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RocksDB Compaction
Embedded Key-Value Store for Flash and RAM
Contents
1. RocksDB Architecture
2. Level Style Compaction
3. Universal Style Compaction
4. RocksDB Compaction
Overview
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
Read-Only
Memtable
Memory
Log
Log
SSTSSTSST
SSTSSTSST
Persistent Storage
Write Request
Read Request LSM Files
CompactionFlush
Switch Switch
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
Read-Only
Memtable
Memory
Log
Log
SSTSSTSST
SSTSSTSST
Persistent Storage
Write Request
Read Request LSM Files
CompactionFlush
Switch Switch
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
Read-Only
Memtable
Memory
Log
Log
SSTSSTSST
SSTSSTSST
Persistent Storage
Write Request
Read Request LSM Files
CompactionFlush
Switch Switch
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
Read-Only
Memtable
Memory
Log
Log
SSTSSTSST
SSTSSTSST
Persistent Storage
Write Request
LSM Files
CompactionFlush
Switch Switch
Read Request
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
Read-Only
Memtable
Memory
Log
Log
SSTSSTSST
SSTSSTSST
Persistent Storage
Write Request
LSM Files
CompactionFlush
Switch Switch
Read Request
RocksDB Architecture
Active
Memtable
(4MB)
Immutable
Memtable
Memory
Disk
Write
Level 0
(4 SSTfile)
Level 1
(10MB)
Level 2
(100MB)
. . .
. . . . . .
Info Log
MANIFEST
CURRENT
Compaction
Log
SSTfile
(2MB)
RocksDB Compaction
Multi-threaded compactions
• Background Multi-thread
→ periodically do the “compaction”
→ parallel compactions on different parts of the database
can occur simultaneously
• Merge SSTfiles to a bigger SSTfile
• Remove multiple copies of the same key
– Duplicate or overwritten keys
• Process deletions of keys
• Supports two different styles of compaction
– Tunable compaction to trade-off
Level Style Compaction
• level0_file_num_compaction_trigger
- Number of files to trigger level0 compaction
- Default : 1
Ex) candidate files size < the next file’s size (1% smaller)
→ include next file into this candidate set
• Level0_file_
- The minimum number of files in a single compaction
- Default : 2
• max_merge_width
- The maximum number of files in a single compaction
- Default : UINT_MAX
Compaction options
1. Level Style Compaction
• RocksDB default compaction style
• Stores data in multiple levels in the database
• More recent data → L0
The oldest data → Lmax
• Files in L0
- overlapping keys, sorted by flush time
Files in L1 and higher
- non-overlapping keys, sorted by key
• Each level is 10 times larger than the previous one
Inherited from LevelDB
Level Style Compaction
Compaction process
cache
log
level1
level2
level3
level0
① Pick one file from level N
② Compact it with all its overlapping
files from level N+1
③ Replace them with new files in
level N+1
Level 0 → Level 1 Compaction
• Level 0 → overlapping keys
• Compaction includes all files from L1
• All files from L1 are compacted with L0
• L0 → L1 compaction completion
L1 → L2 compaction start
• Single thread compaction → not good throughput
• Solution : Making the size of L0 similar to size of L1
Tricky Compaction
Level Style Compaction
Level Style Compaction
· Level score =
𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒
max level size
· max file size
= target_file_size_base * target_file_size_multiplier
(Default=2MB) (Default=1)
· Overlapping range search
: Binary Search
Level Style
Flowchart
• Read : 128KB / Write : 512KB
Level Style Compaction
2. Universal Style Compaction
• For write-heavy workloads
→ Level Style Compaction may be bottlenecked on
disk throughput
• Stores all files in L0
• All files are arranged in time order
• Temporarily increase size amplification by a factor of
two
• Intended to decrease write amplification
• But, increase space amplification
Universal Style Compaction
① Pick up a few files that are chronologically adjacent to one
another
② Merge them
③ Replace them with a new file in level 0
Compaction process
Universal Style Compaction
Universal Style Compaction
Universal Style Compaction
Flowchart
Universal Style Compaction
• Read : 128KB / Write : 512KB
Universal Style Compaction
• size_ratio
- Percentage flexibility while comparing file size
- Default : 1
Ex) candidate set size < size of next file (1% smaller)
→ include next file in candidate set
• min_merge_width
- The minimum number of files in a single compaction
- Default : 2
• max_merge_width
- The maximum number of files in a single compaction
- Default : UINT_MAX
Compaction options
Universal Style Compaction
• max_size_amplification_percent
- The amount of additional storage needed to store a
single byte of data in the database
- Controls the amount of space amplification in the
database
- Does not determine when calls to Put & Delete are
stalled
- Determines when compaction is done
- Default : 200
Compaction options
Universal Style Compaction
• stop_style
- The algorithm used to stop picking files into a single
compaction run
- kCompactionStopStyleSimilarSize
→ Pick files of similar size
- kCompactionStopStyleTotalSize
→ total size of picked files > next files
- Default : kCompactionStopStyleTotalSize
Compaction options

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RocksDB compaction

Editor's Notes

  1. MANIFEST files will be formatted as a log all changes cause a state change (add or delete) will be appended to the log. A MANIFEST file lists the set of sorted tables that make up each level Informational messages are printed to files named LOG and LOG.old. CURRENT is a latest manifest file name of the text file