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www.glcnetworks.com
Running BGP
with Mikrotik
GLC webinar, 5 nov 2020
Achmad Mardiansyah
achmad@glcnetworks.com
GLC Networks, Indonesia
1
www.glcnetworks.com
Agenda
● Introduction
● How internet works
● How BGP works
● Interior and exterior routing
● BGP basic configuration
● Live practice
● Q & A
2
www.glcnetworks.com
introduction
3
www.glcnetworks.com
What is GLC?
● Garda Lintas Cakrawala (www.glcnetworks.com)
● Based in Bandung, Indonesia
● Areas: Training, IT Consulting
● Certified partner for: Mikrotik, Ubiquity, Linux foundation
● Product: GLC radius manager
● Regular event
4
www.glcnetworks.com
Trainer Introduction
● Name: Achmad Mardiansyah
● Base: bandung, Indonesia
● Linux user since 1999, mikrotik user since 2007, UBNT
2011
● Mikrotik Certified Trainer
(MTCNA/RE/WE/UME/INE/TCE/IPv6)
● Mikrotik/Linux Certified Consultant
● Website contributor: achmadjournal.com, mikrotik.tips,
asysadmin.tips
● More info:
http://au.linkedin.com/in/achmadmardiansyah
5
www.glcnetworks.com
Past experiences
6
● 2020 (Congo DRC, Malaysia): IOT integration,
network automation
● 2019, Congo (DRC): build a wireless ISP from
ground-up
● 2018, Malaysia: network revamp, develop billing
solution and integration, setup dynamic routing
● 2017, Libya (north africa): remote wireless migration
for a new Wireless ISP
● 2016, United Kingdom: workshop for wireless ISP,
migrating a bridged to routed network
● 2015, West Kalimantan: supporting wireless
infrastructure project
www.glcnetworks.com
About GLC webinar?
● First webinar: january 1, 2010 (title:
tahun baru bersama solaris - new year
with solaris OS)
● As a sharing event with various topics:
linux, networking, wireless, database,
programming, etc
● Regular schedule
● Irregular schedule: as needed
● Checking schedule:
http://www.glcnetworks.com/schedule
● You are invited to be a presenter
○ No need to be an expert
○ This is a forum for sharing: knowledge,
experiences, information
7
www.glcnetworks.com
Please introduce yourself
● Your name
● Your company/university?
● Your networking experience?
● Your mikrotik experience?
● Your expectation from this course?
8
www.glcnetworks.com
How Internet works
9
www.glcnetworks.com
A bit of history...
● Initially, research project (’70-’80s) – Open, cooperative, public domain
○ “Rough consensus and running code”
● Then, product of liberalisation (’90s) – Also, catalyst for deregulation
○ Commercial, competitive environment
● Now, public utility and critical infrastructure (since 2000 and beyond)
○ “Internet governance” is a recent afterthought
10
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Before internet...
● Computer networking already exist… but many are proprietary
11
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Internet defines a standard for communication
12
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
After internet...
13
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Why use internet
● Open
○ Free standards and implementations – Low barrier to entry
● Lightweight
○ “Dumb”: simple and efficient
○ Intelligence at the edges: in applications and devices
● Global
○ Uniform, “End-to-End”
● Neutral
○ By default
14
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Layers in telecommunincations
15
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Layers in traditional communication
16
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Layers in internet communication
17
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
We need standards
● Standards operate at different levels of the network “stack”
○ in fact they define the stack
● A standard (or protocol) is simply an agreement
○ among members of a community,
○ on a set of guidelines or rules,
○ which allow cooperation (interoperability),
○ sometimes, in a forum such as ISO, ITU, W3C or IETF.
● An open standard is a standard which is
○ Developed through open and accessible processes
○ Freely accessible, implementable and usable
○ Available without barriers such as licenses and fees.
○ ... “ideally”, at least.
18
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Addressing, IANA, RIR
● Internet is based on IP (internet protocol) addressing scheme -> RFC791
● Addressing has to be unique.
● We need an international body that regulates IP addressing -> IANA (Internet
Assigned Number Authority)
● IANA delegates (some of its authority) to RIR “Regional Internet Registry”
● RIR delegates to country’s
● Every organisation must have IP address block to join the internet and
build a routing scheme among their equipment
19
www.glcnetworks.com
Internet topology
20
www.glcnetworks.com
Inter-connected networks
21
Source: APNIC
www.glcnetworks.com
Your ISP and you
● ISP is an organisation that is part of internet that provides connectivity to their
customers
○ Identified by their AS (Autonomous System) number
○ Identified by their IP address block
● When you connect to internet, you will use your ISP’s address
22
Your ISP. and you
are part of them
other
ISP
other
ISP
google
facebook
www.glcnetworks.com
At your ISP (physical connection)
23
Border
router
Other
ISP
Other
ISP
Access
router
Access
router
customer customer customer
Access network: GPON, WLAN,
FO, GSM, ethernet, etc
www.glcnetworks.com
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
24
www.glcnetworks.com
What is BGP features?
● Path Vector Protocol
● Incremental Updates
● Many options for policy enforcement
● Support VLSM
● Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR)
● Widely used for Internet backbone
● Connects Autonomous systems
25
www.glcnetworks.com
What is VLSM?
● Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
● Can divide an IP address block into subnets of different sizes using / (slash)
notation
● Solution the in efficient of classful IP address (fixed length). No more class A,
class B, Class C -> please don't say these classes anymore
● making it possible to create subnets with very different host counts without
wasting large numbers of addresses.
● RFC: 1878 (1995)
● Basis for CIDR
● Example: 23.45.0.0/16
○ 23.45.0.0/25
○ 23.45.0.128/25
26
www.glcnetworks.com
VLSM RFC
27
www.glcnetworks.com
What is CIDR?
● CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (sometimes is called supernetting)
● CIDR solves problem of wasted address space by providing a new and more
flexible way to specify network addresses in routers (using slash as notation)
● allow flexible allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
● Replaces classful network (class A,B,C,D). Please don't ever mention this
anymore...
● CIDR lets a routing table entry represent an aggregation of networks that exist
in the forward path
● Each IP address has a network prefix that identifies either one or several
network gateways.
● RFC: 1519
28
www.glcnetworks.com
CIDR
29
www.glcnetworks.com
Path Vector Protocol
● BGP is classified as a path vector routing protocol (see RFC 1322)
● A path vector protocol defines a route as a pairing between a destination and
the attributes of the path to that destination.
● See AS path below
30
www.glcnetworks.com
Path vector protocol
31
Image source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
Peering types
● Transit - service provided by an ISP to carry other ISP/customer traffic to
other network (internet). Usually is for commercial (paid service)
● Peering - 2 ISPs or more exchange traffic and routing information. Can be
commercial or non commercial (gratis). Example: peering on IXP (Internet
Exchange Point)
● Default - default route, sending traffic to default router of there is no explicit
match on routing table
32
www.glcnetworks.com
Peering and transit example (IIX vs openIXP?)
33
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
Autonomous System (AS)
● Collection of networks with same routing policy
● Single routing protocol
● Usually under single ownership, trust and administrative control
● Identified by a unique 32-bit integer (ASN)
34
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
BGP basics
35
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
Building forwarding table for BGP
36
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
eBGP & iBGP
● BGP is used
○ Internally, inside AS (iBGP - internal BGP)
○ Externally, between AS (eBGP - external BGP)
● iBGP is used to carry
○ Some/all Internet prefixes across ISP backbone
○ Prefixes from ISP customers
● eBGP is used to
○ Exchange prefixes with other ASes
○ Implement routing policy
37
www.glcnetworks.com
eBGP & iBGP
38
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
IGP: interior Gateway Protocol.
E.g. RIP, OSPF, IEGRP
www.glcnetworks.com
External BGP Peering (eBGP)
● Between BGP speakers in different AS
● Should be directly connected
● Never run an IGP between eBGP peers
39
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
Internal BGP (iBGP)
● BGP peer within the same AS
● Not required to be directly connected
○ IGP takes care of inter-BGP speaker connectivity
● iBGP speakers must be fully meshed:
○ They originate connected networks
○ They pass on prefixes learned from outside the ASN
○ They do not pass on prefixes learned from other iBGP speakers
● Recommended to do peer with loopback interface
● To avoid mesh peering: AS confederation, route reflector
40
source: philip smith,
introduction to BGP
www.glcnetworks.com
BGP on Mikrotik
41
www.glcnetworks.com
Setup instance
42
www.glcnetworks.com
Setup BGP peer
43
www.glcnetworks.com
Display peer
44
www.glcnetworks.com
Display routing table
45
www.glcnetworks.com
LIVE practice
46
www.glcnetworks.com
R1
AS11
R2
AS11
E2
E2
E3
E3
E6
R3
AS13
R4
AS13
E2
E2
E3
E3
E6
R5
AS15
R6
AS15
E2
E2
E3
E3
E6
R7
AS17
R8
AS17
E2
E2
E3
E3
E6
R9
AS19
R10
AS19
E2
E2
E3
E3
E6
SW86
192.168.86.X/24
R86
AS86
R85
AS85
R98
R88
AS88
R87
AS87
E6
E6
E3
E3
E5
E2
E5
E3
E3
E2
TOPOLOGY 1
LAB: Mikrotik
E6
E6
E2
E6 E6 E6
PC101
E2
PC102
E2
PC103
E2
PC104
E2
PC105
E2
PC106
E2
PC107
E2
PC108
E2
PC109
E2
PC110
www.glcnetworks.com
preparation
● SSH client
● SSH parameters
○ SSH address
○ SSH port
○ SSH username
○ SSH password
48
www.glcnetworks.com
Q & A
49
www.glcnetworks.com
Interested? Just come to our training...
● Topics are arranged in systematic and logical way
● You will learn from experienced teacher
● Not only learn the materials, but also sharing experiences, best-practices, and
networking
50
www.glcnetworks.com
BGP workshop
● Method: online
● Duration: 16 hours (4 days)
● VPN access to lab
51
Syllabus:
● introduction
● Networking review
● Autonomous System
● BGP basics
● BGP distribution
● BGP filtering
● BGP attribute
● BGP peering: external & internal
● BGP multihop peering
● BGP nexthop options
● BGP attributes (weight, local preference,
prepend, MED, community)
● Routing policy with BGP
● BGP message
● BGP and loopback interface
● BGP redistribute (connected, static, other
routing)
● BGP + IGP (OSPF / RIP)
● BGP soft configuration
● Regext on BGP filter
● BGP authentication
● Private AS
● BGP mesh peering
● BGP confederation
● BGP route reflector
www.glcnetworks.com
End of slides
● Thank you for your attention
● Please submit your feedback: http://bit.ly/glcfeedback
● Like our facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/glcnetworks
● Slide: http://www.slideshare.net/r41nbuw
● Recording (youtube): https://goo.gl/28ABHU
● Stay tune with our schedule
● Any questions?
52

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