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INGOLD	
Leading Process Analytics
Operational instrument uptime and non-ambiguous
measurement values are key aspects of in-line dis-
solved CO2 measurement systems installed in
breweries and carbonated soft drinks facilities. In-
tegrity of wetted sensor parts and instrument air
supply are basic requirements for ensuring mea-
surement data is always reliable. An undetected
failure of the sensor can lead to costly damage of
the instrument, false CO2 readings, and wasted
product. This paper describes how an intelligent,
automatic sensor protection feature increases mea-
surement system performance.
Don’t Lose Your Fizz
Safeguarding CO2 Measurements
WhitePaper
Challenges for plant operators
Monitoring and controlling dissolved CO2 concentrations in
critical process steps helps ensure consumers experience the
sight and effervescence of your products the way you want
them to. Consequently, in-line CO2 measurement systems are
installed in these process steps to provide plant operators
with continuous and immediate information on beverage
CO2 content, and alarms are given if levels are out-of-
specification.
The reliability of CO2 sensors that use gas-permeable mem-
branes stands and falls on two particular criteria: instrumen-
tation for the air supply required for sensor purging, and the
integrity of the CO2-permeable membrane that separates the
liquid medium from the sensing element.
2 METTLER TOLEDO White Paper
SafeguardingCO2Measurements
The air supply requires a fixed installation including pumps,
valves, hoses, fittings, and sometimes a filter cartridge in order
to provide the sensor permanently with air of specified flow rate
and quality. If a faulty link in the air supply chain causes the
purge gas flow to fall below a critical level, operators cannot
distinguish between a change in dissolved CO2 concentration
and the true cause of the alteration in measurements. Operators
may respond by erroneously but understandably adjusting CO2
dosing. This condition can continue for some time. Only if the
air flow falls sufficiently will the correct cause be recognized.
This obviously compromises plant efficiency and can impact
beverage quality.
It is a similar story for a drop in membrane performance: If the
membrane starts to lose its integrity and allows more CO2 to
permeate and hence cause the sensor to report a higher reading,
operators will reduce CO2 dosing. As membrane integrity pro-
gressively deteriorates and CO2 measurements continue to rise,
operators will realize that changing CO2 dosing has not been the
correct action and that the sensor has been at fault. If the mem-
brane fails entirely before it can be replaced, process liquid will
come into contact with the sensor’s sensing element and render
it useless.
Dissolved CO2 measurement technology
The CO2 sensor described here (see Fig 1) uses the principle of
thermal conductivity (TC) measurement of gases. Each gas has
a known TC which is the capacity of the gas to transport heat.
It can be measured with a defined electrical circuit integrated
in a TC measurement chip (see Fig 2).
CO2 dissolved in the beverage diffuses through the sensor’s
membrane and changes the composition of the gas in contact
with the TC chip (see Fig 3). The resulting change in the TC
signal is proportional to the dissolved CO2 concentration.
Why is an air purge needed?
The higher the CO2 concentration gradient between the liquid
and the gas phase, the faster CO2 diffuses through the mem-
brane. Therefore, CO2 in the gas phase is blown out of the sensor
Fig 1: METTLER TOLEDO’s InPro 5500 i in-line dissolved CO2 sensor
employs thermal conductivity measurement
Fig 2: The TC chip is located behind a membrane which separates
the liquid phase from the gas phase
CO2
Thermal
conductivity
sensor
Purge gas (air)
Gas room
Silicone
Steel mesh
Membrane
Fig 3: CO2 diffuses from the liquid phase through a membrane into
a gas compartment where the TC chip is located
Air purge inlet Air purge outlet
Stainless steel
housing containing
electronics and air
purge valve
Sensor cap with
CO2-permeable
membrane
Process
connection
3White Paper METTLER TOLEDO
periodically by an air purge in order to keep the diffusion driving
force as large and as constant as possible. Consequently, a mea-
surement cycle consists of an air purge phase followed by a
measurement phase which produces a characteristic TC signal
curve for a given dissolved CO2 concentration (see Fig 4).
Automatic sensor protection
Only a fully-functioning TC chip leads to non-ambiguous mea-
surement results. In order to guarantee defined working condi-
tions of the TC chip, both the integrity of the air purge supply
and the membrane are of paramount importance. For example,
the displayed CO2 reading of the measurement system depends
on the purge gas flow as shown in Fig 5. As mentioned before, if
the purge gas flow falls below a critical limit, operators cannot
distinguish between an actual change in dissolved CO2 levels and
a failure of the air supply.
An initial loss of integrity of the gas-permeable membrane leads
to a greater diffusion rate of CO2 and is, in the worst case, fol-
lowed by leakage of process liquid into the gas compartment of
the sensor which could damage the chip.
METTLER TOLEDO’s InPro 5500 i in-line CO2 sensor includes
solutions (patent pending) for both possible failures. A control
algorithm for the typical signal curve as shown in Fig 4 is applied
in the background of the InPro 5500 i’s software to detect abnor-
mal operating conditions. As soon as an air purge failure or an
initial membrane integrity loss is detected, the measurement
system issues an alarm and informs plant operators of the pos-
sible cause in order that rapid corrective action can be taken.
Additionally, the control of a characteristic electrical current
drop across the TC chip is used to detect increasing humidity in
the gas compartment, which is an early indicator of membrane
failure. In cases where the malfunction cannot be immediately
rectified, the TC sensing element shuts off automatically for its
protection. Consequently, costly damage and / or longer service
times are avoided. The algorithms implemented for purge gas
monitoring and sensor membrane integrity are elements of
METTLER TOLEDO’s Intelligent Sensor Management (ISM) con-
cept, which provides operators with efficient tools for predictive
maintenance and easier sensor handling.
SafeguardingCO2Measurements
Fig 4: TC signal during measurement cycles consisting of 10 second purges
and 10 second measuring phases
Fig 5: Dependence of dissolved CO2 reading on purge gas flow rate
Purge
10 s
Measure
10 s
Purge
10 s
Measure
10 s
Baseline Baseline
Time
TCsignal
Reliable zone Critical zone
100 20
Purge gas flow rate
ReadingCO2(g/L)
Conclusion
In-line dissolved CO2 monitoring systems for beverage produc-
tion are important in certain processes. The operational reli-
ability of systems based on thermal conductivity measurement is
dependent on the purge gas supply and performance of the gas-
permeable membrane. For process engineers who want to in-
crease operational uptime and for quality assurance managers
who look for consistent product characteristics, METTLER
TOLEDO offers the InPro 5500 i dissolved CO2 sensor. ISM pre-
dictive diagnostics provide a unique and reliable solution to the
detection of insufficient purge gas flow or a drop in CO2 mem-
brane integrity. Early alarms help operators to take appropriate,
rapid action to minimize unscheduled downtime and safe-
guard product quality.
SafeguardingCO2Measurements
Visit for more information
Mettler-Toledo AG
Process Analytics
Im Hackacker 15
CH-8902 Urdorf
Switzerland
© 04/2012
www.mt.com/pro
www.mt.com/InPro5500i
CO2 sensor InPro 5500 i – Highlights
at a glance
–	 Selective CO2 measurement
–	 Available with Tuchenhagen Varinline, 	
	 TriClamp and 28 mm M42 process 	
	 connection
–	 Hygienic, easy to replace membrane 	
	 cap
–	 Enhanced ISM sensor diagnostics for 	
	 proactive maintenance planning
–	 Compatible with multi-parameter 	
	 M400 and multi-channel, multi-
	 parameter M800 transmitters
The InPro 5500 i dissolved CO2 sensor is available with different process connections

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Safeguarding CO2 Measurements: How Intelligent and Automatic Sensor Protection Increases Performance

  • 1. INGOLD Leading Process Analytics Operational instrument uptime and non-ambiguous measurement values are key aspects of in-line dis- solved CO2 measurement systems installed in breweries and carbonated soft drinks facilities. In- tegrity of wetted sensor parts and instrument air supply are basic requirements for ensuring mea- surement data is always reliable. An undetected failure of the sensor can lead to costly damage of the instrument, false CO2 readings, and wasted product. This paper describes how an intelligent, automatic sensor protection feature increases mea- surement system performance. Don’t Lose Your Fizz Safeguarding CO2 Measurements WhitePaper Challenges for plant operators Monitoring and controlling dissolved CO2 concentrations in critical process steps helps ensure consumers experience the sight and effervescence of your products the way you want them to. Consequently, in-line CO2 measurement systems are installed in these process steps to provide plant operators with continuous and immediate information on beverage CO2 content, and alarms are given if levels are out-of- specification. The reliability of CO2 sensors that use gas-permeable mem- branes stands and falls on two particular criteria: instrumen- tation for the air supply required for sensor purging, and the integrity of the CO2-permeable membrane that separates the liquid medium from the sensing element.
  • 2. 2 METTLER TOLEDO White Paper SafeguardingCO2Measurements The air supply requires a fixed installation including pumps, valves, hoses, fittings, and sometimes a filter cartridge in order to provide the sensor permanently with air of specified flow rate and quality. If a faulty link in the air supply chain causes the purge gas flow to fall below a critical level, operators cannot distinguish between a change in dissolved CO2 concentration and the true cause of the alteration in measurements. Operators may respond by erroneously but understandably adjusting CO2 dosing. This condition can continue for some time. Only if the air flow falls sufficiently will the correct cause be recognized. This obviously compromises plant efficiency and can impact beverage quality. It is a similar story for a drop in membrane performance: If the membrane starts to lose its integrity and allows more CO2 to permeate and hence cause the sensor to report a higher reading, operators will reduce CO2 dosing. As membrane integrity pro- gressively deteriorates and CO2 measurements continue to rise, operators will realize that changing CO2 dosing has not been the correct action and that the sensor has been at fault. If the mem- brane fails entirely before it can be replaced, process liquid will come into contact with the sensor’s sensing element and render it useless. Dissolved CO2 measurement technology The CO2 sensor described here (see Fig 1) uses the principle of thermal conductivity (TC) measurement of gases. Each gas has a known TC which is the capacity of the gas to transport heat. It can be measured with a defined electrical circuit integrated in a TC measurement chip (see Fig 2). CO2 dissolved in the beverage diffuses through the sensor’s membrane and changes the composition of the gas in contact with the TC chip (see Fig 3). The resulting change in the TC signal is proportional to the dissolved CO2 concentration. Why is an air purge needed? The higher the CO2 concentration gradient between the liquid and the gas phase, the faster CO2 diffuses through the mem- brane. Therefore, CO2 in the gas phase is blown out of the sensor Fig 1: METTLER TOLEDO’s InPro 5500 i in-line dissolved CO2 sensor employs thermal conductivity measurement Fig 2: The TC chip is located behind a membrane which separates the liquid phase from the gas phase CO2 Thermal conductivity sensor Purge gas (air) Gas room Silicone Steel mesh Membrane Fig 3: CO2 diffuses from the liquid phase through a membrane into a gas compartment where the TC chip is located Air purge inlet Air purge outlet Stainless steel housing containing electronics and air purge valve Sensor cap with CO2-permeable membrane Process connection
  • 3. 3White Paper METTLER TOLEDO periodically by an air purge in order to keep the diffusion driving force as large and as constant as possible. Consequently, a mea- surement cycle consists of an air purge phase followed by a measurement phase which produces a characteristic TC signal curve for a given dissolved CO2 concentration (see Fig 4). Automatic sensor protection Only a fully-functioning TC chip leads to non-ambiguous mea- surement results. In order to guarantee defined working condi- tions of the TC chip, both the integrity of the air purge supply and the membrane are of paramount importance. For example, the displayed CO2 reading of the measurement system depends on the purge gas flow as shown in Fig 5. As mentioned before, if the purge gas flow falls below a critical limit, operators cannot distinguish between an actual change in dissolved CO2 levels and a failure of the air supply. An initial loss of integrity of the gas-permeable membrane leads to a greater diffusion rate of CO2 and is, in the worst case, fol- lowed by leakage of process liquid into the gas compartment of the sensor which could damage the chip. METTLER TOLEDO’s InPro 5500 i in-line CO2 sensor includes solutions (patent pending) for both possible failures. A control algorithm for the typical signal curve as shown in Fig 4 is applied in the background of the InPro 5500 i’s software to detect abnor- mal operating conditions. As soon as an air purge failure or an initial membrane integrity loss is detected, the measurement system issues an alarm and informs plant operators of the pos- sible cause in order that rapid corrective action can be taken. Additionally, the control of a characteristic electrical current drop across the TC chip is used to detect increasing humidity in the gas compartment, which is an early indicator of membrane failure. In cases where the malfunction cannot be immediately rectified, the TC sensing element shuts off automatically for its protection. Consequently, costly damage and / or longer service times are avoided. The algorithms implemented for purge gas monitoring and sensor membrane integrity are elements of METTLER TOLEDO’s Intelligent Sensor Management (ISM) con- cept, which provides operators with efficient tools for predictive maintenance and easier sensor handling. SafeguardingCO2Measurements Fig 4: TC signal during measurement cycles consisting of 10 second purges and 10 second measuring phases Fig 5: Dependence of dissolved CO2 reading on purge gas flow rate Purge 10 s Measure 10 s Purge 10 s Measure 10 s Baseline Baseline Time TCsignal Reliable zone Critical zone 100 20 Purge gas flow rate ReadingCO2(g/L)
  • 4. Conclusion In-line dissolved CO2 monitoring systems for beverage produc- tion are important in certain processes. The operational reli- ability of systems based on thermal conductivity measurement is dependent on the purge gas supply and performance of the gas- permeable membrane. For process engineers who want to in- crease operational uptime and for quality assurance managers who look for consistent product characteristics, METTLER TOLEDO offers the InPro 5500 i dissolved CO2 sensor. ISM pre- dictive diagnostics provide a unique and reliable solution to the detection of insufficient purge gas flow or a drop in CO2 mem- brane integrity. Early alarms help operators to take appropriate, rapid action to minimize unscheduled downtime and safe- guard product quality. SafeguardingCO2Measurements Visit for more information Mettler-Toledo AG Process Analytics Im Hackacker 15 CH-8902 Urdorf Switzerland © 04/2012 www.mt.com/pro www.mt.com/InPro5500i CO2 sensor InPro 5500 i – Highlights at a glance – Selective CO2 measurement – Available with Tuchenhagen Varinline, TriClamp and 28 mm M42 process connection – Hygienic, easy to replace membrane cap – Enhanced ISM sensor diagnostics for proactive maintenance planning – Compatible with multi-parameter M400 and multi-channel, multi- parameter M800 transmitters The InPro 5500 i dissolved CO2 sensor is available with different process connections