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Running head: HEALTH CAMPAIGN
1
CULTURAL PRACTICES 5
Health Communication Campaign Outline
Group names
Arizona State University
Authors’ Note
Student names, College of Nursing and Health Innovation (your
college), HCR 406, Arizona State University
Health Communication Campaign Outline
I) Introduction (Examples of what can be covered) (student
name)
A) Brief background on the public health problem (topic-
explain and give examples)
a) Subtopic (e.g., Statistics)
b) Subtopic (Subgroups within the population most affected)
c) Subtopic (the evidence to support the need for this project
(e.g. research evidence/statistics on your target population and
the issue being addressed).
B) Target Population (Identify and provide rationale for the
targeted population segment)
a) Demographics of a target audience (including age, gender,
literacy level)
b) Language, information needs, learning abilities, and culture
of your intended audience
c) Rational
II) Objectives: (need 3-5) (examples)- make your objectives
SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time
limited).
A) After completing this campaign the audience will be able to:
a) Objective 1
b) Objective 2
c) Objective 3
III) Conceptual Framework (Examples of what can be covered)
A) Brief description of the theory
a) Name of the theory
b) Main propositions
c) Subtopic
B) Rational of choosing this theory
a) Guidance to develop a message
b) Effectiveness
IV) Communication Channels/ Vehicles
A) Introduce the most appropriate channels and vehicles for
your communication campaign
a) Evidence (Provide a rational)
b) Strengths
c) Weakness
V) Message (Define the message elements and approach based
on decisions made in previous steps and evidence, and
determine the appropriate approach for the message strategy)
A) What? (Identify the key information/message)
B) So what? (Address the reasons or benefits for action that are
relevant for the audience)
VI) Communication Strategies
A) Rational
B) Strengths / limitations of your chosen health communication
strategy
C) Timeline
VII) Campaign materials (please see a detailed instruction for
campaign materials).
A) Describe the campaign materials that will be using
(determine whether campaign materials are relevant,
understandable and acceptable to intended audiences)
VIII) Conclusion
Describe the expected results (Aim, Reach, Effectiveness etc.).
References
You need a reference page APA style with the 7-10 sources in
your outline and will use in your final paper. You need to be
sure to use all your references in citations in your outline. Cite
all quotes and paraphrases.
Instruction for the Group Health Communication Campaign
Project (including outline and final report).
· You must use Google Docs to create your group health
communication campaign project. If you have never used
Google docs please view this Google Docs tutorial. You will
chose one member of your team to create the Google doc and
share it with the rest of the team and with me with editing
permission ([email protected]). Title the Google doc with your
team names and the assignment. I will grade it from Google
docs. You will also submit the link to the Assignment
submission box (Please submit only the url to the Google doc,
not a word doc). This method is much easier for collaborating
on the project when working together in an online course
assignment. If you are not familiar with Google docs please
review the tutorials for Google docs.
http://youtu.be/lMqdex3KDQM and
http://youtu.be/eRqUE6IHTEA
· Be sure all team members have their contribution on the
Google doc (not in a word doc). Identify who is doing each
section by color coding or putting your name in the section title.
This assignment will be graded a team grade. However, I will be
looking at the participation and effort of each student and
grading on the quality of each student.
Nursing
Research
Methods and Critical
Appraisal for Evidence-Based
Practice
NINETH EDITION
Geri LoBiondo-Wood, PhD, RN,
FAAN
Professor and Coordinator, PhD in Nursing Program, University
of Texas
Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing, Houston,
Texas
Judith Haber, PhD, RN, FAAN
2
The Ursula Springer Leadership Professor in Nursing, New
York
University, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York, New
York
3
Table of Contents
Cover image
Title page
Copyright
About the authors
Contributors
Reviewers
To the faculty
To the student
Acknowledgments
I. Overview of Research and Evidence-Based
Practice
Introduction
4
kindle:embed:0006?mime=image/jpg
References
1. Integrating research, evidence-based practice, and quality
improvement processes
References
2. Research questions, hypotheses, and clinical questions
References
3. Gathering and appraising the literature
References
4. Theoretical frameworks for research
References
II. Processes and Evidence Related to Qualitative
Research
Introduction
References
5. Introduction to qualitative research
References
6. Qualitative approaches to research
References
7. Appraising qualitative research
5
Critique of a qualitative research study
References
References
III. Processes and Evidence Related to
Quantitative Research
Introduction
References
8. Introduction to quantitative research
References
9. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs
References
10. Nonexperimental designs
References
11. Systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines
References
12. Sampling
References
13. Legal and ethical issues
References
6
14. Data collection methods
References
15. Reliability and validity
References
16. Data analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics
References
17. Understanding research findings
References
18. Appraising quantitative research
Critique of a quantitative research study
Critique of a quantitative research study
References
References
References
IV. Application of Research: Evidence-Based
Practice
Introduction
References
19. Strategies and tools for developing an evidence-based
practice
References
7
20. Developing an evidence-based practice
References
21. Quality improvement
References
Example of a randomized clinical trial (Nyamathi et al., 2015)
Nursing case management peer coaching and hepatitis A and B
vaccine completion among homeless men recently released on
parole
Example of a longitudinal/Cohort study (Hawthorne et al.,
2016)
Parent spirituality grief and mental health at 1 and 3 months
after
their infant schild s death in an intensive care unit
Example of a qualitative study (van dijk et al., 2015)
Postoperative
patients perspectives on rating pain: A qualitative study
Example of a correlational study (Turner et al., 2016)
Psychological
functioning post traumatic growth and coping in parents and
siblings of adolescent cancer survivors
Example of a systematic Review/Meta analysis (Al mallah et
al.,
2015) The impact of nurse led clinics on the mortality and
morbidity
of patients with cardiovascular diseases
Glossary
Index
Special features
8
Copyright
3251 Riverport Lane
St. Louis, Missouri 63043
NURSING RESEARCH: METHODS AND CRITICAL
APPRAISAL
FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE, NINTH EDITION ISBN:
978-
0-323-43131-6
Copyright © 2018 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or any information storage and
retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Details
on how to seek permission, further information about the
Publisher’s permissions policies, and our arrangements with
organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the
Copyright Licensing Agency can be found at our website:
www.elsevier.com/permissions.
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are
protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may
be
noted herein).
Notices
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly
changing.
9
http://www.elsevier.com/permissions
As new research and experience broaden our understanding,
changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical
treatment may become necessary.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own
experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any
information, methods, compounds, or experiments described
herein. In using such information or methods they should be
mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including
parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.
With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified,
readers are advised to check the most current information
provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer
of
each product to be administered, to verify the recommended
dose
or formula, the method and duration of administration, and
contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners,
relying on
their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make
diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each
individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety
precautions.
To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the
authors, contributors, or editors assume any liability for any
injury
and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products
liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation
of
any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the
material herein.
Previous editions copyrighted 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998,
1994,
1990, 1986.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: LoBiondo-Wood, Geri, editor. | Haber, Judith, editor.
Title: Nursing research : methods and critical appraisal for
evidence-based
practice / [edited by] Geri LoBiondo-Wood, Judith Haber.
Other titles: Nursing research (LoBiondo-Wood)
Description: 9th edition. | St. Louis, Missouri : Elsevier, [2018]
|
10
Includes
bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017008727 | ISBN 9780323431316 (pbk. :
alk.
paper)
Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Research—methods | Research
Design |
Evidence-Based Nursing—methods
Classification: LCC RT81.5 | NLM WY 20.5 | DDC
610.73072—dc23
LC record available
at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017008727
Executive Content Strategist: Lee Henderson
Content Development Manager: Lisa Newton
Content Development Specialist: Melissa Rawe
Publishing Services Manager: Jeff Patterson
Book Production Specialist: Carol O’Connell
Design Direction: Renee Duenow
Printed in China
Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
11
https://lccn.loc.gov/2017008727
About the authors
Geri LoBiondo-Wood, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor and
Coordinator of the PhD in Nursing Program at the University of
Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing
(UTHSC-Houston) and former Director of Research and
Evidence-
Based Practice Planning and Development at the MD Anderson
Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. She received her Diploma in
Nursing at St. Mary’s Hospital School of Nursing in Rochester,
New York; Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the University
of
Rochester; and a PhD in Nursing Theory and Research from
New
York University. Dr. LoBiondo-Wood teaches research and
evidence-based practice principles to undergraduate, graduate,
and
doctoral students. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, she
developed
and implemented the Evidence-Based Resource Unit Nurse (EB-
RUN) Program. She has extensive national and international
experience guiding nurses and other health care professionals in
the
development and utilization of research. Dr. LoBiondo-Wood is
an
Editorial Board member of Progress in Transplantation and a
reviewer for Nursing Research, Oncology Nursing Forum, and
Oncology Nursing. Her research and publications focus on
chronic
12
illness and oncology nursing. Dr. Wood has received funding
from
the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Future of Nursing
Scholars
program for the past several years to fund full-time doctoral
students.
Dr. LoBiondo-Wood has been active locally and nationally in
many professional organizations, including the Oncology
Nursing
Society, Southern Nursing Research Society, the Midwest
Nursing
Research Society, and the North American Transplant
Coordinators
Organization. She has received local and national awards for
teaching and contributions to nursing. In 1997, she received the
Distinguished Alumnus Award from New York University,
Division of Nursing Alumni Association. In 2001 she was
inducted
as a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing and in 2007 as
a
Fellow of the University of Texas Academy of Health Science
Education. In 2012 she was appointed as a Distinguished
Teaching
Professor of the University of Texas System and in 2015
received
the John McGovern Outstanding Teacher Award from the
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of
Nursing.
Judith Haber, PhD, RN, FAAN, is the Ursula Springer
Leadership
Professor in Nursing at the Rory Meyers College of Nursing at
New
York University. She received her undergraduate nursing
education
at Adelphi University in New York, and she holds a Master’s
degree in Adult Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing and a PhD
in
Nursing Theory and Research from New York University. Dr.
Haber is internationally recognized as a clinician and educator
in
psychiatric–mental health nursing. She was the editor of the
award-
winning classic textbook, Comprehensive Psychiatric Nursing,
published for eight editions and translated into five languages.
She
has extensive clinical experience in psychiatric nursing, having
been
an advanced practice psychiatric nurse in private practice for
over
13
30 years, specializing in treatment of families coping with the
psychosocial impact of acute and chronic illness. Her NIH-
funded
program of research addressed physical and psychosocial
adjustment to illness, focusing specifically on women with
breast
cancer and their partners and, more recently, breast cancer
survivorship and lymphedema prevention and risk reduction. Dr.
Haber is also committed to an interprofessional program of
clinical
scholarship related to interprofessional education and improving
oral-systemic health outcomes and is the Executive Director of
a
national nursing oral health initiative, the Oral Health Nursing
Education and Practice (OHNEP) program, funded by the
DentaQuest and Washington Dental Service Foundations.
Dr. Haber is the recipient of numerous awards, including the
1995 and 2005 APNA Psychiatric Nurse of the Year Award, the
2005
APNA Outstanding Research Award, and the 1998 ANA
Hildegarde Peplau Award. She received the 2007 NYU
Distinguished Alumnae Award, the 2011 Distinguished
Teaching
Award, and the 2014 NYU Meritorious Service Award. In 2015,
Dr.
Haber received the Sigma Theta Tau International Marie
Hippensteel Lingeman Award for Excellence in Nursing
Practice.
Dr. Haber is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and
the
New York Academy of Medicine. Dr. Haber has consulted,
presented, and published widely on evidence-based practice,
interprofessional education and practice, as well as oral-
systemic
health issues.
14
Contributors
Terri Armstrong, PhD, ANP-BC, FAANP, Senior
Investigator,
Neuro-oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National
Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
Maryland
Julie Barroso, PhD, ANP, RN, FAAN, Professor and
Department
Chair, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South
Carolina
Carol Bova, PhD, RN, ANP, Professor of Nursing and
Medicine,
Graduate School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts,
Worcester, Massachusetts
Dona Rinaldi Carpenter, EdD, RN, Professor and Chair,
University of Scranton, Department of Nursing, Scranton,
Pennsylvania
Maja Djukic, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, Rory Meyers
College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New
York
Mei R. Fu, PhD, RN, FAAN, Associate Professor, Rory
Meyers
College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New
York
15
Mattia J. Gilmartin, PhD, RN, Senior Research
Scientist , Executive Director, NICHE Program, Rory Meyers
College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New
York
Deborah J. Jones, PhD, MS, RN, Margaret A.
Barnett/PARTNERS Professorship , Associate Dean for
Professional Development and Faculty Affairs , Associate
Professor, University of Texas Health Science Center at
Houston,
School of Nursing, Houston, Texas
Carl Kirton, DNP, RN, MBA, Chief Nursing Officer,
University
Hospital, Newark, New Jersey; , Adjunct Faculty, Rory
Meyers
College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New
York
Barbara Krainovich-Miller, EdD, RN, PMHCNS-BC, ANEF,
FAAN, Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New
York
University, New York, New York
Elaine Larson, PhD, RN, FAAN, CIC, Anna C. Maxwell
Professor of Nursing Research , Associate Dean for
Research,
Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York
Melanie McEwen, PhD, RN, CNE, ANEF, Professor,
University
of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing,
Houston, Texas
Gail D’Eramo Melkus, EdD, ANP, FAAN, Florence &
William
Downs Professor in Nursing Research, Associate Dean for
Research, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York
University,
New York, New York
Susan Sullivan-Bolyai, DNSc, CNS, RN, FAAN, Associate
16
Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York
University,
New York, New York
Marita Titler, PhD, RN, FAAN, Rhetaugh G. Dumas
Endowed
Professor , Department Chair, Department of Systems,
Populations
and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann
Arbor, Michigan
Mark Toles, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, University of
North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North
Carolina
17
Reviewers
Karen E. Alexander, PhD, RN, CNOR, Program Director RN-
BSN, Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, University
of
Houston Clear Lake-Pearland, Houston, Texas
Donelle M. Barnes, PhD, RN, CNE, Associate Professor,
College
of Nursing, University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, Texas
Susan M. Bezek, PhD, RN, ACNP, CNE, Assistant Professor,
Division of Nursing, Keuka College, Keuka Park, New York
Rose M. Kutlenios, PhD, MSN, MN, BSN, ANCC Board
Certification, Adult Psychiatric/Mental Health Clinical
Specialist,
ANCC Board Certification, Adult Nurse Practitioner, Nursing
Program Director and Associate Professor, Department of
Nursing,
West Liberty University, West Liberty, West Virginia
Shirley M. Newberry, PhD, RN, PHN, Professor, Department
of
Nursing, Winona State University, Winona, Minnesota
Sheryl Scott, DNP, RN, CNE, Assistant Professor and Chair,
School of Nursing, Wisconsin Lutheran College, Milwaukee,
Wisconsin
18
To the faculty
Geri LoBiondo-Wood, [email protected], Judith Haber,
[email protected]
The foundation of the ninth edition of Nursing Research:
Methods and
Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice continues to be
the belief
that nursing research is integral to all levels of nursing
education
and practice. Over the past three decades since the first edition
of
this textbook, we have seen the depth and breadth of nursing
research grow, with more nurses conducting research and using
research evidence to shape clinical practice, education,
administration, and health policy.
The National Academy of Medicine has challenged all health
professionals to provide team-based care based on the best
available scientific evidence. This is an exciting challenge.
Nurses,
as clinicians and interprofessional team members, are using the
best
available evidence, combined with their clinical judgment and
patient preferences, to influence the nature and direction of
health
care delivery and document outcomes related to the quality and
cost-effectiveness of patient care. As nurses continue to develop
a
unique body of nursing knowledge through research, decisions
about clinical nursing practice will be increasingly evidence
based.
As editors, we believe that all nurses need not only to
understand
the research process but also to know how to critically read,
evaluate, and apply research findings in practice. We realize
that
understanding research, as a component of evidence-based
practice
and quality improvement practices, is a challenge for every
student,
but we believe that the challenge can be accomplished in a
19
stimulating, lively, and learner-friendly manner.
Consistent with this perspective is an ongoing commitment to
advancing implementation of evidence-based practice.
Understanding and applying research must be an integral
dimension of baccalaureate education, evident not only in the
undergraduate nursing research course but also threaded
throughout the curriculum. The research role of baccalaureate
graduates calls for evidence-based practice and quality
improvement competencies; central to this are critical appraisal
skills—that is, nurses should be competent research consumers.
Preparing students for this role involves developing their
critical
thinking skills, thereby enhancing their understanding of the
research process, their appreciation of the role of the critiquer,
and
their ability to actually critically appraise research. An
undergraduate research course should develop this basic level of
competence, an essential requirement if students are to engage
in
evidence-informed clinical decision making and practice, as
well as
quality improvement activities.
The primary audience for this textbook remains undergraduate
students who are learning the steps of the research process, as
well
as how to develop clinical questions, critically appraise
published
research literature, and use research findings to inform
evidence-
based clinical practice and quality improvement initiatives. This
book is also a valuable resource for students at the master’s,
DNP,
and PhD levels who want a concise review of the basic steps of
the
research process, the critical appraisal process, and the
principles
and tools for evidence-based practice and quality improvement.
This text is also an important resource for practicing nurses who
strive to use research evidence as the basis for clinical decision
making and development of evidence-based policies, protocols,
and
standards or who collaborate with nurse-scientists in conducting
clinical research and evidence-based practice. Finally, this text
is an
important resource for considering how evidence-based
practice,
quality improvement, and interprofessional collaboration are
essential competencies for students and clinicians practicing in
a
transformed health care system, where nurses and their
interprofessional team members are accountable for the quality
and
cost-effectiveness of care provided to their patient population.
20
Building on the success of the eighth edition, we reaffirm our
commitment to introducing evidence-based practice, quality
improvement processes, and research principles to baccalaureate
students, thereby providing a cutting-edge, research consumer
foundation for their clinical practice. Nursing Research:
Methods and
Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice prepares nursing
students and practicing nurses to become knowledgeable
nursing
research consumers by doing the following:
• Addressing the essential evidence-based practice and quality
improvement role of the nurse, thereby embedding evidence-
based competencies in clinical practice.
• Demystifying research, which is sometimes viewed as a
complex
process.
• Using a user-friendly, evidence-based approach to teaching the
fundamentals of the research process.
• Including an exciting chapter on the role of theory in research
and
evidence-based practice.
• Providing a robust chapter on systematic reviews and clinical
guidelines.
• Offering two innovative chapters on current strategies and
tools
for developing an evidence-based practice.
• Concluding with an exciting chapter on quality improvement
and
its application to practice.
• Teaching the critical appraisal process in a user-friendly
progression.
• Promoting a lively spirit of inquiry that develops critical
thinking
and critical reading skills, facilitating mastery of the critical
appraisal process.
• Developing information literacy, searching, and evidence-
based
practice competencies that prepare students and nurses to
21
effectively locate and evaluate the best research evidence.
• Emphasizing the role of evidence-based practice and quality
improvement initiatives as the basis for informing clinical
decisions that support nursing practice.
• Presenting numerous examples of recently published research
studies that illustrate and highlight research concepts in a
manner that brings abstract ideas to life for students. These
examples are critical links that reinforce evidence-based
concepts
and the critiquing process.
• Presenting five published articles, including a meta-analysis,
in
the Appendices, the highlights of which are woven throughout
the text as exemplars of research and evidence-based practice.
• Showcasing, in four new inspirational Research Vignettes, the
work of renowned nurse researchers whose careers exemplify
the
links among research, education, and practice.
• Introducing new pedagogical interprofessional education
chapter
features, IPE Highlights and IPE Critical Thinking Challenges
and quality improvement, QSEN Evidence-Based Practice Tips.
• Integrating stimulating pedagogical chapter features that
reinforce learning, including Learning Outcomes, Key Terms,
Key Points, Critical Thinking Challenges, Helpful Hints,
Evidence-Based Practice Tips, Critical Thinking Decision Paths,
and numerous tables, boxes, and figures.
• Featuring a revised section titled Appraising the Evidence,
accompanied by an updated Critiquing Criteria box in each
chapter that presents a step of the research process.
• Offering a student Evolve site with interactive review
questions
that provide chapter-by-chapter review in a format consistent
with that of the NCLEX® Examination.
• Offering a Student Study Guide that promotes active learning
and assimilation of nursing research content.
22
• Presenting Faculty Evolve Resources that include a test bank,
TEACH lesson plans, PowerPoint slides with integrated
audience
response system questions, and an image collection. Evolve
resources for both students and faculty also include a research
article library with appraisal exercises for additional practice in
reviewing and critiquing, as well as content updates.
The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical
Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice is organized into four
parts.
Each part is preceded by an introductory section and opens with
an
engaging Research Vignette by a renowned nurse researcher.
Part I, Overview of Research and Evidence-Based Practice,
contains four chapters: Chapter 1, “Integrating Research,
Evidence-
Based Practice, and Quality Improvement Processes,” provides
an
excellent overview of research and evidence-based practice
processes that shape clinical practice. The chapter speaks
directly to
students and highlights critical reading concepts and strategies,
facilitating student understanding of the research process and its
relationship to the critical appraisal process. The chapter
introduces
a model evidence hierarchy that is used throughout the text. The
style and content of this chapter are designed to make
subsequent
chapters user friendly. The next two chapters address
foundational
components of the research process. Chapter 2, “Research
Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions,” focuses on how
research questions and hypotheses are derived, operationalized,
and critically appraised. Students are also taught how to
develop
clinical questions that are used to guide evidence-based inquiry,
including quality improvement projects. Chapter 3, “Gathering
and
Appraising the Literature,” showcases cutting-edge information
literacy content and provides students and nurses with the tools
necessary to effectively search, retrieve, manage, and evaluate
research studies and their findings. Chapter 4, “Theoretical
Frameworks for Research,” is a user-friendly theory chapter that
provides students with an understanding of how theories provide
the foundation of research studies and evidence-based practice
projects.
Part II, Processes and Evidence Related to Qualitative Research,
contains three interrelated qualitative research chapters. Chapter
5,
23
“Introduction to Qualitative Research,” provides an exciting
framework for understanding qualitative research and the
significant contribution of qualitative research to evidence-
based
practice. Chapter 6, “Qualitative Approaches to Research,”
presents, illustrates, and showcases major qualitative methods
using examples from the literature as exemplars. This chapter
highlights the questions most appropriately answered using
qualitative methods. Chapter 7, “Appraising Qualitative
Research,”
synthesizes essential components of and criteria for critiquing
qualitative research reports using published qualitative research
study.
Part III, Processes and Evidence Related to Quantitative
Research, contains Chapters 8 to 18Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter
10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter
15Chapter
16Chapter 17Chapter 18. This group of chapters delineates
essential
steps of the quantitative research process, with published
clinical
research studies used to illustrate each step. These chapters are
streamlined to make the case for linking an evidence-based
approach with essential steps of the research process. Students
are
taught how to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses
of
each step of the research process in a synthesized critique of a
study. The steps of the quantitative research process, evidence-
based concepts, and critical appraisal criteria are synthesized in
Chapter 18 using two published research studies, providing a
model for appraising strengths and weaknesses of studies, and
determining applicability to practice. Chapter 11, a unique
chapter,
addresses the use of the types of systematic reviews that support
an
evidence-based practice as well as the development and
application
of clinical guidelines.
Part IV, Application of Research: Evidence-Based Practice,
contains three chapters that showcase evidence-based practice
models and tools. Chapter 19, “Strategies and Tools for
Developing
an Evidence-Based Practice,” is a revised, vibrant, user-
friendly,
evidence-based toolkit with exemplars that capture the essence
of
high-quality, evidence-informed nursing care. It “walks”
students
and practicing nurses through clinical scenarios and challenges
them to consider the relevant evidence-based practice “tools” to
develop and answer questions that emerge from clinical
situations.
24
Chapter 20, “Developing an Evidence-Based Practice,” offers a
dynamic presentation of important evidence-based practice
models
that promote evidence-based decision making. Chapter 21,
“Quality
Improvement,” is an innovative, engaging chapter that outlines
the
quality improvement process with information from current
guidelines. Together, these chapters provide an inspirational
conclusion to a text that we hope motivates students and
practicing
nurses to advance their evidence-based practice and quality
improvement knowledge base and clinical competence,
positioning
them to make important contributions to improving health care
outcomes as essential members of interprofessional teams.
Stimulating critical thinking is a core value of this text.
Innovative
chapter features such as Critical Thinking Decision Paths,
Evidence-Based Practice Tips, Helpful Hints, Critical Thinking
Challenges, IPE Highlights, and QSEN Evidence-Based Practice
Tips enhance critical thinking, promote the development of
evidence-based decision-making skills, and cultivate a positive
value about the importance of collaboration in promoting
evidence-
based, high quality and cost-effective clinical outcomes.
Consistent with previous editions, we promote critical thinking
by including sections called “Appraising the Evidence,” which
describe the critical appraisal process related to the focus of the
chapter. Critiquing Criteria are included in this section to
stimulate
a systematic and evaluative approach to reading and
understanding qualitative and quantitative research and
evaluating
its strengths and weaknesses. Extensive resources are provided
on
the Evolve site that can be used to develop critical thinking and
evidence-based competencies.
The development and refinement of an evidence-based
foundation for clinical nursing practice is an essential priority
for
the future of professional nursing practice. The ninth edition of
Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for
Evidence-Based
Practice will help students develop a basic level of competence
in
understanding the steps of the research process that will enable
them to critically analyze research studies, judge their merit,
and
judiciously apply evidence in clinical practice. To the extent
that
this goal is accomplished, the next generation of nursing
professionals will …
Running Header: DRUG CAMPAIGN
Running Header: DRUG CAMPAIGNS
Drug Campaign
Amanda Vallera
Arizona State University
In health campaigns, messages that ought to be used
should be persuasive. These messages should be captivating to
allow everyone to get interested in reading the content. This
should also depend on the audience of the word because the
different audience has different captivating or compelling
messages depending on maybe their age, gender, or even level
of knowledge, (Bennett, 2008). According to this health
campaign, as already identified earlier, the audience would be
the youths as they are the most affected when it comes to the
issue of drugs. This means that the messages used should be
based on their age. Here gender is not considered so much as
both the young boys and girls are affected. The level of
education in high schools and universities as most of the young
people are in those schools or fields.
Persuasive messages in health campaigns are not easy
to come up with, but research has come up with some words that
may help people change their behaviors and at least stop using
the drugs to help reduce this drug abuse. These messages have
been grouped in various ways. There are puzzling messages, and
this is the type of news that encourages people to have
discussions on the topics based on drug abuse. This is because
they may get more knowledge of the drugs and know all the
harmful effects of these drugs. Persuasive messages may help
the audience by bringing experiences when reading the content
in the campaign. These messages may enable the audience or
the target to interpret the signal, and sometimes when one feels
as if something is talking to him or her, he or she tends to be
more attentive and even want to know more, (United States,
2001).
Messages referred to as the fear appeals may greatly
help addicts to change. This message applies whereby one gives
images of what might happen to the target if he or she does not
change the behavior of using drugs or does not listen or take
into consideration the recommendations outlined, (Bennett,
2008) This can help play with the psychology of that person
because, in real life, nobody wants the worst to happen to him
or her. These pictures can help draw a clear image of what
might happen to the target, and this will eventually lead to
destinations changing as an absolute fear has been instilled into
them. These messages cannot be delivered using images but can
also be told in the form of stories if the story creates some fear.
For these messages to reach the intended audience,
which in our case are the youths, perfect channels of
communication need to be used. A campaign is meant to educate
people, and therefore the messages should reach the target for a
drive to be called a success. Mass media can significantly help
in ensuring that drug messages reach young people. (Bennett,
2008). This is a perfect channel of communication in drug
campaign because it goes hand on hand with our audience.
Youths are people who love using the mass media, and they are
always online. Mass media is also efficient as it is full. This is
because it has a lot of social platforms in which the youths love
using. These platforms can be used in relaying messages to
teenagers. However, mass media has some of its disadvantages,
and this is because it is the same media that advertises the use
of those drugs and informs the youths where drugs can be
found, (United States, 2001).
Different strategies should be put or outlined as they
explain the aims of the campaign. These strategies will help the
campaigners to set specific objectives that they feel they want
to achieve, (Hornik, Jacobsohn, Orwin, Piesse & Kalto, 2008).
This objective can be significant even after campaigns as they
can know if they achieved their goals.
References
Hornik, R., Jacobsohn, L., Orwin, R., Piesse, A., & Kalton, G.
(2008). Effects of the national youth anti-drug media campaign
on youths. American Journal of Public Health, 98(12), 2229-
2236.
Bennett, C. (2008). The emergence of Australia's national
campaign against drug abuse: a case-study in the politics of
drug control. Journal of Australian Studies, 32(3), 309-321.
United States. (2001). Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-
Drug Media Campaign: Hearing before the Subcommittee on
Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the
Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives ;
One Hundred Sixth Congress, second session ; July 11, 2000.

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Running head HEALTH CAMPAIGN 1CULTURAL PRACTIC.docx

  • 1. Running head: HEALTH CAMPAIGN 1 CULTURAL PRACTICES 5 Health Communication Campaign Outline Group names Arizona State University Authors’ Note Student names, College of Nursing and Health Innovation (your college), HCR 406, Arizona State University Health Communication Campaign Outline I) Introduction (Examples of what can be covered) (student name) A) Brief background on the public health problem (topic- explain and give examples)
  • 2. a) Subtopic (e.g., Statistics) b) Subtopic (Subgroups within the population most affected) c) Subtopic (the evidence to support the need for this project (e.g. research evidence/statistics on your target population and the issue being addressed). B) Target Population (Identify and provide rationale for the targeted population segment) a) Demographics of a target audience (including age, gender, literacy level) b) Language, information needs, learning abilities, and culture of your intended audience c) Rational II) Objectives: (need 3-5) (examples)- make your objectives SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time limited). A) After completing this campaign the audience will be able to: a) Objective 1 b) Objective 2 c) Objective 3 III) Conceptual Framework (Examples of what can be covered) A) Brief description of the theory a) Name of the theory b) Main propositions c) Subtopic B) Rational of choosing this theory a) Guidance to develop a message b) Effectiveness IV) Communication Channels/ Vehicles A) Introduce the most appropriate channels and vehicles for your communication campaign a) Evidence (Provide a rational) b) Strengths c) Weakness V) Message (Define the message elements and approach based on decisions made in previous steps and evidence, and determine the appropriate approach for the message strategy)
  • 3. A) What? (Identify the key information/message) B) So what? (Address the reasons or benefits for action that are relevant for the audience) VI) Communication Strategies A) Rational B) Strengths / limitations of your chosen health communication strategy C) Timeline VII) Campaign materials (please see a detailed instruction for campaign materials). A) Describe the campaign materials that will be using (determine whether campaign materials are relevant, understandable and acceptable to intended audiences) VIII) Conclusion Describe the expected results (Aim, Reach, Effectiveness etc.). References You need a reference page APA style with the 7-10 sources in your outline and will use in your final paper. You need to be sure to use all your references in citations in your outline. Cite all quotes and paraphrases. Instruction for the Group Health Communication Campaign Project (including outline and final report). · You must use Google Docs to create your group health communication campaign project. If you have never used Google docs please view this Google Docs tutorial. You will chose one member of your team to create the Google doc and share it with the rest of the team and with me with editing permission ([email protected]). Title the Google doc with your team names and the assignment. I will grade it from Google docs. You will also submit the link to the Assignment submission box (Please submit only the url to the Google doc, not a word doc). This method is much easier for collaborating
  • 4. on the project when working together in an online course assignment. If you are not familiar with Google docs please review the tutorials for Google docs. http://youtu.be/lMqdex3KDQM and http://youtu.be/eRqUE6IHTEA · Be sure all team members have their contribution on the Google doc (not in a word doc). Identify who is doing each section by color coding or putting your name in the section title. This assignment will be graded a team grade. However, I will be looking at the participation and effort of each student and grading on the quality of each student. Nursing Research Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice NINETH EDITION Geri LoBiondo-Wood, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Coordinator, PhD in Nursing Program, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing, Houston, Texas Judith Haber, PhD, RN, FAAN
  • 5. 2 The Ursula Springer Leadership Professor in Nursing, New York University, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York, New York 3 Table of Contents Cover image Title page Copyright About the authors Contributors Reviewers To the faculty To the student Acknowledgments I. Overview of Research and Evidence-Based Practice
  • 6. Introduction 4 kindle:embed:0006?mime=image/jpg References 1. Integrating research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement processes References 2. Research questions, hypotheses, and clinical questions References 3. Gathering and appraising the literature References 4. Theoretical frameworks for research References II. Processes and Evidence Related to Qualitative Research Introduction References 5. Introduction to qualitative research References
  • 7. 6. Qualitative approaches to research References 7. Appraising qualitative research 5 Critique of a qualitative research study References References III. Processes and Evidence Related to Quantitative Research Introduction References 8. Introduction to quantitative research References 9. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs References 10. Nonexperimental designs References
  • 8. 11. Systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines References 12. Sampling References 13. Legal and ethical issues References 6 14. Data collection methods References 15. Reliability and validity References 16. Data analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics References 17. Understanding research findings References 18. Appraising quantitative research Critique of a quantitative research study
  • 9. Critique of a quantitative research study References References References IV. Application of Research: Evidence-Based Practice Introduction References 19. Strategies and tools for developing an evidence-based practice References 7 20. Developing an evidence-based practice References 21. Quality improvement References Example of a randomized clinical trial (Nyamathi et al., 2015) Nursing case management peer coaching and hepatitis A and B vaccine completion among homeless men recently released on parole
  • 10. Example of a longitudinal/Cohort study (Hawthorne et al., 2016) Parent spirituality grief and mental health at 1 and 3 months after their infant schild s death in an intensive care unit Example of a qualitative study (van dijk et al., 2015) Postoperative patients perspectives on rating pain: A qualitative study Example of a correlational study (Turner et al., 2016) Psychological functioning post traumatic growth and coping in parents and siblings of adolescent cancer survivors Example of a systematic Review/Meta analysis (Al mallah et al., 2015) The impact of nurse led clinics on the mortality and morbidity of patients with cardiovascular diseases Glossary Index Special features 8 Copyright 3251 Riverport Lane St. Louis, Missouri 63043
  • 11. NURSING RESEARCH: METHODS AND CRITICAL APPRAISAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE, NINTH EDITION ISBN: 978- 0-323-43131-6 Copyright © 2018 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies, and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions. This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein). Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. 9 http://www.elsevier.com/permissions As new research and experience broaden our understanding,
  • 12. changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. Previous editions copyrighted 2014, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986.
  • 13. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: LoBiondo-Wood, Geri, editor. | Haber, Judith, editor. Title: Nursing research : methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice / [edited by] Geri LoBiondo-Wood, Judith Haber. Other titles: Nursing research (LoBiondo-Wood) Description: 9th edition. | St. Louis, Missouri : Elsevier, [2018] | 10 Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017008727 | ISBN 9780323431316 (pbk. : alk. paper) Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Research—methods | Research Design | Evidence-Based Nursing—methods Classification: LCC RT81.5 | NLM WY 20.5 | DDC 610.73072—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017008727 Executive Content Strategist: Lee Henderson Content Development Manager: Lisa Newton Content Development Specialist: Melissa Rawe Publishing Services Manager: Jeff Patterson Book Production Specialist: Carol O’Connell Design Direction: Renee Duenow Printed in China
  • 14. Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 https://lccn.loc.gov/2017008727 About the authors Geri LoBiondo-Wood, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor and Coordinator of the PhD in Nursing Program at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing (UTHSC-Houston) and former Director of Research and Evidence- Based Practice Planning and Development at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. She received her Diploma in Nursing at St. Mary’s Hospital School of Nursing in Rochester, New York; Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the University of Rochester; and a PhD in Nursing Theory and Research from New York University. Dr. LoBiondo-Wood teaches research and evidence-based practice principles to undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, she developed and implemented the Evidence-Based Resource Unit Nurse (EB- RUN) Program. She has extensive national and international experience guiding nurses and other health care professionals in the development and utilization of research. Dr. LoBiondo-Wood is an Editorial Board member of Progress in Transplantation and a reviewer for Nursing Research, Oncology Nursing Forum, and Oncology Nursing. Her research and publications focus on
  • 15. chronic 12 illness and oncology nursing. Dr. Wood has received funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Future of Nursing Scholars program for the past several years to fund full-time doctoral students. Dr. LoBiondo-Wood has been active locally and nationally in many professional organizations, including the Oncology Nursing Society, Southern Nursing Research Society, the Midwest Nursing Research Society, and the North American Transplant Coordinators Organization. She has received local and national awards for teaching and contributions to nursing. In 1997, she received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from New York University, Division of Nursing Alumni Association. In 2001 she was inducted as a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing and in 2007 as a Fellow of the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education. In 2012 she was appointed as a Distinguished Teaching Professor of the University of Texas System and in 2015 received the John McGovern Outstanding Teacher Award from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Nursing.
  • 16. Judith Haber, PhD, RN, FAAN, is the Ursula Springer Leadership Professor in Nursing at the Rory Meyers College of Nursing at New York University. She received her undergraduate nursing education at Adelphi University in New York, and she holds a Master’s degree in Adult Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing and a PhD in Nursing Theory and Research from New York University. Dr. Haber is internationally recognized as a clinician and educator in psychiatric–mental health nursing. She was the editor of the award- winning classic textbook, Comprehensive Psychiatric Nursing, published for eight editions and translated into five languages. She has extensive clinical experience in psychiatric nursing, having been an advanced practice psychiatric nurse in private practice for over 13 30 years, specializing in treatment of families coping with the psychosocial impact of acute and chronic illness. Her NIH- funded program of research addressed physical and psychosocial adjustment to illness, focusing specifically on women with breast cancer and their partners and, more recently, breast cancer survivorship and lymphedema prevention and risk reduction. Dr. Haber is also committed to an interprofessional program of clinical
  • 17. scholarship related to interprofessional education and improving oral-systemic health outcomes and is the Executive Director of a national nursing oral health initiative, the Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP) program, funded by the DentaQuest and Washington Dental Service Foundations. Dr. Haber is the recipient of numerous awards, including the 1995 and 2005 APNA Psychiatric Nurse of the Year Award, the 2005 APNA Outstanding Research Award, and the 1998 ANA Hildegarde Peplau Award. She received the 2007 NYU Distinguished Alumnae Award, the 2011 Distinguished Teaching Award, and the 2014 NYU Meritorious Service Award. In 2015, Dr. Haber received the Sigma Theta Tau International Marie Hippensteel Lingeman Award for Excellence in Nursing Practice. Dr. Haber is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and the New York Academy of Medicine. Dr. Haber has consulted, presented, and published widely on evidence-based practice, interprofessional education and practice, as well as oral- systemic health issues. 14 Contributors Terri Armstrong, PhD, ANP-BC, FAANP, Senior Investigator, Neuro-oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National
  • 18. Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Julie Barroso, PhD, ANP, RN, FAAN, Professor and Department Chair, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina Carol Bova, PhD, RN, ANP, Professor of Nursing and Medicine, Graduate School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts, Worcester, Massachusetts Dona Rinaldi Carpenter, EdD, RN, Professor and Chair, University of Scranton, Department of Nursing, Scranton, Pennsylvania Maja Djukic, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Mei R. Fu, PhD, RN, FAAN, Associate Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York 15
  • 19. Mattia J. Gilmartin, PhD, RN, Senior Research Scientist , Executive Director, NICHE Program, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Deborah J. Jones, PhD, MS, RN, Margaret A. Barnett/PARTNERS Professorship , Associate Dean for Professional Development and Faculty Affairs , Associate Professor, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing, Houston, Texas Carl Kirton, DNP, RN, MBA, Chief Nursing Officer, University Hospital, Newark, New Jersey; , Adjunct Faculty, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Barbara Krainovich-Miller, EdD, RN, PMHCNS-BC, ANEF, FAAN, Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Elaine Larson, PhD, RN, FAAN, CIC, Anna C. Maxwell Professor of Nursing Research , Associate Dean for Research, Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York Melanie McEwen, PhD, RN, CNE, ANEF, Professor, University
  • 20. of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Nursing, Houston, Texas Gail D’Eramo Melkus, EdD, ANP, FAAN, Florence & William Downs Professor in Nursing Research, Associate Dean for Research, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Susan Sullivan-Bolyai, DNSc, CNS, RN, FAAN, Associate 16 Professor, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, New York Marita Titler, PhD, RN, FAAN, Rhetaugh G. Dumas Endowed Professor , Department Chair, Department of Systems, Populations and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan Mark Toles, PhD, RN, Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Nursing, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
  • 21. 17 Reviewers Karen E. Alexander, PhD, RN, CNOR, Program Director RN- BSN, Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, University of Houston Clear Lake-Pearland, Houston, Texas Donelle M. Barnes, PhD, RN, CNE, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, Texas Susan M. Bezek, PhD, RN, ACNP, CNE, Assistant Professor, Division of Nursing, Keuka College, Keuka Park, New York Rose M. Kutlenios, PhD, MSN, MN, BSN, ANCC Board Certification, Adult Psychiatric/Mental Health Clinical Specialist, ANCC Board Certification, Adult Nurse Practitioner, Nursing Program Director and Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, West Liberty University, West Liberty, West Virginia Shirley M. Newberry, PhD, RN, PHN, Professor, Department of Nursing, Winona State University, Winona, Minnesota Sheryl Scott, DNP, RN, CNE, Assistant Professor and Chair, School of Nursing, Wisconsin Lutheran College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 18
  • 22. To the faculty Geri LoBiondo-Wood, [email protected], Judith Haber, [email protected] The foundation of the ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice continues to be the belief that nursing research is integral to all levels of nursing education and practice. Over the past three decades since the first edition of this textbook, we have seen the depth and breadth of nursing research grow, with more nurses conducting research and using research evidence to shape clinical practice, education, administration, and health policy. The National Academy of Medicine has challenged all health professionals to provide team-based care based on the best available scientific evidence. This is an exciting challenge. Nurses, as clinicians and interprofessional team members, are using the best available evidence, combined with their clinical judgment and patient preferences, to influence the nature and direction of health care delivery and document outcomes related to the quality and cost-effectiveness of patient care. As nurses continue to develop a unique body of nursing knowledge through research, decisions about clinical nursing practice will be increasingly evidence based. As editors, we believe that all nurses need not only to understand
  • 23. the research process but also to know how to critically read, evaluate, and apply research findings in practice. We realize that understanding research, as a component of evidence-based practice and quality improvement practices, is a challenge for every student, but we believe that the challenge can be accomplished in a 19 stimulating, lively, and learner-friendly manner. Consistent with this perspective is an ongoing commitment to advancing implementation of evidence-based practice. Understanding and applying research must be an integral dimension of baccalaureate education, evident not only in the undergraduate nursing research course but also threaded throughout the curriculum. The research role of baccalaureate graduates calls for evidence-based practice and quality improvement competencies; central to this are critical appraisal skills—that is, nurses should be competent research consumers. Preparing students for this role involves developing their critical thinking skills, thereby enhancing their understanding of the research process, their appreciation of the role of the critiquer, and their ability to actually critically appraise research. An undergraduate research course should develop this basic level of competence, an essential requirement if students are to engage in evidence-informed clinical decision making and practice, as well as
  • 24. quality improvement activities. The primary audience for this textbook remains undergraduate students who are learning the steps of the research process, as well as how to develop clinical questions, critically appraise published research literature, and use research findings to inform evidence- based clinical practice and quality improvement initiatives. This book is also a valuable resource for students at the master’s, DNP, and PhD levels who want a concise review of the basic steps of the research process, the critical appraisal process, and the principles and tools for evidence-based practice and quality improvement. This text is also an important resource for practicing nurses who strive to use research evidence as the basis for clinical decision making and development of evidence-based policies, protocols, and standards or who collaborate with nurse-scientists in conducting clinical research and evidence-based practice. Finally, this text is an important resource for considering how evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and interprofessional collaboration are essential competencies for students and clinicians practicing in a transformed health care system, where nurses and their interprofessional team members are accountable for the quality and cost-effectiveness of care provided to their patient population. 20
  • 25. Building on the success of the eighth edition, we reaffirm our commitment to introducing evidence-based practice, quality improvement processes, and research principles to baccalaureate students, thereby providing a cutting-edge, research consumer foundation for their clinical practice. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice prepares nursing students and practicing nurses to become knowledgeable nursing research consumers by doing the following: • Addressing the essential evidence-based practice and quality improvement role of the nurse, thereby embedding evidence- based competencies in clinical practice. • Demystifying research, which is sometimes viewed as a complex process. • Using a user-friendly, evidence-based approach to teaching the fundamentals of the research process. • Including an exciting chapter on the role of theory in research and evidence-based practice. • Providing a robust chapter on systematic reviews and clinical guidelines. • Offering two innovative chapters on current strategies and tools for developing an evidence-based practice.
  • 26. • Concluding with an exciting chapter on quality improvement and its application to practice. • Teaching the critical appraisal process in a user-friendly progression. • Promoting a lively spirit of inquiry that develops critical thinking and critical reading skills, facilitating mastery of the critical appraisal process. • Developing information literacy, searching, and evidence- based practice competencies that prepare students and nurses to 21 effectively locate and evaluate the best research evidence. • Emphasizing the role of evidence-based practice and quality improvement initiatives as the basis for informing clinical decisions that support nursing practice. • Presenting numerous examples of recently published research studies that illustrate and highlight research concepts in a manner that brings abstract ideas to life for students. These examples are critical links that reinforce evidence-based concepts and the critiquing process. • Presenting five published articles, including a meta-analysis, in the Appendices, the highlights of which are woven throughout
  • 27. the text as exemplars of research and evidence-based practice. • Showcasing, in four new inspirational Research Vignettes, the work of renowned nurse researchers whose careers exemplify the links among research, education, and practice. • Introducing new pedagogical interprofessional education chapter features, IPE Highlights and IPE Critical Thinking Challenges and quality improvement, QSEN Evidence-Based Practice Tips. • Integrating stimulating pedagogical chapter features that reinforce learning, including Learning Outcomes, Key Terms, Key Points, Critical Thinking Challenges, Helpful Hints, Evidence-Based Practice Tips, Critical Thinking Decision Paths, and numerous tables, boxes, and figures. • Featuring a revised section titled Appraising the Evidence, accompanied by an updated Critiquing Criteria box in each chapter that presents a step of the research process. • Offering a student Evolve site with interactive review questions that provide chapter-by-chapter review in a format consistent with that of the NCLEX® Examination. • Offering a Student Study Guide that promotes active learning and assimilation of nursing research content. 22 • Presenting Faculty Evolve Resources that include a test bank, TEACH lesson plans, PowerPoint slides with integrated
  • 28. audience response system questions, and an image collection. Evolve resources for both students and faculty also include a research article library with appraisal exercises for additional practice in reviewing and critiquing, as well as content updates. The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice is organized into four parts. Each part is preceded by an introductory section and opens with an engaging Research Vignette by a renowned nurse researcher. Part I, Overview of Research and Evidence-Based Practice, contains four chapters: Chapter 1, “Integrating Research, Evidence- Based Practice, and Quality Improvement Processes,” provides an excellent overview of research and evidence-based practice processes that shape clinical practice. The chapter speaks directly to students and highlights critical reading concepts and strategies, facilitating student understanding of the research process and its relationship to the critical appraisal process. The chapter introduces a model evidence hierarchy that is used throughout the text. The style and content of this chapter are designed to make subsequent chapters user friendly. The next two chapters address foundational components of the research process. Chapter 2, “Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions,” focuses on how research questions and hypotheses are derived, operationalized, and critically appraised. Students are also taught how to develop clinical questions that are used to guide evidence-based inquiry,
  • 29. including quality improvement projects. Chapter 3, “Gathering and Appraising the Literature,” showcases cutting-edge information literacy content and provides students and nurses with the tools necessary to effectively search, retrieve, manage, and evaluate research studies and their findings. Chapter 4, “Theoretical Frameworks for Research,” is a user-friendly theory chapter that provides students with an understanding of how theories provide the foundation of research studies and evidence-based practice projects. Part II, Processes and Evidence Related to Qualitative Research, contains three interrelated qualitative research chapters. Chapter 5, 23 “Introduction to Qualitative Research,” provides an exciting framework for understanding qualitative research and the significant contribution of qualitative research to evidence- based practice. Chapter 6, “Qualitative Approaches to Research,” presents, illustrates, and showcases major qualitative methods using examples from the literature as exemplars. This chapter highlights the questions most appropriately answered using qualitative methods. Chapter 7, “Appraising Qualitative Research,” synthesizes essential components of and criteria for critiquing qualitative research reports using published qualitative research study. Part III, Processes and Evidence Related to Quantitative Research, contains Chapters 8 to 18Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter
  • 30. 15Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18. This group of chapters delineates essential steps of the quantitative research process, with published clinical research studies used to illustrate each step. These chapters are streamlined to make the case for linking an evidence-based approach with essential steps of the research process. Students are taught how to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of each step of the research process in a synthesized critique of a study. The steps of the quantitative research process, evidence- based concepts, and critical appraisal criteria are synthesized in Chapter 18 using two published research studies, providing a model for appraising strengths and weaknesses of studies, and determining applicability to practice. Chapter 11, a unique chapter, addresses the use of the types of systematic reviews that support an evidence-based practice as well as the development and application of clinical guidelines. Part IV, Application of Research: Evidence-Based Practice, contains three chapters that showcase evidence-based practice models and tools. Chapter 19, “Strategies and Tools for Developing an Evidence-Based Practice,” is a revised, vibrant, user- friendly, evidence-based toolkit with exemplars that capture the essence of high-quality, evidence-informed nursing care. It “walks” students and practicing nurses through clinical scenarios and challenges them to consider the relevant evidence-based practice “tools” to
  • 31. develop and answer questions that emerge from clinical situations. 24 Chapter 20, “Developing an Evidence-Based Practice,” offers a dynamic presentation of important evidence-based practice models that promote evidence-based decision making. Chapter 21, “Quality Improvement,” is an innovative, engaging chapter that outlines the quality improvement process with information from current guidelines. Together, these chapters provide an inspirational conclusion to a text that we hope motivates students and practicing nurses to advance their evidence-based practice and quality improvement knowledge base and clinical competence, positioning them to make important contributions to improving health care outcomes as essential members of interprofessional teams. Stimulating critical thinking is a core value of this text. Innovative chapter features such as Critical Thinking Decision Paths, Evidence-Based Practice Tips, Helpful Hints, Critical Thinking Challenges, IPE Highlights, and QSEN Evidence-Based Practice Tips enhance critical thinking, promote the development of evidence-based decision-making skills, and cultivate a positive value about the importance of collaboration in promoting evidence- based, high quality and cost-effective clinical outcomes. Consistent with previous editions, we promote critical thinking
  • 32. by including sections called “Appraising the Evidence,” which describe the critical appraisal process related to the focus of the chapter. Critiquing Criteria are included in this section to stimulate a systematic and evaluative approach to reading and understanding qualitative and quantitative research and evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. Extensive resources are provided on the Evolve site that can be used to develop critical thinking and evidence-based competencies. The development and refinement of an evidence-based foundation for clinical nursing practice is an essential priority for the future of professional nursing practice. The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice will help students develop a basic level of competence in understanding the steps of the research process that will enable them to critically analyze research studies, judge their merit, and judiciously apply evidence in clinical practice. To the extent that this goal is accomplished, the next generation of nursing professionals will … Running Header: DRUG CAMPAIGN Running Header: DRUG CAMPAIGNS
  • 34. In health campaigns, messages that ought to be used should be persuasive. These messages should be captivating to allow everyone to get interested in reading the content. This should also depend on the audience of the word because the different audience has different captivating or compelling messages depending on maybe their age, gender, or even level of knowledge, (Bennett, 2008). According to this health campaign, as already identified earlier, the audience would be the youths as they are the most affected when it comes to the issue of drugs. This means that the messages used should be based on their age. Here gender is not considered so much as both the young boys and girls are affected. The level of education in high schools and universities as most of the young people are in those schools or fields. Persuasive messages in health campaigns are not easy to come up with, but research has come up with some words that may help people change their behaviors and at least stop using the drugs to help reduce this drug abuse. These messages have been grouped in various ways. There are puzzling messages, and this is the type of news that encourages people to have discussions on the topics based on drug abuse. This is because they may get more knowledge of the drugs and know all the harmful effects of these drugs. Persuasive messages may help the audience by bringing experiences when reading the content in the campaign. These messages may enable the audience or the target to interpret the signal, and sometimes when one feels as if something is talking to him or her, he or she tends to be more attentive and even want to know more, (United States, 2001). Messages referred to as the fear appeals may greatly help addicts to change. This message applies whereby one gives images of what might happen to the target if he or she does not change the behavior of using drugs or does not listen or take
  • 35. into consideration the recommendations outlined, (Bennett, 2008) This can help play with the psychology of that person because, in real life, nobody wants the worst to happen to him or her. These pictures can help draw a clear image of what might happen to the target, and this will eventually lead to destinations changing as an absolute fear has been instilled into them. These messages cannot be delivered using images but can also be told in the form of stories if the story creates some fear. For these messages to reach the intended audience, which in our case are the youths, perfect channels of communication need to be used. A campaign is meant to educate people, and therefore the messages should reach the target for a drive to be called a success. Mass media can significantly help in ensuring that drug messages reach young people. (Bennett, 2008). This is a perfect channel of communication in drug campaign because it goes hand on hand with our audience. Youths are people who love using the mass media, and they are always online. Mass media is also efficient as it is full. This is because it has a lot of social platforms in which the youths love using. These platforms can be used in relaying messages to teenagers. However, mass media has some of its disadvantages, and this is because it is the same media that advertises the use of those drugs and informs the youths where drugs can be found, (United States, 2001). Different strategies should be put or outlined as they explain the aims of the campaign. These strategies will help the campaigners to set specific objectives that they feel they want to achieve, (Hornik, Jacobsohn, Orwin, Piesse & Kalto, 2008). This objective can be significant even after campaigns as they can know if they achieved their goals. References Hornik, R., Jacobsohn, L., Orwin, R., Piesse, A., & Kalton, G. (2008). Effects of the national youth anti-drug media campaign on youths. American Journal of Public Health, 98(12), 2229- 2236.
  • 36. Bennett, C. (2008). The emergence of Australia's national campaign against drug abuse: a case-study in the politics of drug control. Journal of Australian Studies, 32(3), 309-321. United States. (2001). Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti- Drug Media Campaign: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives ; One Hundred Sixth Congress, second session ; July 11, 2000.