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TITLE :- RHODOPHYTA
NAME OF STUDENT :- PRIYANKA KHARE
COLLEGE NAME :- K.J.SOMAIYA COLLEGE OF SCI. & COM.
CLASS :- M. Sc. Part 1
FOR THE PAPER :- 1
FOR THE YEAR :- 2013-2014
RHODOPHYTA
 Commonly called as Red algae
Majority of the red algae are marine.
 Pigments :- r- phycocyanin , r- phycoerythrin , Chlorophylls , Carotenes &
Xanthophylls
 Reserved food material :- Floridean starch .
 Total absence of flagellated ( vegetative as well as reproductive ) bodies.
Classification as followed By G. M. Smith in 1933
RHODOPHYTA
RHODOPHYCEAE
Division
Class
Sub-class
Order
Order :-
Bangiodeae Florideae
Bangioles
Nemalionales Gelidiales Cryptonemiales Gigartinales Rhodymeniales
Ceramiales
Sub Class :- Bangioideae
Order :- Bangiales
E.g. :- Porphyra sps.
Porphyra perforata
 Thallus is a smooth to greatly convoluted blade
that is attached to the substratum by a disciform
or cushion like holdfast.
 Asexual reproduction by monospores.
 Sexual reproduction by directly division of
vegetative cells.
 Cells contain one or two chromatophores.
 It have a large centrally located pyrenoid .
Growing highly intertidal zone that’s why deep
Sub Class :- Florideae
The forms are always multicellular.
 Plant body is filamentous . Filaments may aggregate
to form a psedoparenchymatous or flat thallus.
 Presence of pit connections in between the adjacent
cells.
 Auxiliary bud formation take place.
 Sexual reproduction is very complex.
 Male :- Spermatangium
Female :- Carpogonium
Plants are mostly marine.
Order 1 :- Nemalionales
Batrachospermum
E.g. :- Batrachospermum
 The body is bluish or violet green , multicellular ,
branched , soft , smooth.
 The main axis is differentiated into nodes &
internodes . From its node develop two types of
branches i.e. branches of unlimited growth &
branches of limited growth.
 Sexually reproduction oogamous type.
 Asexual reproduction by monospores.
Order 2 :- Gelidiales
Gelidium spp.
E.g. :- Gelidium
 It is famous for providing the best source of agar – agar
in the world.
 Thalli have a single apical cell at each branch apex.
 Carpogonial filament is unicellular & this single cell
constitutes the carpogonium .
 Tetrasporangia are usually crucinate.
Order 3 :- Cryptonemiales
E.g. :- Dudresnaya crassa
 An auxillary cell borne in special filament of the
gametophyte.
The thallus is monoaxial & with derivatives from
the single apical cell.
Each cutting off four lateral cells that are initials of
branched lateral filaments whose cells contain
chromatophores.
The gametophytes are heterothallic. Spermatangia
& Carpogonial filaments are borne in nemathecia
( sori ) i.e. conceptacles.
Dudresnaya crassa
Order 4 :- Gigartinales
E.g. :- Gigartina
 The thallus has more or less disciform holdfast
bearing one or more erect shoots.
 The gametophytes are heterothallic.
 A procarp consist of supporting cell bearing a
three celled Carpogonial filament.
The carposporophyte thus formed is freely
branched and with many short lateral branchlets
in which each cell develops into
carposporangium.
Gigartina
Order 5 :- Rhodymeniales
E.g. :- Gastroclonium coulteri
 Plant show multiaxial construction.
 Thallus is generally cylindrical, flattened or
hollow & contains apical or marginal
meristem.
 Plants are diplobiotic with a definite procarp.
 An auxillary cell is a special cell of the procarp
& differentiated before fertilization.
 Tetraspores are either tetrahedral or curciate. Gastroclonium coulteri
Order 6 :- Ceramiales
Polysiphonia
E.g. :- Polysiphonia
 Thallus is uniaxial. The plant body is filamentous ,
psedoparenchymatous , reticulate & polysiphonous.
 The carpogonial branch is 4-celled .
 An auxillary cell is produced after fertilization . Carpospores
develop to form teterasporophytes .
 Haploid teraspores from gametophytes.
 Two types of branches , normal & trichoblasts.
 The cystocarp has a covering called as pericarp.
Reference Book :-
 Algae by O. P. Sharma.
 Cryptogamic Botany by G. M. Smith.
Rhodophyta

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Rhodophyta

  • 1. TITLE :- RHODOPHYTA NAME OF STUDENT :- PRIYANKA KHARE COLLEGE NAME :- K.J.SOMAIYA COLLEGE OF SCI. & COM. CLASS :- M. Sc. Part 1 FOR THE PAPER :- 1 FOR THE YEAR :- 2013-2014
  • 2. RHODOPHYTA  Commonly called as Red algae Majority of the red algae are marine.  Pigments :- r- phycocyanin , r- phycoerythrin , Chlorophylls , Carotenes & Xanthophylls  Reserved food material :- Floridean starch .  Total absence of flagellated ( vegetative as well as reproductive ) bodies. Classification as followed By G. M. Smith in 1933
  • 4. Sub Class :- Bangioideae Order :- Bangiales E.g. :- Porphyra sps. Porphyra perforata  Thallus is a smooth to greatly convoluted blade that is attached to the substratum by a disciform or cushion like holdfast.  Asexual reproduction by monospores.  Sexual reproduction by directly division of vegetative cells.  Cells contain one or two chromatophores.  It have a large centrally located pyrenoid . Growing highly intertidal zone that’s why deep
  • 5. Sub Class :- Florideae The forms are always multicellular.  Plant body is filamentous . Filaments may aggregate to form a psedoparenchymatous or flat thallus.  Presence of pit connections in between the adjacent cells.  Auxiliary bud formation take place.  Sexual reproduction is very complex.  Male :- Spermatangium Female :- Carpogonium Plants are mostly marine.
  • 6. Order 1 :- Nemalionales Batrachospermum E.g. :- Batrachospermum  The body is bluish or violet green , multicellular , branched , soft , smooth.  The main axis is differentiated into nodes & internodes . From its node develop two types of branches i.e. branches of unlimited growth & branches of limited growth.  Sexually reproduction oogamous type.  Asexual reproduction by monospores.
  • 7. Order 2 :- Gelidiales Gelidium spp. E.g. :- Gelidium  It is famous for providing the best source of agar – agar in the world.  Thalli have a single apical cell at each branch apex.  Carpogonial filament is unicellular & this single cell constitutes the carpogonium .  Tetrasporangia are usually crucinate.
  • 8. Order 3 :- Cryptonemiales E.g. :- Dudresnaya crassa  An auxillary cell borne in special filament of the gametophyte. The thallus is monoaxial & with derivatives from the single apical cell. Each cutting off four lateral cells that are initials of branched lateral filaments whose cells contain chromatophores. The gametophytes are heterothallic. Spermatangia & Carpogonial filaments are borne in nemathecia ( sori ) i.e. conceptacles. Dudresnaya crassa
  • 9. Order 4 :- Gigartinales E.g. :- Gigartina  The thallus has more or less disciform holdfast bearing one or more erect shoots.  The gametophytes are heterothallic.  A procarp consist of supporting cell bearing a three celled Carpogonial filament. The carposporophyte thus formed is freely branched and with many short lateral branchlets in which each cell develops into carposporangium. Gigartina
  • 10. Order 5 :- Rhodymeniales E.g. :- Gastroclonium coulteri  Plant show multiaxial construction.  Thallus is generally cylindrical, flattened or hollow & contains apical or marginal meristem.  Plants are diplobiotic with a definite procarp.  An auxillary cell is a special cell of the procarp & differentiated before fertilization.  Tetraspores are either tetrahedral or curciate. Gastroclonium coulteri
  • 11. Order 6 :- Ceramiales Polysiphonia E.g. :- Polysiphonia  Thallus is uniaxial. The plant body is filamentous , psedoparenchymatous , reticulate & polysiphonous.  The carpogonial branch is 4-celled .  An auxillary cell is produced after fertilization . Carpospores develop to form teterasporophytes .  Haploid teraspores from gametophytes.  Two types of branches , normal & trichoblasts.  The cystocarp has a covering called as pericarp.
  • 12. Reference Book :-  Algae by O. P. Sharma.  Cryptogamic Botany by G. M. Smith.