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BY;
ANUSHRI SRIVASTAV;
ANUSHRI SRIVASTAVA
Routes of Drug
Administration
Enteral Routes Parenteral Topical
ENTERAL ROUTES OF DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
ENTER AL
ROUTES
ORAL BUCCAL SUBLINGUAL RECTAL
ORAL ROUTE
 Most common and safest route
 Oldest route
 Two methods of administration:
 Applying topically to the mouth
 Swallowing for absorption along the GIT into systemic
circulation
 Abbreviation used: po
ADVANTAGES OF ORAL ROUTE
Convenient
Safest route
Most economical
Self administered
Non-invasive route
DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL ROUTE
Sometimes in efficient as only part of the drug may be absorbed
Onset of action is slower as absorption needed time
Some drugs may not be absorbed due to certain physical characteristics e.g.
streptomycin
Irritation to GI tract may lead to vomiting
Some drugs may be destroyed by Gastric juices e.g. insulin
Cannot be given to unconscious and uncooperative patient.
Patient may forget to take the tablet
COMMON DOSAGE FORMS FOR
ORAL ADMINISTRATION
Tablets
Capsules
Liquids
Solutions
Suspensio
ns
Syrups
Elixirs
Sublingual Route
 Sublingual route of drug administration is where the drug is
placed under the tongue
 ADVANTAGES
 Economical
 Quick termination
 First pass avoided
 Quick absorption
 DISADVANTAGES
 Bitter drugs
 Irritation oral mucosa
 Large quantities not given
 Few drugs are absorbed
Buccal Route
 The drug is placed between the gums and inner lining of
the cheeks(buccal pouch) e.g.
 ADVANTAGES
 Avoid first pass effect
 Rapid Absorption
 Drug stability
 DISADVANTATGES
 Inconvenience
 Advantages lost if swallowed
 Small dose limit
RECTAL ROUTE
 Drug is administered to rectum through enema and
suppository e.g. chlorpromazine,
aspirin, etc.
 ADVANTAGE
 Used in child
 Used in vomiting
 DISADVANTAGE
 Inconvenient
 Absorption is slow and erratic
 Irritation and inflammation of rectal mucosa can occur.
PARENTERAL ROUTE OF DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
 Routes other than Enteral routes
PARENTERAL
ROUTES
INJECTABLES
INHALATION
TRANSDERMAL
INJECTABLES
1. INTRADERMAL
2. SUBCUTANEOUS
3. INTRAMUSCULAR
4. INTRAVENOUS
5. INTRA-ARTICULAR
6. INTRA-ARTERIAL
7. INTRATHECAL
Routes Of Drug Administration by Anushri Srivastava .pptx
INTRATHECAL
INJECTION
INTRA-ARTICULAR
INJECTION
INHALATION ROUTE
 Absorption through the lungs
 Volatile liquid and gases are given by inhalation, e.g.
General Anesthetics.
 Aerosols of Salbutamol (Bronchodilators)
 Local route for pulmonary diseases
 Instantaneous absorption because of the large surface
area of the lungs.
TRANSDERMAL ROUTE
 Highly lipid soluble drugs can be applied over the skin
for slow and prolong absorption.
 Example- Nitroglycerin ointment in Angina pectoris
adhesive unit, jet injection, etc.
TOPICAL ROUTES OF DRUG
ADMINISTRATION
 Drugs may be applied on the skin for local action as
ointment cream, gel, powder, paste, etc.
 Includes administration of drugs to any mucosal
membrane such as, eyes, nose, ears, vagina, rectum
NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES
 Ensure the rights of the
 History of allergy should be taken particularly before
Parenteral administration of drug
 Monitor the therapeutic effect, sign and symptoms,
and adverse effect.
 Drug should be handle with care and kept in safe
place.
 Check the biodata of the patient before giving the
drugs.
ALL THE BEST MY STUDENTS.
KEEP WORKING HARD AND HAVE
A COLORFUL FUTURE
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Routes Of Drug Administration by Anushri Srivastava .pptx

  • 2. Routes of Drug Administration Enteral Routes Parenteral Topical
  • 3. ENTERAL ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION ENTER AL ROUTES ORAL BUCCAL SUBLINGUAL RECTAL
  • 4. ORAL ROUTE  Most common and safest route  Oldest route  Two methods of administration:  Applying topically to the mouth  Swallowing for absorption along the GIT into systemic circulation  Abbreviation used: po
  • 5. ADVANTAGES OF ORAL ROUTE Convenient Safest route Most economical Self administered Non-invasive route DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL ROUTE Sometimes in efficient as only part of the drug may be absorbed Onset of action is slower as absorption needed time Some drugs may not be absorbed due to certain physical characteristics e.g. streptomycin Irritation to GI tract may lead to vomiting Some drugs may be destroyed by Gastric juices e.g. insulin Cannot be given to unconscious and uncooperative patient. Patient may forget to take the tablet
  • 6. COMMON DOSAGE FORMS FOR ORAL ADMINISTRATION Tablets Capsules Liquids Solutions Suspensio ns Syrups Elixirs
  • 7. Sublingual Route  Sublingual route of drug administration is where the drug is placed under the tongue  ADVANTAGES  Economical  Quick termination  First pass avoided  Quick absorption  DISADVANTAGES  Bitter drugs  Irritation oral mucosa  Large quantities not given  Few drugs are absorbed
  • 8. Buccal Route  The drug is placed between the gums and inner lining of the cheeks(buccal pouch) e.g.  ADVANTAGES  Avoid first pass effect  Rapid Absorption  Drug stability  DISADVANTATGES  Inconvenience  Advantages lost if swallowed  Small dose limit
  • 9. RECTAL ROUTE  Drug is administered to rectum through enema and suppository e.g. chlorpromazine, aspirin, etc.  ADVANTAGE  Used in child  Used in vomiting  DISADVANTAGE  Inconvenient  Absorption is slow and erratic  Irritation and inflammation of rectal mucosa can occur.
  • 10. PARENTERAL ROUTE OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION  Routes other than Enteral routes PARENTERAL ROUTES INJECTABLES INHALATION TRANSDERMAL
  • 11. INJECTABLES 1. INTRADERMAL 2. SUBCUTANEOUS 3. INTRAMUSCULAR 4. INTRAVENOUS 5. INTRA-ARTICULAR 6. INTRA-ARTERIAL 7. INTRATHECAL
  • 14. INHALATION ROUTE  Absorption through the lungs  Volatile liquid and gases are given by inhalation, e.g. General Anesthetics.  Aerosols of Salbutamol (Bronchodilators)  Local route for pulmonary diseases  Instantaneous absorption because of the large surface area of the lungs.
  • 15. TRANSDERMAL ROUTE  Highly lipid soluble drugs can be applied over the skin for slow and prolong absorption.  Example- Nitroglycerin ointment in Angina pectoris adhesive unit, jet injection, etc.
  • 16. TOPICAL ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION  Drugs may be applied on the skin for local action as ointment cream, gel, powder, paste, etc.  Includes administration of drugs to any mucosal membrane such as, eyes, nose, ears, vagina, rectum
  • 17. NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES  Ensure the rights of the  History of allergy should be taken particularly before Parenteral administration of drug  Monitor the therapeutic effect, sign and symptoms, and adverse effect.  Drug should be handle with care and kept in safe place.  Check the biodata of the patient before giving the drugs.
  • 18. ALL THE BEST MY STUDENTS. KEEP WORKING HARD AND HAVE A COLORFUL FUTURE
  • 19. Any Doubts? If you have any doubts related the topic or need more such interesting notes on topics ….comment or email me. Thankyou!