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AT THE CUTTING “EDGE” OF PLATE MODELING:
USING DEFORMABLE SHAPES TO BUILD A
“FULLY REALIZED” PALEOGIS PLATE MODEL

Malcolm Ross and Cees van Oosterhout

Global Geology Research Team, PTI/EB
Shell International Exploration and Production
Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

1
DEFINITIONS AND CAUTIONARY NOTE
Reserves: Our use of the term “reserves” in this presentation means SEC proved oil and gas reserves for all 2009 and 2010 data, and includes both SEC proved oil and gas reserves and SEC proven mining reserves for 2008 data.
Resources: Our use of the term “resources” in this presentation includes quantities of oil and gas not yet classified as SEC proved oil and gas reserves or SEC proven mining reserves. Resources are consistent with the Society of Petroleum Engineers 2P and 2C definitions.
Organic: Our use of the term Organic includes SEC proved oil and gas reserves and SEC proven mining reserves (for 2008) excluding changes resulting from acquisitions, divestments and year-average pricing impact.
To facilitate a better understanding of underlying business performance, the financial results are also presented on an estimated current cost of supplies (CCS) basis as applied for the Oil Products and Chemicals segment earnings. Earnings on an estimated current cost of supplies basis provides useful
information concerning the effect of changes in the cost of supplies on Royal Dutch Shell‟s results of operations and is a measure to manage the performance of the Oil Products and Chemicals segments but is not a measure of financial performance under IFRS.

The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly and indirectly owns investments are separate entities. In this presentation “Shell”, “Shell group” and “Royal Dutch Shell” are sometimes used for convenience
where references are made to Royal Dutch Shell plc and its subsidiaries in general. Likewise, the words “we”, “us” and “our” are also used to refer to subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These
expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies. „„Subsidiaries‟‟, “Shell subsidiaries” and “Shell companies” as used in this presentation refer to
companies in which Royal Dutch Shell either directly or indirectly has control, by having either a majority of the voting rights or the right to exercise a controlling influence. The companies in which Shell has significant
influence but not control are referred to as “associated companies” or “associates” and companies in which Shell has joint control are referred to as “jointly controlled entities”. In this presentation, associates and
jointly controlled entities are also referred to as “equity-accounted investments”. The term “Shell interest” is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect (for example, through our 24% shareholding in
Woodside Petroleum Ltd.) ownership interest held by Shell in a venture, partnership or company, after exclusion of all third-party interest.

This presentation contains forward-looking statements concerning the financial condition, results of operations and businesses of Royal Dutch Shell. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may
be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements of future expectations that are based on management‟s current expectations and assumptions and involve known and
unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other
things, statements concerning the potential exposure of Royal Dutch Shell to market risks and statements expressing management‟s expectations, beliefs, estimates, forecasts, projections and assumptions. These
forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as „„anticipate‟‟, „„believe‟‟, „„could‟‟, „„estimate‟‟, „„expect‟‟, „„intend‟‟, „„may‟‟, „„plan‟‟, „„objectives‟‟, „„outlook‟‟, „„probably‟‟, „„project‟‟, „„will‟‟,
„„seek‟‟, „„target‟‟, „„risks‟‟, „„goals‟‟, „„should‟‟ and similar terms and phrases. There are a number of factors that could affect the future operations of Royal Dutch Shell and could cause those results to differ materially
from those expressed in the forward-looking statements included in this presentation, including (without limitation): (a) price fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas; (b) changes in demand for the Shell‟s products; (c)
currency fluctuations; (d) drilling and production results; (e) reserve estimates; (f) loss of market share and industry competition; (g) environmental and physical risks; (h) risks associated with the identification of
suitable potential acquisition properties and targets, and successful negotiation and completion of such transactions; (i) the risk of doing business in developing countries and countries subject to international
sanctions; (j) legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments including potential litigation and regulatory measures as a result of climate changes; (k) economic and financial market conditions in various countries and
regions; (l) political risks, including the risks of expropriation and renegotiation of the terms of contracts with governmental entities, delays or advancements in the approval of projects and delays in the
reimbursement for shared costs; and (m) changes in trading conditions. All forward-looking statements contained in this presentation are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or
referred to in this section. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Additional factors that may affect future results are contained in Royal Dutch Shell‟s 20-F for the year ended 31
December, 2010 (available at www.shell.com/investor and www.sec.gov ). These factors also should be considered by the reader. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this presentation,
November13, 2011. Neither Royal Dutch Shell nor any of its subsidiaries undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or other
information. In light of these risks, results could differ materially from those stated, implied or inferred from the forward-looking statements contained in this presentation. There can be no assurance that dividend payments will match or
exceed those set out in this presentation in the future, or that they will be made at all.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) permits oil and gas companies, in their filings with the SEC, to disclose only proved reserves that a company has demonstrated by actual production or
conclusive formation tests to be economically and legally producible under existing economic and operating conditions. We use certain terms in this presentation, such as resources and oil in place, that SEC's
guidelines strictly prohibit us from including in filings with the SEC. U.S. Investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our Form 20-F, File No 1-32575, available on the SEC website www.sec.gov. You can
also obtain these forms from the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.
A RIGID PLATE MODEL ANIMATION

Footer

3
PaleoGIS Deformable shapes algorithm

Plate A: 50 Ma deformation sequence
polygon

Plate A: 100 Ma deformation sequence
polygon

Plate A: 75 Ma reconstruction

Plate_code

Appearance

Disappeara

defm_id

seq

5

75

-999

<Null>

<Null>

5

100

75

458

1

5

150

100

458

2

5

225

150

458

3
Constraints imposed by using the approach
Works for points, lines, and polygons, but not rasters
The deformation implied by the shape change of underlying layers
(i.e., polygons) does not propagate automatically to overlaying
layers


Consider Ian Norton‟s presentation?

Each shape in a deformation series must have same number of
vertices and must be simple polygons


PaleoGIS can interpolate, but it does not do it in a predictable fashion, so
just be careful! VERY easy to drop/add vertices, create complex shapes

The cookiecutter must be decoupled from display layers


Commonly, the cookiecutter layer is a display layer, but that won‟t work,
because using the deformable shapes requires more than one polygon
occupy the same space (against the rules of cookiecutters)



PaleoGIS Plate model format supports defining them separately

Use definition query to limit what is viewed on Present Day map
Features to which deformable shapes can be applied
Deformed continental crust (“plate polygons”)


Usually used in stretched continental margins




Better if quantified, but can be used to just get rid of overlaps

Will work for collision belts


Difficult to quantify

Isochrons (age polygons)


To get continuously created oceanic crust

Plate boundaries (lines)


Ridge/transform segments




Not really on any plate, but only have to do one side of spreading center

Subduction zones


Symbology rides on over-riding plate, so fix subduction zone to it
“PALINSPASTIC” RESTORATION OF RIFTED CONT.
CRUST
[ “no volume change” assumption]
Seds
Water

Top
Baseme
nt
Stretched
Continental
Crust

Stable
Craton

“Oceanic/
Exhumed
Mantle”

Moho

Cross-section, Theoretical Passive/Stretched Margin
“PALINSPASTIC” RESTORATION OF RIFTED CONT.
CRUST
[“no volume change” assumption]
Pre-rift
“COB”

Post-rift
“COB”

Stable
Craton

Crust

Cross-section, Theoretical Passive/Stretched Margin
Deformed continental crust
Isochrons
Isochrons (detail)
Plate Boundaries (Spreading Center)
Plate Boundary (Spreading Center – Detail)
Plate Boundaries (Subduction Zones)
On the road to a “fully-realized” plate model
Using Deformable Shapes to Build a Plate Model by Malcom Ross, Shell: 2013/Third Annual PaleoGIS & PaleoClimate Users Conference

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Using Deformable Shapes to Build a Plate Model by Malcom Ross, Shell: 2013/Third Annual PaleoGIS & PaleoClimate Users Conference

  • 1. AT THE CUTTING “EDGE” OF PLATE MODELING: USING DEFORMABLE SHAPES TO BUILD A “FULLY REALIZED” PALEOGIS PLATE MODEL Malcolm Ross and Cees van Oosterhout Global Geology Research Team, PTI/EB Shell International Exploration and Production Shell Global Solutions International B.V. 1
  • 2. DEFINITIONS AND CAUTIONARY NOTE Reserves: Our use of the term “reserves” in this presentation means SEC proved oil and gas reserves for all 2009 and 2010 data, and includes both SEC proved oil and gas reserves and SEC proven mining reserves for 2008 data. Resources: Our use of the term “resources” in this presentation includes quantities of oil and gas not yet classified as SEC proved oil and gas reserves or SEC proven mining reserves. Resources are consistent with the Society of Petroleum Engineers 2P and 2C definitions. Organic: Our use of the term Organic includes SEC proved oil and gas reserves and SEC proven mining reserves (for 2008) excluding changes resulting from acquisitions, divestments and year-average pricing impact. To facilitate a better understanding of underlying business performance, the financial results are also presented on an estimated current cost of supplies (CCS) basis as applied for the Oil Products and Chemicals segment earnings. Earnings on an estimated current cost of supplies basis provides useful information concerning the effect of changes in the cost of supplies on Royal Dutch Shell‟s results of operations and is a measure to manage the performance of the Oil Products and Chemicals segments but is not a measure of financial performance under IFRS. The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly and indirectly owns investments are separate entities. In this presentation “Shell”, “Shell group” and “Royal Dutch Shell” are sometimes used for convenience where references are made to Royal Dutch Shell plc and its subsidiaries in general. Likewise, the words “we”, “us” and “our” are also used to refer to subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies. „„Subsidiaries‟‟, “Shell subsidiaries” and “Shell companies” as used in this presentation refer to companies in which Royal Dutch Shell either directly or indirectly has control, by having either a majority of the voting rights or the right to exercise a controlling influence. The companies in which Shell has significant influence but not control are referred to as “associated companies” or “associates” and companies in which Shell has joint control are referred to as “jointly controlled entities”. In this presentation, associates and jointly controlled entities are also referred to as “equity-accounted investments”. The term “Shell interest” is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect (for example, through our 24% shareholding in Woodside Petroleum Ltd.) ownership interest held by Shell in a venture, partnership or company, after exclusion of all third-party interest. This presentation contains forward-looking statements concerning the financial condition, results of operations and businesses of Royal Dutch Shell. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements of future expectations that are based on management‟s current expectations and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning the potential exposure of Royal Dutch Shell to market risks and statements expressing management‟s expectations, beliefs, estimates, forecasts, projections and assumptions. These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as „„anticipate‟‟, „„believe‟‟, „„could‟‟, „„estimate‟‟, „„expect‟‟, „„intend‟‟, „„may‟‟, „„plan‟‟, „„objectives‟‟, „„outlook‟‟, „„probably‟‟, „„project‟‟, „„will‟‟, „„seek‟‟, „„target‟‟, „„risks‟‟, „„goals‟‟, „„should‟‟ and similar terms and phrases. There are a number of factors that could affect the future operations of Royal Dutch Shell and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements included in this presentation, including (without limitation): (a) price fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas; (b) changes in demand for the Shell‟s products; (c) currency fluctuations; (d) drilling and production results; (e) reserve estimates; (f) loss of market share and industry competition; (g) environmental and physical risks; (h) risks associated with the identification of suitable potential acquisition properties and targets, and successful negotiation and completion of such transactions; (i) the risk of doing business in developing countries and countries subject to international sanctions; (j) legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments including potential litigation and regulatory measures as a result of climate changes; (k) economic and financial market conditions in various countries and regions; (l) political risks, including the risks of expropriation and renegotiation of the terms of contracts with governmental entities, delays or advancements in the approval of projects and delays in the reimbursement for shared costs; and (m) changes in trading conditions. All forward-looking statements contained in this presentation are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Additional factors that may affect future results are contained in Royal Dutch Shell‟s 20-F for the year ended 31 December, 2010 (available at www.shell.com/investor and www.sec.gov ). These factors also should be considered by the reader. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this presentation, November13, 2011. Neither Royal Dutch Shell nor any of its subsidiaries undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or other information. In light of these risks, results could differ materially from those stated, implied or inferred from the forward-looking statements contained in this presentation. There can be no assurance that dividend payments will match or exceed those set out in this presentation in the future, or that they will be made at all. The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) permits oil and gas companies, in their filings with the SEC, to disclose only proved reserves that a company has demonstrated by actual production or conclusive formation tests to be economically and legally producible under existing economic and operating conditions. We use certain terms in this presentation, such as resources and oil in place, that SEC's guidelines strictly prohibit us from including in filings with the SEC. U.S. Investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our Form 20-F, File No 1-32575, available on the SEC website www.sec.gov. You can also obtain these forms from the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.
  • 3. A RIGID PLATE MODEL ANIMATION Footer 3
  • 4. PaleoGIS Deformable shapes algorithm Plate A: 50 Ma deformation sequence polygon Plate A: 100 Ma deformation sequence polygon Plate A: 75 Ma reconstruction Plate_code Appearance Disappeara defm_id seq 5 75 -999 <Null> <Null> 5 100 75 458 1 5 150 100 458 2 5 225 150 458 3
  • 5. Constraints imposed by using the approach Works for points, lines, and polygons, but not rasters The deformation implied by the shape change of underlying layers (i.e., polygons) does not propagate automatically to overlaying layers  Consider Ian Norton‟s presentation? Each shape in a deformation series must have same number of vertices and must be simple polygons  PaleoGIS can interpolate, but it does not do it in a predictable fashion, so just be careful! VERY easy to drop/add vertices, create complex shapes The cookiecutter must be decoupled from display layers  Commonly, the cookiecutter layer is a display layer, but that won‟t work, because using the deformable shapes requires more than one polygon occupy the same space (against the rules of cookiecutters)  PaleoGIS Plate model format supports defining them separately Use definition query to limit what is viewed on Present Day map
  • 6. Features to which deformable shapes can be applied Deformed continental crust (“plate polygons”)  Usually used in stretched continental margins   Better if quantified, but can be used to just get rid of overlaps Will work for collision belts  Difficult to quantify Isochrons (age polygons)  To get continuously created oceanic crust Plate boundaries (lines)  Ridge/transform segments   Not really on any plate, but only have to do one side of spreading center Subduction zones  Symbology rides on over-riding plate, so fix subduction zone to it
  • 7. “PALINSPASTIC” RESTORATION OF RIFTED CONT. CRUST [ “no volume change” assumption] Seds Water Top Baseme nt Stretched Continental Crust Stable Craton “Oceanic/ Exhumed Mantle” Moho Cross-section, Theoretical Passive/Stretched Margin
  • 8. “PALINSPASTIC” RESTORATION OF RIFTED CONT. CRUST [“no volume change” assumption] Pre-rift “COB” Post-rift “COB” Stable Craton Crust Cross-section, Theoretical Passive/Stretched Margin
  • 13. Plate Boundary (Spreading Center – Detail)
  • 15. On the road to a “fully-realized” plate model