheres
• And each sphere has different levels of
development, from a minimum to a maximum
• Media groups have to decide what is the level of
convergence that they need in each sphere
• Confusing convergence and integration may be
the cause of big management mistakes
Final thoughts
Final thoughts
Many media
Uncoordinated newsrooms
(not necessarily separated)
Redundancy
Medium-ruled journalism
True multimedia
Coordinated newsrooms
(not necessarily integrated)
Complementarity
Content-ruled journalism
BEFORE AFTER
Convergence will produce shifts like...
If people want information
beamed directly into their
minds, we will create a
cerebral cortex edition.
“
”Arthur Sulzberger Jr.
Chairman of The New York Times Co., 2002
CONTACT
Ramón Salaverría, PhD
rsalaver@unav.es
Facultad de Comunicación
Universidad de Navarra
E-31080 Pamplona, Navarra
SPAIN
Phone: (+34) 948 425 617
Personal info: http://www.unav.es/fcom/profesores/salaverria.htm
9th International Symposyum on Online Journalism.
Austin (Texas), 5th April 2008

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