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OSM Data Manipulation
Robert Savoye
Seneca Software & Solar, Inc.
rob@senecass.com
https://www.senecass.com
Resources We’ll Use
● Download OSM data for Nepal http://download.geofabrik.de/asia/nepal-
latest.osm.bz2
● Install Josm, osmconvert, osmfilter, gpsbabel
● Optionally install Qgis
Documentation
● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Osmfilter
● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Osmconvert
● https://www.gpsbabel.org
Primary Data Format Groups
● OSM (Open Street Map)
● ODK (Open Data Kit)
● Output formats (KML/KMZ, GPX, JSON, CSV)
● Shapefiles
Open Street Map Formats
● osm - Default XML based format
● o5m - High speed binary format
● osc - Change set for updating OSM data
● pbf - Very compressed binary format
● poly - Simple text file with a list of coordinates
Open Data Kit Formats
● XLSForm
• Excel/LibreCalc form
• http:/www.xlsform.org
● XForm
• XLSForm converted to XForm for ODKCollect
• Pyxform
• http://build.opendatakit.org
● ODK Instance
• XML output format from ODKCollect
Qgis can also export a layer to both XLSForm and XForm formats.
ODKCollect
● Android app
● Uses an XML format as a data input template, and a different output format.
• Data input templates are built using the ODK builder or pyxform.
● Kathmandu Living Labs has derived versions that are more Nepal mapping
task specific.
● Can use ODKAggregate to download forms and upload data files.
● Can also use ODKBriefcase to extract data using a laptop or desktop.
● Can also use the adb program, or mount the phone as a USB drive.
Shapefiles
● A binary format with arbitrary data fields that don’t map directly to OSM data
fields.
● Commonly used by many public agencies.
● Can be read by Josm and Qgis.
● Often have many fields not relevant to OSM, so conversions need to be
filtered.
Shapefile Sample
./shp2map.py -i ../MapData/Gilpin/RoadCenterlines/RoadCenterlines.shp --dump
Fields in: '../MapData/Gilpin/RoadCenterlines/RoadCenterlines.shp'
'DeletionFlag' 'centerline' 'fromleft' 'toleft' 'fromright' 'toright' 'fullname' 'altname'
'fedroute' 'fedrtetype' 'afedrte' 'afedrtetyp' 'stroute' 'strtetype' 'astrte' 'astrtetype'
'ctyroute' 'onewaydir' 'roadlevel' 'speedlimit' 'fromzelev' 'tozelev' 'inwater'
'roadclass' 'mtfcc' 'ownedby' 'maintby' 'munileft' 'muniright' 'coleft' 'coright'
'stateleft' 'stateright' 'zipleft' 'zipright' 'msagleft' 'msagright' 'esnleft' 'esnright'
'lastupdate' 'lasteditor' 'shape_Leng'
OSM Node
● A node represents a single location, and can be referenced by other
application.
<node id="267680857" lat="28.1568909" lon="85.4147102" version="4" times
tamp="2010-11-11T22:56:01Z" changeset="6347737" uid="331348"
user="janedoe"/>
OSM Waypoint
<node id="632389857" lat="28.1522222" lon="85.3781199" version="5"
timestamp="2014-02-24T23:02:05Z" changeset="20761187" uid="1772211"
user="4rch">
<tag k="ele" v="1770"/>
<tag k="name" v="Landslide"/>
<tag k="name:np" v="pairo"/>
<tag k="tourism" v="guest_house"/>
<tag k="wpt_symbol" v="Lodging"/>
<tag k="wpt_description" v="Landslide lodge (1770m)"/>
OSM Polygon or LineString
<way id="61427277" version="5" timestamp="2013-12-02T00:41:38Z"
changeset="19226127" uid="463033" user="synalik">
<nd ref="632403048"/>
<nd ref="766912443"/>
<nd ref="766912342"/>
<nd ref="766912416"/>
<tag k="boundary" v="administrative"/>
The only difference between a Polygon and a LineString is Polygons are closed.
ODKBuild
● Web based design tool
● Creates XLSForm or XForm
● Requires OSM account
XLSForm
● Standard format used by LibreOffice, Google Sheets, and MS Office.
● Binary format
● Needs to be converted to XForm for use by ODKCollect
XForm
● XML format
● Can be edited using any text editor
● Template for ODKCollect
● Supports choices, multiple choices, labels, media files
● ODKAggregate can be used to store and download Xforms to ODKCollect
based apps
ODK Aggregate
● ODKCollect can download
XForms for an input data
template
● ODKCollect can upload
data using a network
connection
● Can export in data as KML,
CSV, or JSON format
● Data is coupled to the
version of the XForm
ODKBriefcase
● Reads data from mounted
smartphone
● Reads data from local
directory
● Exports CSV format
● Can also upload to
ODKAggregate
● CVS file can be loaded into
Josm
Desktop Tools
● Qgis - Powerful GIS editor
● Josm - Desktop OSM data editor
● osmconvert - Concerts between the various OSM formats and can also do filtering using
polygons
● osmosis - Swiss army knife for OSM editing operations
● osmfilter - Can be used to filter OSM data based on tags
Android Tools
● OSMAnd
• Primarily used for data viewing and navigation
● Vespuci
• Full editor for OSM data
• Can create and edit OSM data
• Can download and upload OSM data
● StreetComplete
• Used to find incomplete or wrong data
KML
● Created by Google for Maps and Earth
● Can be edited in a text editor
<Placemark>
<name>Kharpani hot springs</name>
<styleUrl>#HotSpring</styleUrl>
<description>
Osmid: 1959686217
</description>
<Point><coordinates>83.958343088312887,28.360128796374827</coordinates>
</Point>
</Placemark>
KMZ
● Binary zip format
● Contains a single KML file
● Also contains all custom icons
CSV
● Widely supported by many GIS applications
● Can be edited by any spreadsheet program
● Can be edited in a text editor
"name","latitude","longitude","altitude","accuracy","amenity"
"Porta potty 1","44.11682204","-107.25125132","2135.0","6.068","toilets"
"Porta potty 2","44.08421973","-107.30796647","1647.0","6.068","toilets"
"Sallys Cafe","44.03392162","-107.44992966","1347.0","7.585",""
"Ten Sleep Ranch","44.06935172","-107.34920497","1491.0","13.653","campground"
GPX
● Used by most GPS devices
● Widely supported by most all GIS applications
● Can be edited in a text editor
<wpt lat="28.360128796" lon="83.958343088">
<name>Kharpani hot springs</name>
<cmt>Osmid: 1959686217</cmt>
<desc>Natural Hot Spring near Pokhara</desc>
</wpt>
Filtering data`
● Most OSM data files are huge
● Data can be reduced by using bounding boxes or polygons using osmconvert
or osmosis.
● Data can be reduced by searching for specific tags.
● Data can be reduced using Josm or QGIS
OSMConvert
● Can extract data using a bounding box or polygon
● Can produce an OSM change set by diffing OSM files
● Can upload OSM file into a database
● Can convert between OSM formats
OSMConvert Examples
osmconvert -B=test.poly tmp.osm --complete-ways -o=new.osm --drop-broken-
refs
● -B - Input polygon
● --complete-ways - Include data that extends out of the polygon, like a road
● --out-osm - Output file in OSM format
● --drop-broken-refs - Drop refs outside of the boundary
OSMFilter
● Can filter based on tags
● Faster when using o5m file for input
● Produces OSM output file
● Can keep or delete based on the tags
● Can modify tags
OSMFilter Examples
osmfilter file.o5m --keep="surface=dirt highway=path bicycle=no" --out-osm
● --keep - Keep objects with the specified tags
● --out-osm - Output file in OSM format. Can also be osm or o5c
gpsbabel
● Can translate between many formats
● Used by Google Earth and Maps
gpsbabel -i kml -f AnnapurnaCA.kml -o gpx -F AnnapurnaCA.gpx
● -i - Input format
● -f - Input file
● -o - Output format
● -F - Output file
Examples
●osmfilter file.o5m --keep="surface=dirt highway=path =footway bicycle=no" -
o=out.osm
gpsbabel -i osm -f out.osm -o kml -F trails.kml
osmfilter file.o5m --keep=”historic=archaeological_site =building =ruins” -
o=out.osm
gpsbabel -i osm -f out.osm -o gpx -F sites.gpx
Osmosis
● Can extract data using a bounding box or polygon
● Can produce an OSM change set by diffing OSM files
● Can upload OSM file into a database
Osmosis Examples
osmosis --read-xml file=colorado-latest.osm --write-apidb dbType="mysql"
host="localhost:3306" validateSchemaVersion=no database="osm" user="rob"
password="foobar"
osmosis --read-xml file=colorado.osm --tee 2 --bounding-polygon file=CO-
polyfiles/Gilpin.poly -bounding-polygon file=CO-polyfiles/Boulder.poly --merge --
write-xml file=bigger.osm
osmosis --read-xml file=colorado.osm --bounding-box top=38.96358
bottom=37.13613 left=-109.06578 right=-107.21458 --write-xml file=co-
subset.osm
Online Conversion
● https://mygeodata.cloud/converter/
● http://www.gpsvisualizer.com
● https://www.gisconvert.com/
● https://geoconverter.hsr.ch/
● https://www.expertgps.com/convert.asp
Convenient but all have file size limitations. Most use gpsbabel to process the file.
How To Make a Polygon With QGIS
● Create new Shapefile layer
● Select Polygon type
● Add name field
● Remove id field
● Click pencil icon to enable edit mode
● Click on Add Feature icon
● Draw polygon, right click to end
● Export OSM polygon
How To Make a Polygon With Josm
● Create New Layer
● Click on Draw Node
● Click to create nodes
● Last node most close
polygon
● Save As “poly”
Extract Polygon with Josm
● You can extract an
existing polygon
● Usually need to load
an OSM file, data is
too large for Overpass
● Select by searching
presets for boundaries
● Paste into New Layer
● Save as poly
Conflation
● Osm_conflate
● JOSM conflate plugin
● Hootenanny
● Gconflate
● OpenJump with RoadMatcher plugin
Hootenanny
● Only works online
● Can read Shapefiles
● Can read OSM file
● Flags conflicts with new tag in
merged output file
OpenJUMP With RoadMatcher
● Focuses on merging road
data
● Can read Shapefile
● Can read OSM file
● Works offline
Josm Conflate Plugin
● Josm can also be used
to conflate files
● Reference file can be
Shapefile
● Each match or conflict
has to be manually
Postgres Setup
createdb Nepal
psql Nepal -c ‘create extension hstore;’
psql Nepal -c ‘create extension postgis;’
psql Nepal -c ‘create extension dblink;’
Using Postgresql
● Data can be imported into the database using several applications
osm2pgsql -v --slim -C 1500 -d Nepal --number-processes 8 infile.osm --hstore
shp2pgsql -p in.zip > out.sql
ogr2ogr -f "PostgreSQL" "PG:Nepal=osm" infile.osm

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Rob Savoye, Freelance Developer, OSM Data Manipulation | Workshop | SotM Asia 2017

  • 1. OSM Data Manipulation Robert Savoye Seneca Software & Solar, Inc. rob@senecass.com https://www.senecass.com
  • 2. Resources We’ll Use ● Download OSM data for Nepal http://download.geofabrik.de/asia/nepal- latest.osm.bz2 ● Install Josm, osmconvert, osmfilter, gpsbabel ● Optionally install Qgis Documentation ● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Osmfilter ● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Osmconvert ● https://www.gpsbabel.org
  • 3. Primary Data Format Groups ● OSM (Open Street Map) ● ODK (Open Data Kit) ● Output formats (KML/KMZ, GPX, JSON, CSV) ● Shapefiles
  • 4. Open Street Map Formats ● osm - Default XML based format ● o5m - High speed binary format ● osc - Change set for updating OSM data ● pbf - Very compressed binary format ● poly - Simple text file with a list of coordinates
  • 5. Open Data Kit Formats ● XLSForm • Excel/LibreCalc form • http:/www.xlsform.org ● XForm • XLSForm converted to XForm for ODKCollect • Pyxform • http://build.opendatakit.org ● ODK Instance • XML output format from ODKCollect Qgis can also export a layer to both XLSForm and XForm formats.
  • 6. ODKCollect ● Android app ● Uses an XML format as a data input template, and a different output format. • Data input templates are built using the ODK builder or pyxform. ● Kathmandu Living Labs has derived versions that are more Nepal mapping task specific. ● Can use ODKAggregate to download forms and upload data files. ● Can also use ODKBriefcase to extract data using a laptop or desktop. ● Can also use the adb program, or mount the phone as a USB drive.
  • 7. Shapefiles ● A binary format with arbitrary data fields that don’t map directly to OSM data fields. ● Commonly used by many public agencies. ● Can be read by Josm and Qgis. ● Often have many fields not relevant to OSM, so conversions need to be filtered.
  • 8. Shapefile Sample ./shp2map.py -i ../MapData/Gilpin/RoadCenterlines/RoadCenterlines.shp --dump Fields in: '../MapData/Gilpin/RoadCenterlines/RoadCenterlines.shp' 'DeletionFlag' 'centerline' 'fromleft' 'toleft' 'fromright' 'toright' 'fullname' 'altname' 'fedroute' 'fedrtetype' 'afedrte' 'afedrtetyp' 'stroute' 'strtetype' 'astrte' 'astrtetype' 'ctyroute' 'onewaydir' 'roadlevel' 'speedlimit' 'fromzelev' 'tozelev' 'inwater' 'roadclass' 'mtfcc' 'ownedby' 'maintby' 'munileft' 'muniright' 'coleft' 'coright' 'stateleft' 'stateright' 'zipleft' 'zipright' 'msagleft' 'msagright' 'esnleft' 'esnright' 'lastupdate' 'lasteditor' 'shape_Leng'
  • 9. OSM Node ● A node represents a single location, and can be referenced by other application. <node id="267680857" lat="28.1568909" lon="85.4147102" version="4" times tamp="2010-11-11T22:56:01Z" changeset="6347737" uid="331348" user="janedoe"/>
  • 10. OSM Waypoint <node id="632389857" lat="28.1522222" lon="85.3781199" version="5" timestamp="2014-02-24T23:02:05Z" changeset="20761187" uid="1772211" user="4rch"> <tag k="ele" v="1770"/> <tag k="name" v="Landslide"/> <tag k="name:np" v="pairo"/> <tag k="tourism" v="guest_house"/> <tag k="wpt_symbol" v="Lodging"/> <tag k="wpt_description" v="Landslide lodge (1770m)"/>
  • 11. OSM Polygon or LineString <way id="61427277" version="5" timestamp="2013-12-02T00:41:38Z" changeset="19226127" uid="463033" user="synalik"> <nd ref="632403048"/> <nd ref="766912443"/> <nd ref="766912342"/> <nd ref="766912416"/> <tag k="boundary" v="administrative"/> The only difference between a Polygon and a LineString is Polygons are closed.
  • 12. ODKBuild ● Web based design tool ● Creates XLSForm or XForm ● Requires OSM account
  • 13. XLSForm ● Standard format used by LibreOffice, Google Sheets, and MS Office. ● Binary format ● Needs to be converted to XForm for use by ODKCollect
  • 14. XForm ● XML format ● Can be edited using any text editor ● Template for ODKCollect ● Supports choices, multiple choices, labels, media files ● ODKAggregate can be used to store and download Xforms to ODKCollect based apps
  • 15. ODK Aggregate ● ODKCollect can download XForms for an input data template ● ODKCollect can upload data using a network connection ● Can export in data as KML, CSV, or JSON format ● Data is coupled to the version of the XForm
  • 16. ODKBriefcase ● Reads data from mounted smartphone ● Reads data from local directory ● Exports CSV format ● Can also upload to ODKAggregate ● CVS file can be loaded into Josm
  • 17. Desktop Tools ● Qgis - Powerful GIS editor ● Josm - Desktop OSM data editor ● osmconvert - Concerts between the various OSM formats and can also do filtering using polygons ● osmosis - Swiss army knife for OSM editing operations ● osmfilter - Can be used to filter OSM data based on tags
  • 18. Android Tools ● OSMAnd • Primarily used for data viewing and navigation ● Vespuci • Full editor for OSM data • Can create and edit OSM data • Can download and upload OSM data ● StreetComplete • Used to find incomplete or wrong data
  • 19. KML ● Created by Google for Maps and Earth ● Can be edited in a text editor <Placemark> <name>Kharpani hot springs</name> <styleUrl>#HotSpring</styleUrl> <description> Osmid: 1959686217 </description> <Point><coordinates>83.958343088312887,28.360128796374827</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark>
  • 20. KMZ ● Binary zip format ● Contains a single KML file ● Also contains all custom icons
  • 21. CSV ● Widely supported by many GIS applications ● Can be edited by any spreadsheet program ● Can be edited in a text editor "name","latitude","longitude","altitude","accuracy","amenity" "Porta potty 1","44.11682204","-107.25125132","2135.0","6.068","toilets" "Porta potty 2","44.08421973","-107.30796647","1647.0","6.068","toilets" "Sallys Cafe","44.03392162","-107.44992966","1347.0","7.585","" "Ten Sleep Ranch","44.06935172","-107.34920497","1491.0","13.653","campground"
  • 22. GPX ● Used by most GPS devices ● Widely supported by most all GIS applications ● Can be edited in a text editor <wpt lat="28.360128796" lon="83.958343088"> <name>Kharpani hot springs</name> <cmt>Osmid: 1959686217</cmt> <desc>Natural Hot Spring near Pokhara</desc> </wpt>
  • 23. Filtering data` ● Most OSM data files are huge ● Data can be reduced by using bounding boxes or polygons using osmconvert or osmosis. ● Data can be reduced by searching for specific tags. ● Data can be reduced using Josm or QGIS
  • 24. OSMConvert ● Can extract data using a bounding box or polygon ● Can produce an OSM change set by diffing OSM files ● Can upload OSM file into a database ● Can convert between OSM formats
  • 25. OSMConvert Examples osmconvert -B=test.poly tmp.osm --complete-ways -o=new.osm --drop-broken- refs ● -B - Input polygon ● --complete-ways - Include data that extends out of the polygon, like a road ● --out-osm - Output file in OSM format ● --drop-broken-refs - Drop refs outside of the boundary
  • 26. OSMFilter ● Can filter based on tags ● Faster when using o5m file for input ● Produces OSM output file ● Can keep or delete based on the tags ● Can modify tags
  • 27. OSMFilter Examples osmfilter file.o5m --keep="surface=dirt highway=path bicycle=no" --out-osm ● --keep - Keep objects with the specified tags ● --out-osm - Output file in OSM format. Can also be osm or o5c
  • 28. gpsbabel ● Can translate between many formats ● Used by Google Earth and Maps gpsbabel -i kml -f AnnapurnaCA.kml -o gpx -F AnnapurnaCA.gpx ● -i - Input format ● -f - Input file ● -o - Output format ● -F - Output file
  • 29. Examples ●osmfilter file.o5m --keep="surface=dirt highway=path =footway bicycle=no" - o=out.osm gpsbabel -i osm -f out.osm -o kml -F trails.kml osmfilter file.o5m --keep=”historic=archaeological_site =building =ruins” - o=out.osm gpsbabel -i osm -f out.osm -o gpx -F sites.gpx
  • 30. Osmosis ● Can extract data using a bounding box or polygon ● Can produce an OSM change set by diffing OSM files ● Can upload OSM file into a database
  • 31. Osmosis Examples osmosis --read-xml file=colorado-latest.osm --write-apidb dbType="mysql" host="localhost:3306" validateSchemaVersion=no database="osm" user="rob" password="foobar" osmosis --read-xml file=colorado.osm --tee 2 --bounding-polygon file=CO- polyfiles/Gilpin.poly -bounding-polygon file=CO-polyfiles/Boulder.poly --merge -- write-xml file=bigger.osm osmosis --read-xml file=colorado.osm --bounding-box top=38.96358 bottom=37.13613 left=-109.06578 right=-107.21458 --write-xml file=co- subset.osm
  • 32. Online Conversion ● https://mygeodata.cloud/converter/ ● http://www.gpsvisualizer.com ● https://www.gisconvert.com/ ● https://geoconverter.hsr.ch/ ● https://www.expertgps.com/convert.asp Convenient but all have file size limitations. Most use gpsbabel to process the file.
  • 33. How To Make a Polygon With QGIS ● Create new Shapefile layer ● Select Polygon type ● Add name field ● Remove id field ● Click pencil icon to enable edit mode ● Click on Add Feature icon ● Draw polygon, right click to end ● Export OSM polygon
  • 34. How To Make a Polygon With Josm ● Create New Layer ● Click on Draw Node ● Click to create nodes ● Last node most close polygon ● Save As “poly”
  • 35. Extract Polygon with Josm ● You can extract an existing polygon ● Usually need to load an OSM file, data is too large for Overpass ● Select by searching presets for boundaries ● Paste into New Layer ● Save as poly
  • 36. Conflation ● Osm_conflate ● JOSM conflate plugin ● Hootenanny ● Gconflate ● OpenJump with RoadMatcher plugin
  • 37. Hootenanny ● Only works online ● Can read Shapefiles ● Can read OSM file ● Flags conflicts with new tag in merged output file
  • 38. OpenJUMP With RoadMatcher ● Focuses on merging road data ● Can read Shapefile ● Can read OSM file ● Works offline
  • 39. Josm Conflate Plugin ● Josm can also be used to conflate files ● Reference file can be Shapefile ● Each match or conflict has to be manually
  • 40. Postgres Setup createdb Nepal psql Nepal -c ‘create extension hstore;’ psql Nepal -c ‘create extension postgis;’ psql Nepal -c ‘create extension dblink;’
  • 41. Using Postgresql ● Data can be imported into the database using several applications osm2pgsql -v --slim -C 1500 -d Nepal --number-processes 8 infile.osm --hstore shp2pgsql -p in.zip > out.sql ogr2ogr -f "PostgreSQL" "PG:Nepal=osm" infile.osm