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Robotics
Presented by
Internship on
ROBOTICS SNIPPET
• Robotics is a field of engineering that deals with the
design, construction, operation, and application of
robots. Robots are machines that can be
programmed to perform tasks automatically. They
are used in a wide variety of industries, including
manufacturing, healthcare, and customer service.
• The field of robotics is rapidly growing, and there
are many exciting new developments happening all
the time. For example, robots are now being used
to perform surgery, deliver food to hospital
patients, and even teach children in schools.
• As the field of robotics continues to grow, it is
likely that robots will become even more
commonplace in our lives. They have the potential
to revolutionize many industries and make our lives
easier and more efficient.
100BC
The Antikythera mechanism is built
in Greece
16th Cen.
Leonardo da Vinci designs a number
of robots, including a humanoid
robot that could walk and talk.
1950s
The first modern robots are
developed
1970s
Robots begin to be used in other
industries, such as healthcare and
customer service.
1980s
Artificial intelligence is developed,
which allows robots to learn and
adapt.
ROBOTICS SNIPPET
1990s
Robots begin to be used in a wider
variety of applications, including space
exploration and military operations.
2000s
The development of robotics continues to
accelerate, and robots become increasingly
sophisticated and affordable.
Today
Robots are used in a wide range
of industries and applications
The future of robotics is bright,
and it is likely that robots will
become even more commonplace
in our lives in the years to come.
 First Law: A robot may not injure a human being or,
through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
 Second Law: A robot must obey the orders given to it by
human beings, except where such orders would conflict
with the First Law.
 Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long
as such protection does not conflict with the First or
Second Law.
 Zeroth Law: A robot may not harm humanity, or, by
inaction, allow humanity to come to harm, except where it
conflicts with the First Law.
Asimov's Laws
of Robotics
Mechanical subsystems are essential parts of larger structures, performing specific functions and
enabling system functionality.
 Power transmission subsystem transfers energy and torque efficiently using gears, belts,
pulleys, and shafts.
 Actuation systems convert energy into mechanical motion through motors, actuators,
cylinders, and solenoids.
 Structural framework subsystem provides stability and durability with frames, chassis, and
mounting systems.
 Mechanical linkages transmit motion and force using hinges, levers, link arms, and cam mechanisms.
 Sensing and feedback subsystems use sensors for real-time monitoring and adjustment of physical parameters.
 Cooling and ventilation subsystems maintain optimal temperatures with heat sinks, fans, pumps, and fluid
cooling.
 Safety and protection subsystems include emergency stop mechanisms, limit switches, and protective
guards.
Mechanical
Subsystems
It applies geometry to study the movement of multi-degree of freedom kinematic chains
in robotic systems. The emphasis is on modelling the robot's links as rigid bodies and
assuming pure rotation or
translation at the joints.
Robot
Kinematics
 Coordinate Systems: Different coordinate systems are used to describe
the position and orientation of robots, such as Cartesian coordinate
systems (linear robots), cylindrical coordinate systems, and spherical
robots.
 DH Method: The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to
describe the transformation between reference frames in a robot
manipulator. These parameters determine the geometry and
kinematics of the robot.
 Robot dynamics studies the relationship between forces and accelerations in a robot's motion as a system of
rigid bodies.
 Forward dynamics determines accelerations when forces are known, used for simulation.
 Inverse dynamics finds forces for desired accelerations, applied in motion control, trajectory optimization,
and mechanism design.
 Coefficients of the equation of motion describe the relationship between forces, accelerations, and robot
motion.
 Inertia parameter identification estimates robot's inertia parameters based on dynamic behaviour.
 Hybrid dynamics handles situations with known forces and accelerations for some joints but unknown for
others.
 Dynamic model includes kinematic model, inertia parameters, characterizing geometry, motion, and mass
distribution.
 Coefficients in the equation of motion depend on joint angles, velocities, external forces, and dynamic
model.
Robot
Dynamics
 Robotic vision sensors: Self-contained units for easy
inspections, suited for yes/no tasks.
 Sensor capabilities: Capture images, analyze object
characteristics, detect parts, verify shapes, colors, and
recognize characters.
 Robotic vision systems: Complex setups with cameras,
lighting, and connected devices. Enable assembly,
measurement, and pallet unloading.
 Sensor usage: Simple inspections, easy implementation,
and pass/fail answers. Vision systems for guided robot
tasks, minimizing custom engineering.
 Advantages of vision systems: Flexible and intelligent,
replacing multiple sensors. Enhance productivity,
profitability, and reduce downtime.
SENSORS AND
VISION SYSTEMS
ROBOT
CONTROL
 Robot control is the process of managing and directing the
movement and actions of a robot to perform specific tasks or
actions.
 It involves programming the robot's behavior and motion, often
using specialized software or programming languages.
 Robot control systems can range from simple, pre-programmed
sequences
to advanced, real-time control systems that respond to sensor
inputs
and adapt to changing conditions.
 The control system communicates with various components of
the robot, such as actuators, sensors, and effectors, to
coordinate their actions and achieve the desired task.
 Effective robot control ensures precise and accurate movements,
optimized performance, safety, and the ability to handle
 RoboAnalyzer: Advanced software for robot analysis and
simulation.
 Key features: Provides accurate robot kinematics,
dynamics, and trajectory planning.
 Simulation capabilities: Visualize and test robot motion,
control algorithms, and workspace analysis.
 Performance evaluation: Assess robot performance
metrics, such as speed, accuracy, and efficiency.
 Applications: Used in research, education, and industrial
settings for optimizing robot design and programming.
RoboAnalyzer
VISION PROGRAMMING TOOL OPENCV
OPEN SOURCE COMPUTER
 OpenCV: Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) is a powerful programming tool used
for computer vision and image processing applications.
 Wide functionality: OpenCV provides a vast range of functions and algorithms for tasks
like image and video processing, feature detection, object recognition, and machine
learning.
 Cross-platform compatibility: OpenCV is designed to work seamlessly across different
platforms, including Windows, Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, making it highly
versatile and accessible.
 Extensive language support: OpenCV supports multiple programming languages such
as C++, Python, Java, and MATLAB, allowing developers to choose their preferred
language for computer vision development.
 Community support and resources: OpenCV benefits from a large and active community
of developers worldwide. This community provides extensive documentation, tutorials,
and forums, making it easier to learn, troubleshoot, and share knowledge and
 Positioning and Orientation: The precise positioning and orientation of a robot arm
are crucial for performing tasks accurately and efficiently.
 Coordinate Systems: Robots use coordinate systems, such as Cartesian or joint
coordinate systems, to determine the position and orientation of the robot arm in
relation to the workspace.
 Kinematics: The study of robot arm motion and its mathematical representation is
known as kinematics. Kinematics algorithms are used to calculate the joint angles
required to achieve a desired position and orientation.
 Inverse Kinematics: Inverse kinematics is the process of determining the joint
angles needed to position the robot arm at a specific point in the workspace. It
enables the robot to reach desired positions and orientations.
 End Effector Control: The end effector is the tool or device attached to the robot
arm. Controlling the position and orientation of the end effector allows the robot to
interact with objects and perform tasks with precision, such as grasping,
manipulating, or welding.
POSITIONING AND
ORIENTATION OF ROBOT ARM
INTEGRATION OF ASSORTED SENSORS,
MICRO CONTROLLERS AND ROS IN A
ROBOTIC SYSTEM
1. Integration of assorted sensors: Incorporate a variety of sensors such as vision sensors,
proximity sensors, and force sensors into the robotic system to gather diverse data for perception
and interaction with the environment.
2. Microcontrollers: Utilize microcontrollers as the central processing units of the robotic system,
responsible for receiving sensor inputs, executing control algorithms, and coordinating the overall
system operation.
3. ROS (Robot Operating System): Implement ROS, a flexible framework for robot software
development, to enable seamless communication and integration between different components of
the robotic system, including sensors, actuators, and algorithms.
4. Sensor fusion: Integrate sensor fusion techniques to combine data from multiple sensors,
enabling the robot to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate perception of its surroundings,
improving decision-making capabilities.
5. Advantages of integration: The integration of assorted sensors, microcontrollers, and ROS in a
robotic system enables enhanced perception, precise control, and advanced functionalities. It
 Valuable knowledge and hands-on experience: Internship provided practical exposure
and understanding of robotics, contributing to practical applications in the field.
 Key areas and concepts: Explored various areas including robotics overview,
mechanical subsystems, robot kinematics, dynamics, sensors and vision systems, robot
control, control hardware and interfacing.
 RoboAnalyzer and OpenCV: Utilized RoboAnalyzer software for kinematics analysis and
gained proficiency in OpenCV for image processing, enhancing skills in robotic system
analysis and design.
 Positioning and orientation of robot arms: Acquired knowledge to plan and execute
precise movements, enabling efficient manipulation in robotic systems.
 Integration of sensors, microcontrollers, and ROS: Developed a holistic understanding
of the complete robotic ecosystem, allowing for the integration of diverse components
and software for enhanced functionality.
CONCLUSION
a presentation by
Sumanth A 4KM19ME012
Department of Mechanical Engineering

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Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynamics, SENSORS AND VISION SYSTEMS, ROBOT CONTROL, RoboAnalyzer, OpenCV, Positioning and Orientation, INTEGRATION OF ASSORTED SENSORS, MICRO CONTROLLERS AND ROS IN A ROBOTIC SYSTEM

  • 3. ROBOTICS SNIPPET • Robotics is a field of engineering that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots. Robots are machines that can be programmed to perform tasks automatically. They are used in a wide variety of industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and customer service. • The field of robotics is rapidly growing, and there are many exciting new developments happening all the time. For example, robots are now being used to perform surgery, deliver food to hospital patients, and even teach children in schools. • As the field of robotics continues to grow, it is likely that robots will become even more commonplace in our lives. They have the potential to revolutionize many industries and make our lives easier and more efficient.
  • 4. 100BC The Antikythera mechanism is built in Greece 16th Cen. Leonardo da Vinci designs a number of robots, including a humanoid robot that could walk and talk. 1950s The first modern robots are developed 1970s Robots begin to be used in other industries, such as healthcare and customer service. 1980s Artificial intelligence is developed, which allows robots to learn and adapt. ROBOTICS SNIPPET
  • 5. 1990s Robots begin to be used in a wider variety of applications, including space exploration and military operations. 2000s The development of robotics continues to accelerate, and robots become increasingly sophisticated and affordable. Today Robots are used in a wide range of industries and applications The future of robotics is bright, and it is likely that robots will become even more commonplace in our lives in the years to come.
  • 6.  First Law: A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.  Second Law: A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.  Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.  Zeroth Law: A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm, except where it conflicts with the First Law. Asimov's Laws of Robotics
  • 7. Mechanical subsystems are essential parts of larger structures, performing specific functions and enabling system functionality.  Power transmission subsystem transfers energy and torque efficiently using gears, belts, pulleys, and shafts.  Actuation systems convert energy into mechanical motion through motors, actuators, cylinders, and solenoids.  Structural framework subsystem provides stability and durability with frames, chassis, and mounting systems.  Mechanical linkages transmit motion and force using hinges, levers, link arms, and cam mechanisms.  Sensing and feedback subsystems use sensors for real-time monitoring and adjustment of physical parameters.  Cooling and ventilation subsystems maintain optimal temperatures with heat sinks, fans, pumps, and fluid cooling.  Safety and protection subsystems include emergency stop mechanisms, limit switches, and protective guards. Mechanical Subsystems
  • 8. It applies geometry to study the movement of multi-degree of freedom kinematic chains in robotic systems. The emphasis is on modelling the robot's links as rigid bodies and assuming pure rotation or translation at the joints. Robot Kinematics  Coordinate Systems: Different coordinate systems are used to describe the position and orientation of robots, such as Cartesian coordinate systems (linear robots), cylindrical coordinate systems, and spherical robots.  DH Method: The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to describe the transformation between reference frames in a robot manipulator. These parameters determine the geometry and kinematics of the robot.
  • 9.  Robot dynamics studies the relationship between forces and accelerations in a robot's motion as a system of rigid bodies.  Forward dynamics determines accelerations when forces are known, used for simulation.  Inverse dynamics finds forces for desired accelerations, applied in motion control, trajectory optimization, and mechanism design.  Coefficients of the equation of motion describe the relationship between forces, accelerations, and robot motion.  Inertia parameter identification estimates robot's inertia parameters based on dynamic behaviour.  Hybrid dynamics handles situations with known forces and accelerations for some joints but unknown for others.  Dynamic model includes kinematic model, inertia parameters, characterizing geometry, motion, and mass distribution.  Coefficients in the equation of motion depend on joint angles, velocities, external forces, and dynamic model. Robot Dynamics
  • 10.  Robotic vision sensors: Self-contained units for easy inspections, suited for yes/no tasks.  Sensor capabilities: Capture images, analyze object characteristics, detect parts, verify shapes, colors, and recognize characters.  Robotic vision systems: Complex setups with cameras, lighting, and connected devices. Enable assembly, measurement, and pallet unloading.  Sensor usage: Simple inspections, easy implementation, and pass/fail answers. Vision systems for guided robot tasks, minimizing custom engineering.  Advantages of vision systems: Flexible and intelligent, replacing multiple sensors. Enhance productivity, profitability, and reduce downtime. SENSORS AND VISION SYSTEMS
  • 11. ROBOT CONTROL  Robot control is the process of managing and directing the movement and actions of a robot to perform specific tasks or actions.  It involves programming the robot's behavior and motion, often using specialized software or programming languages.  Robot control systems can range from simple, pre-programmed sequences to advanced, real-time control systems that respond to sensor inputs and adapt to changing conditions.  The control system communicates with various components of the robot, such as actuators, sensors, and effectors, to coordinate their actions and achieve the desired task.  Effective robot control ensures precise and accurate movements, optimized performance, safety, and the ability to handle
  • 12.  RoboAnalyzer: Advanced software for robot analysis and simulation.  Key features: Provides accurate robot kinematics, dynamics, and trajectory planning.  Simulation capabilities: Visualize and test robot motion, control algorithms, and workspace analysis.  Performance evaluation: Assess robot performance metrics, such as speed, accuracy, and efficiency.  Applications: Used in research, education, and industrial settings for optimizing robot design and programming. RoboAnalyzer
  • 13. VISION PROGRAMMING TOOL OPENCV OPEN SOURCE COMPUTER  OpenCV: Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) is a powerful programming tool used for computer vision and image processing applications.  Wide functionality: OpenCV provides a vast range of functions and algorithms for tasks like image and video processing, feature detection, object recognition, and machine learning.  Cross-platform compatibility: OpenCV is designed to work seamlessly across different platforms, including Windows, Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, making it highly versatile and accessible.  Extensive language support: OpenCV supports multiple programming languages such as C++, Python, Java, and MATLAB, allowing developers to choose their preferred language for computer vision development.  Community support and resources: OpenCV benefits from a large and active community of developers worldwide. This community provides extensive documentation, tutorials, and forums, making it easier to learn, troubleshoot, and share knowledge and
  • 14.  Positioning and Orientation: The precise positioning and orientation of a robot arm are crucial for performing tasks accurately and efficiently.  Coordinate Systems: Robots use coordinate systems, such as Cartesian or joint coordinate systems, to determine the position and orientation of the robot arm in relation to the workspace.  Kinematics: The study of robot arm motion and its mathematical representation is known as kinematics. Kinematics algorithms are used to calculate the joint angles required to achieve a desired position and orientation.  Inverse Kinematics: Inverse kinematics is the process of determining the joint angles needed to position the robot arm at a specific point in the workspace. It enables the robot to reach desired positions and orientations.  End Effector Control: The end effector is the tool or device attached to the robot arm. Controlling the position and orientation of the end effector allows the robot to interact with objects and perform tasks with precision, such as grasping, manipulating, or welding. POSITIONING AND ORIENTATION OF ROBOT ARM
  • 15. INTEGRATION OF ASSORTED SENSORS, MICRO CONTROLLERS AND ROS IN A ROBOTIC SYSTEM 1. Integration of assorted sensors: Incorporate a variety of sensors such as vision sensors, proximity sensors, and force sensors into the robotic system to gather diverse data for perception and interaction with the environment. 2. Microcontrollers: Utilize microcontrollers as the central processing units of the robotic system, responsible for receiving sensor inputs, executing control algorithms, and coordinating the overall system operation. 3. ROS (Robot Operating System): Implement ROS, a flexible framework for robot software development, to enable seamless communication and integration between different components of the robotic system, including sensors, actuators, and algorithms. 4. Sensor fusion: Integrate sensor fusion techniques to combine data from multiple sensors, enabling the robot to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate perception of its surroundings, improving decision-making capabilities. 5. Advantages of integration: The integration of assorted sensors, microcontrollers, and ROS in a robotic system enables enhanced perception, precise control, and advanced functionalities. It
  • 16.  Valuable knowledge and hands-on experience: Internship provided practical exposure and understanding of robotics, contributing to practical applications in the field.  Key areas and concepts: Explored various areas including robotics overview, mechanical subsystems, robot kinematics, dynamics, sensors and vision systems, robot control, control hardware and interfacing.  RoboAnalyzer and OpenCV: Utilized RoboAnalyzer software for kinematics analysis and gained proficiency in OpenCV for image processing, enhancing skills in robotic system analysis and design.  Positioning and orientation of robot arms: Acquired knowledge to plan and execute precise movements, enabling efficient manipulation in robotic systems.  Integration of sensors, microcontrollers, and ROS: Developed a holistic understanding of the complete robotic ecosystem, allowing for the integration of diverse components and software for enhanced functionality. CONCLUSION
  • 17. a presentation by Sumanth A 4KM19ME012 Department of Mechanical Engineering