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INDIRA GANDHI KRISHI VISHWAVIDYALAYA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,RAIPUR
ASSIGNMENT ON
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship
Selection of Elite Mother Plants
SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY
Dr. GD SAHU
Associated Professor SURABHI SHARMA
(Dept. of Fruit Science) M.Sc. Previous Year
Course Title – Propagation and Nursery Management of Fruit Crops
Course Code – FSC- 503
Credit hours -3(2+1)
Year /Semester – M.Sc. 1st year/1st Semester
CONTENTS
•INTRODUCTION
•CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ROOTSTOCK
•EFFECT OF STOCK ON SCION
•EFFECT OF SCION ON STOCK
•IMPORTANT ROOTSTOCKS FOR FRUIT CROPS
•GRAFT INCOMPATIABILITY
•FACTORS AFFECTING THE HEALING OF GRAFT UNION
•SELECTION OF ELITE MOTHER PLANTS
INTRODUCTION
•A rooted stem into which a scion or bud is grafted.
SCION
•A living plant component that is detached and grafted to the stock during the
grafting process.
COMPATIBILITY
•The stock and scion should be fully compatible to establish a
composite plant.
STOCK SCION RELATIONSHIP
•Some times grafted or budded plant can produce unusual growth
patterns due to lack of incompatibility. This different aspect of
rootstocks will influence the performance of a scion cultivar or vice
versa which is known as stock-scion relationship.
STOCK
Characteristics of good rootstocks
•Compatibility with scion cultivars with maximum productive life of the trees
•Well adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of the particular locality like frost,
cold and heat.
• Resistant to diseases and pests prevalent in the paerticular area.
• Tolerant to adverse soil conditions like salt, alkalinity, acidity and drought.
• It should have a positive effect on bearing and quality of scion variety.
• It should possess good germination capacity.
It should have a high degree of polyembryony.
It should have ability to attend graft-able size in a short period .
A. Effect of stock on scion cultivars
1. Size and growth habit:
Dwarfing Effect On Scion
•Trifoliate orange as root stock in sweet oranges.
• Rootstocks like Kalapade and Olour in mango.
• Psidium pumilum rootstock in guava.
• ‘Pusa Srijan’ rootstock in Allahabad Safeda.
•M-9 root stock in Apple .
2. Precocity in flowering and fruiting:
•The time taken from planting to fruiting i.e., precocity is influenced by rootstocks.
Generally fruit precocity is associated with dwarfing rootstocks and slowness to
fruiting with vigorous rootstocks.
•Mandarin, when grafted on Citrus jambhiri rootstock is precocious than those
grafted on sweet orange or orange or acid lime rootstocks.
3. Fruit set and yield
•The rootstocks directly influence on the production of flower and setting fruits in
oriental Persimmon (Diospyrous kaki cv. Hachiya). When it is grafted on D. lotus,
it produces more flowers but only few mature into fruits.
•Acid limes budded on rough lemon register nearly 70 per cent increased yield
than those budded on troyer citrange, Rangpur lime or its own rootstock.
• Sweet orange var. Sathugudi budded on Kichili rootstock gave higher yield than
on Jambhiri or on its own seedling.
4. Fruit size and quality
•Sathugudi sweet oranges grafted on Gajanimma rootstocks produced large but poor
quality fruits while on its own roots they produced fruits with high juice content and
quality.
•The physiological disorder 'granulation' in sweet orange is very low if budded on
Cleopatra mandarin seedlings, on the other hand, rough lemon seedling stocks induced
maximum granulation.
•The physiological disorder black end in Bartlett Pear did not appear if Pyrus
communis was used as the rootstock. When Pyrus pyrifolia was used as the rootstock
this disorder appeared, affecting fruit quality.
5. Nutrient status , Winter hardiness , Disease Resistance
•Sathugudi orange trees have a better nutrient status of all nutrients in the leaves
when it is budded on C. volkarimariana root stock than on its own rootstock or
Cleopatra mandarin stocks.
•Young grapefruit trees on Rangpur lime withstand winter injury better than on rough
lemon or sour orange. Sweet oranges and mandarins on trifoliate stocks were more
cold hardy.
•In citrus, considerable variability exists among the rootstocks in their response to
diseases and nematodes. For instance, rough lemon rootstock is tolerant
to tristeza, xyloporosis and exocortis but is susceptible to gummosis and nematode.
B. Effect of scion on rootstock
1. Vigour of the rootstocks:
•In apple, it has been found that if apple seedlings were budded with the 'Red
Astrachan' apple, the rootstock produced a very fibrous root system with few tap
roots.
•In citrus, if the scion cultivar is less vigorous than the rootstock, the rate of growth
and the ultimate size of the tree is more determined by the scion rather than the
rootstocks.
2. Cold hardiness of the rootstock
•Cold hardiness of citrus roots is affected by the scion cultivar. Sour orange
seedlings budded to 'Eureka' suffered much more from winter injury than the
unbudded seedlings.
3. Precocity in flowering
•Young mango rootstock seedlings (6 months to one year old) were found to put
forth inflorescence when the branches from old trees are inarched which can be
attributed to the influence of scion on the rootstock.
SOME IMPORTANT ROOTSTOCK OF FRUIT CROPS
ROOTSTOCK OF CITRUS
ROOTSTOCK OF APPLE
ROOTSTOCK OF GRAPE
ROOTSTOCK OF PEACH AND APRICOT
ROOTSTOCK OF ALMOND AND CHERRY
ROOTSTOCK OF PLUM
GRAFT INCOMPATIABILTY
The inability of two different plant parts grafted or budded together, to
produce a successful union and to develop into a composite plant is termed as
‘graft incompatibility’.
Graft failure can be caused by anatomical mismatching, poor craftsmanship,
adverse environmental conditions, diseases and graft incompatibility. Graft
incompatibility occurs because of following reasons:
•Adverse physiological responses between the grafting partners
•Virus or phytoplasma transmission
•Anatomical abnormalities of vascular tissue in the callus bridge.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE HEALING OF GRAFT UNION
• Kind of plant: Some species like oaks are difficult to graft, but apple and pears
are very easy in producing a successful graft union.
• Environmental factors :
a) Temperature- An optimum temperature is essential for production of callus, In
most of the fruit crops callus production is retarded at higher temperature.
b) Relative humidity must be high is maintaining a film of water against the
callusing surface.
• Propagation techniques:
Sometimes the techniques used in grafting are so poor that only a small portion
of the cambial regions of the stock and scion are brought together. This may
result in failure of the graft union
SELECTION OF ELITE MOTHER PLANTS
The ultimate success of an orcharding enterprise largely depends upon the
quality and genuinity of planting materials as nursery plants are the foundation
of the orchard. The variation of scion wood and rootstock has great bearing on
the productivity of an orchard.
Selection of mother trees
•Creation of budwood bank
Maintenance of budwood band/ repository of improved high yielding and
commercial cultivars of different fruits at a central place, preferably at the major
production areas of respective fruits under the supervision of university/
department for raising of mother blocks/ trees for further multiplication.
•Selection of varieties:
The identification and listing of cultivars to be propagated is very important.
After listing the cultivars, their meritorious plants are to be selected, which give
regular yields of high quality fruits and are marked for further study/use as
budwood source.
•Indexing of viral diseases:
•The progeny plants are the major source for the spread of viral diseases. Thus,
the selected meritorious trees should be indexed for virus and then categorized
accordingly.
•The parent trees showing abnormality in characters with passage of time
should be discarded from the progeny orchard.
•Maintenance of mother trees:
•Identified mother trees are used to develop progeny hedges in large number
near to the nursery site at 2x2m distance.
• The hedges are properly labeled and used for scion wood. Progeny trees are
heavily pruned to produce scion wood in bulk.
•Adequate plant protection measures are also adopted to keep these progeny
hedges free from the insect/pests and diseases.
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants

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Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants

  • 1. INDIRA GANDHI KRISHI VISHWAVIDYALAYA COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,RAIPUR ASSIGNMENT ON Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY Dr. GD SAHU Associated Professor SURABHI SHARMA (Dept. of Fruit Science) M.Sc. Previous Year Course Title – Propagation and Nursery Management of Fruit Crops Course Code – FSC- 503 Credit hours -3(2+1) Year /Semester – M.Sc. 1st year/1st Semester
  • 2. CONTENTS •INTRODUCTION •CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ROOTSTOCK •EFFECT OF STOCK ON SCION •EFFECT OF SCION ON STOCK •IMPORTANT ROOTSTOCKS FOR FRUIT CROPS •GRAFT INCOMPATIABILITY •FACTORS AFFECTING THE HEALING OF GRAFT UNION •SELECTION OF ELITE MOTHER PLANTS
  • 3. INTRODUCTION •A rooted stem into which a scion or bud is grafted. SCION •A living plant component that is detached and grafted to the stock during the grafting process. COMPATIBILITY •The stock and scion should be fully compatible to establish a composite plant. STOCK SCION RELATIONSHIP •Some times grafted or budded plant can produce unusual growth patterns due to lack of incompatibility. This different aspect of rootstocks will influence the performance of a scion cultivar or vice versa which is known as stock-scion relationship. STOCK
  • 4. Characteristics of good rootstocks •Compatibility with scion cultivars with maximum productive life of the trees •Well adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of the particular locality like frost, cold and heat. • Resistant to diseases and pests prevalent in the paerticular area. • Tolerant to adverse soil conditions like salt, alkalinity, acidity and drought. • It should have a positive effect on bearing and quality of scion variety. • It should possess good germination capacity. It should have a high degree of polyembryony. It should have ability to attend graft-able size in a short period .
  • 5. A. Effect of stock on scion cultivars 1. Size and growth habit: Dwarfing Effect On Scion •Trifoliate orange as root stock in sweet oranges. • Rootstocks like Kalapade and Olour in mango. • Psidium pumilum rootstock in guava. • ‘Pusa Srijan’ rootstock in Allahabad Safeda. •M-9 root stock in Apple .
  • 6. 2. Precocity in flowering and fruiting: •The time taken from planting to fruiting i.e., precocity is influenced by rootstocks. Generally fruit precocity is associated with dwarfing rootstocks and slowness to fruiting with vigorous rootstocks. •Mandarin, when grafted on Citrus jambhiri rootstock is precocious than those grafted on sweet orange or orange or acid lime rootstocks. 3. Fruit set and yield •The rootstocks directly influence on the production of flower and setting fruits in oriental Persimmon (Diospyrous kaki cv. Hachiya). When it is grafted on D. lotus, it produces more flowers but only few mature into fruits. •Acid limes budded on rough lemon register nearly 70 per cent increased yield than those budded on troyer citrange, Rangpur lime or its own rootstock. • Sweet orange var. Sathugudi budded on Kichili rootstock gave higher yield than on Jambhiri or on its own seedling.
  • 7. 4. Fruit size and quality •Sathugudi sweet oranges grafted on Gajanimma rootstocks produced large but poor quality fruits while on its own roots they produced fruits with high juice content and quality. •The physiological disorder 'granulation' in sweet orange is very low if budded on Cleopatra mandarin seedlings, on the other hand, rough lemon seedling stocks induced maximum granulation. •The physiological disorder black end in Bartlett Pear did not appear if Pyrus communis was used as the rootstock. When Pyrus pyrifolia was used as the rootstock this disorder appeared, affecting fruit quality.
  • 8. 5. Nutrient status , Winter hardiness , Disease Resistance •Sathugudi orange trees have a better nutrient status of all nutrients in the leaves when it is budded on C. volkarimariana root stock than on its own rootstock or Cleopatra mandarin stocks. •Young grapefruit trees on Rangpur lime withstand winter injury better than on rough lemon or sour orange. Sweet oranges and mandarins on trifoliate stocks were more cold hardy. •In citrus, considerable variability exists among the rootstocks in their response to diseases and nematodes. For instance, rough lemon rootstock is tolerant to tristeza, xyloporosis and exocortis but is susceptible to gummosis and nematode.
  • 9. B. Effect of scion on rootstock 1. Vigour of the rootstocks: •In apple, it has been found that if apple seedlings were budded with the 'Red Astrachan' apple, the rootstock produced a very fibrous root system with few tap roots. •In citrus, if the scion cultivar is less vigorous than the rootstock, the rate of growth and the ultimate size of the tree is more determined by the scion rather than the rootstocks. 2. Cold hardiness of the rootstock •Cold hardiness of citrus roots is affected by the scion cultivar. Sour orange seedlings budded to 'Eureka' suffered much more from winter injury than the unbudded seedlings. 3. Precocity in flowering •Young mango rootstock seedlings (6 months to one year old) were found to put forth inflorescence when the branches from old trees are inarched which can be attributed to the influence of scion on the rootstock.
  • 10. SOME IMPORTANT ROOTSTOCK OF FRUIT CROPS ROOTSTOCK OF CITRUS
  • 13. ROOTSTOCK OF PEACH AND APRICOT
  • 14. ROOTSTOCK OF ALMOND AND CHERRY
  • 16. GRAFT INCOMPATIABILTY The inability of two different plant parts grafted or budded together, to produce a successful union and to develop into a composite plant is termed as ‘graft incompatibility’. Graft failure can be caused by anatomical mismatching, poor craftsmanship, adverse environmental conditions, diseases and graft incompatibility. Graft incompatibility occurs because of following reasons: •Adverse physiological responses between the grafting partners •Virus or phytoplasma transmission •Anatomical abnormalities of vascular tissue in the callus bridge.
  • 17. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE HEALING OF GRAFT UNION • Kind of plant: Some species like oaks are difficult to graft, but apple and pears are very easy in producing a successful graft union. • Environmental factors : a) Temperature- An optimum temperature is essential for production of callus, In most of the fruit crops callus production is retarded at higher temperature. b) Relative humidity must be high is maintaining a film of water against the callusing surface. • Propagation techniques: Sometimes the techniques used in grafting are so poor that only a small portion of the cambial regions of the stock and scion are brought together. This may result in failure of the graft union
  • 18. SELECTION OF ELITE MOTHER PLANTS The ultimate success of an orcharding enterprise largely depends upon the quality and genuinity of planting materials as nursery plants are the foundation of the orchard. The variation of scion wood and rootstock has great bearing on the productivity of an orchard. Selection of mother trees •Creation of budwood bank Maintenance of budwood band/ repository of improved high yielding and commercial cultivars of different fruits at a central place, preferably at the major production areas of respective fruits under the supervision of university/ department for raising of mother blocks/ trees for further multiplication. •Selection of varieties: The identification and listing of cultivars to be propagated is very important. After listing the cultivars, their meritorious plants are to be selected, which give regular yields of high quality fruits and are marked for further study/use as budwood source.
  • 19. •Indexing of viral diseases: •The progeny plants are the major source for the spread of viral diseases. Thus, the selected meritorious trees should be indexed for virus and then categorized accordingly. •The parent trees showing abnormality in characters with passage of time should be discarded from the progeny orchard. •Maintenance of mother trees: •Identified mother trees are used to develop progeny hedges in large number near to the nursery site at 2x2m distance. • The hedges are properly labeled and used for scion wood. Progeny trees are heavily pruned to produce scion wood in bulk. •Adequate plant protection measures are also adopted to keep these progeny hedges free from the insect/pests and diseases.