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Richard van der Velde
Artificial intelligence (AI), personal data and consent
Technical Support Lead
What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Machine Learning Large Language Models
Algorithms and models that enable computers to learn
from data and make predictions or decisions without being
explicitly programmed.
Understanding the structure, meaning, and context of human language.
LLMs are trained on vast amounts of text from books, articles, websites,
and other sources.
Machines that can perform tasks that
typically require human intelligence
What is AI training?
“The process of teaching an AI system to learn patterns and
make predictions or decisions based on the data provided”
text
simulation data
genomic data
financial data
healthcare data
sensor data
structured data
gaming data
video data
audio
images
AI and data protection
“Data isn’t like air, it doesn’t just freely exist for anyone to use.”
Where does the data come from?
And how can we (dis)agree to its collection and/or use?
"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do
eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut
enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris
nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in
reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla
pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in
culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."
Why should you care?
“I’m not doing anything wrong, I have nothing to hide”
You don’t know how your data can be used (against you).
Let me tell you a story…
Average Joe
The EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act
In December 2023, the European Commission, Council of the European Union and European Parliament reached a political agreement on the AI Act.
The EU Parliament and Council will need to formally adopt the AI Act for it to become EU law.
The law would assign applications of AI technology to one of several categories:
Unacceptable risk
AI with unacceptable risks would be
banned entirely, e.g. the Chinese
government’s social scoring tool
High risk
AI with potential risks, permitted subject to
compliance with AI requirements and
forecasted conformity assessment, e.g. a
tool that ranks job applicants by scanning
resumes
Medium risk
AI with specific transparency obligations,
permitted but subject to information
requirements, e.g. bots that can be used
for impersonation
Minimal or no risk
AI with no notable risks, permitted without
restrictions
The EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act
Under the Act there will be multiple levels of fines, based on risk and severity of the violation.
There are caps on potential fines for Startups and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises.
● Disclosing inaccurate information → 1.5 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 7.5 million, whichever is higher
● Violations relating to high-risk systems → 3 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 15 million, whichever is higher
● Violations of unacceptable risk → 7 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 35 million, whichever is higher
How can companies use data ethically
with valid user consent?
Explicit consent
Required for use of high-risk AI systems, e.g. critical infrastructure, employment, healthcare, and law enforcement.
Transparency
AI providers must provide clear information about systems’ intended purpose, capabilities, and limitations.
Right to Explanation
Users have the right to obtain meaningful explanations of AI systems’ decisions.
Right to User Control
Users should have the ability to opt out, disable, or uninstall AI systems, particularly when fundamental rights or
interests are at stake.
Data Protection and Privacy
The AI Act emphasizes the need for data minimization, purpose limitation, and safeguards which aligns with existing
data privacy regulations like the GDPR.
How can companies use data ethically
with valid user consent?
Granular consent
Users must be able to accept or decline the collection and processing of their personal data at a detailed level
User-friendly mechanisms
The way users accept or decline consent must be easy to understand and access.
Regulatory familiarity
Different jurisdictions have different privacy laws with different requirements and consent models.
What rights do users of online platforms
have over their data?
It’s… complicated
Consumers’ rights regarding their personal data depend on a number of factors,
including:
● Where the user lives and what privacy laws are in place
● What the platform is for and what data the user is providing to or generating on it.
● What the platform’s terms of service are.
AI and cookies
Current cookie consent models may not be sufficient to cover AI use.
With pop-ups the user would have to be bombarded with consent banners faster and more often than a human could process
them.
AI models can enable more effective ads or personalized user experiences without relying on collection of
personally identifiable information.
If the system doesn’t need to collect user data, then consent may not be needed for the data collection.
Laws and best practices would likely still require users to be notified of how their behaviors could be tracked and
analyzed, and what that analysis could be used for.
Conclusion and the future of AI and consent
● AI technology is here to stay.
● Regulators must craft and update laws that are clear and comprehensive, but flexible enough to be
interpretable and enforceable today and in the future.
● Organizations need to be clear on what privacy regulations they must comply with, what they stipulate,
and what that means for their operations.
● Trying to sneak in changes without getting new user consent can damage brand reputation.
● Companies should implement best practices like privacy by design.
● Best practices for achieving compliance, building trust, and growing businesses continue to be the
same.
Thank
you

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Richard van der Velde, Technical Support Lead for Cookiebot @CMP – “Artificial intelligence (AI), personal data and consent”

  • 1. Richard van der Velde Artificial intelligence (AI), personal data and consent Technical Support Lead
  • 2. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Machine Learning Large Language Models Algorithms and models that enable computers to learn from data and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed. Understanding the structure, meaning, and context of human language. LLMs are trained on vast amounts of text from books, articles, websites, and other sources. Machines that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence
  • 3. What is AI training? “The process of teaching an AI system to learn patterns and make predictions or decisions based on the data provided” text simulation data genomic data financial data healthcare data sensor data structured data gaming data video data audio images
  • 4. AI and data protection “Data isn’t like air, it doesn’t just freely exist for anyone to use.” Where does the data come from? And how can we (dis)agree to its collection and/or use? "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."
  • 5. Why should you care? “I’m not doing anything wrong, I have nothing to hide” You don’t know how your data can be used (against you). Let me tell you a story… Average Joe
  • 6. The EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act In December 2023, the European Commission, Council of the European Union and European Parliament reached a political agreement on the AI Act. The EU Parliament and Council will need to formally adopt the AI Act for it to become EU law. The law would assign applications of AI technology to one of several categories: Unacceptable risk AI with unacceptable risks would be banned entirely, e.g. the Chinese government’s social scoring tool High risk AI with potential risks, permitted subject to compliance with AI requirements and forecasted conformity assessment, e.g. a tool that ranks job applicants by scanning resumes Medium risk AI with specific transparency obligations, permitted but subject to information requirements, e.g. bots that can be used for impersonation Minimal or no risk AI with no notable risks, permitted without restrictions
  • 7. The EU Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act Under the Act there will be multiple levels of fines, based on risk and severity of the violation. There are caps on potential fines for Startups and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. ● Disclosing inaccurate information → 1.5 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 7.5 million, whichever is higher ● Violations relating to high-risk systems → 3 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 15 million, whichever is higher ● Violations of unacceptable risk → 7 percent of global annual turnover or up to € 35 million, whichever is higher
  • 8. How can companies use data ethically with valid user consent? Explicit consent Required for use of high-risk AI systems, e.g. critical infrastructure, employment, healthcare, and law enforcement. Transparency AI providers must provide clear information about systems’ intended purpose, capabilities, and limitations. Right to Explanation Users have the right to obtain meaningful explanations of AI systems’ decisions. Right to User Control Users should have the ability to opt out, disable, or uninstall AI systems, particularly when fundamental rights or interests are at stake. Data Protection and Privacy The AI Act emphasizes the need for data minimization, purpose limitation, and safeguards which aligns with existing data privacy regulations like the GDPR.
  • 9. How can companies use data ethically with valid user consent? Granular consent Users must be able to accept or decline the collection and processing of their personal data at a detailed level User-friendly mechanisms The way users accept or decline consent must be easy to understand and access. Regulatory familiarity Different jurisdictions have different privacy laws with different requirements and consent models.
  • 10. What rights do users of online platforms have over their data? It’s… complicated Consumers’ rights regarding their personal data depend on a number of factors, including: ● Where the user lives and what privacy laws are in place ● What the platform is for and what data the user is providing to or generating on it. ● What the platform’s terms of service are.
  • 11. AI and cookies Current cookie consent models may not be sufficient to cover AI use. With pop-ups the user would have to be bombarded with consent banners faster and more often than a human could process them. AI models can enable more effective ads or personalized user experiences without relying on collection of personally identifiable information. If the system doesn’t need to collect user data, then consent may not be needed for the data collection. Laws and best practices would likely still require users to be notified of how their behaviors could be tracked and analyzed, and what that analysis could be used for.
  • 12. Conclusion and the future of AI and consent ● AI technology is here to stay. ● Regulators must craft and update laws that are clear and comprehensive, but flexible enough to be interpretable and enforceable today and in the future. ● Organizations need to be clear on what privacy regulations they must comply with, what they stipulate, and what that means for their operations. ● Trying to sneak in changes without getting new user consent can damage brand reputation. ● Companies should implement best practices like privacy by design. ● Best practices for achieving compliance, building trust, and growing businesses continue to be the same.