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    RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS

Submitted by ::                                Under the guidance of ::

PIYUSH.GOVIND.CHANDAK                                KUMTHEKAR M.B.
                                                  HEAD OF CIVIL DEPT,
M.E.-I CIVIL CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT   GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGG.,KARAD.
ROLL NO-11602
HISTORICAL MONUMENTS IN INDIA
INDEX
I.     INTRODUCTION

II.    PRE-RESTORATION WORKS

III.   PROBLEMS IN HERITAGE STRUCTURES

IV.    REPAIR PROBLEMS

V.     METHODOLOGY

VI.    ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA

VII. CASE STUDIES

VIII. FORTHCOMING PROJECTS

IX.    CONCLUSION

X.     REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
 Need of repair,restoration or rehabilitation of monuments ::

   A way to preserve our history and maintain the beauty and value
    of a place

   Preserve our traditions and culture & conserve our cultural
    heritage

   Very important in order to maintain the beauty and grace of the
    older monuments

   Monuments are designed to endure, but time and exposure to
    the elements takes a toll
PRE-RESTORATION WORKS
 Legislations ::
  The main legislations in India that deals with the subject of
  conservation and protection of our cultural heritage and
  monuments, within it’s ambit are as follows:

 The Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878

 The Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904

 The Antiquities (Export Control) Act, 1947

 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act
  1958 ( No 24 of 1958)

 The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act 1972
 Surveys ::


 Photogrammetric survey from the air

 Preparation of photogrammetric survey maps

 Field survey

 Preparation of the final drawings of the site

 Comprehensive ground survey

 Analytical studies
 MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR SURVEYING OF RESTORATION ::


   VIRTUAL MODEL TECHNOLOGY ::

1. Acoustical identification and evaluation

Objective identification and evaluation (measurements, calculations)
Subjective identification and evaluation (psycho-acoustical surveys)

2. Creation of the Virtual Environment

Visual simulation (simulation of the spaces, simulation of the humans)
Acoustical simulation
Combined 3D real time simulation

3. Virtual revival and recovery
 DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO AS A TOOL FOR THE RESTORATION OF
MONUMENTS ::

 Advantages of digital over manual processing lie in the possibility of
measuring a very large number of points without fatigue and with a high
level of productivity

 A digital orthophoto is an orthographic photograph of objects which
reproduces the photo-texture, colours or grey tones of the original
photographs

 It is derived from conventional perspective photographs by simple or
differential rectification

 Each pixel of the image is transformed by means of an orthogonal
projection with scaling onto a horizontal plane which represent an
element of or the entire digital surface model of the object; image
resampling is carried out using different kinds of transformations
 Orthophoto has the advantage of combining image metric quality with
the possibility of obtaining information about the type of material, state
of conservation and deterioration (for example, the presence of
humidity, wall surface erosion, etc.)

 DSM generated requires accurate editing in order to correct errors,
sometimes particularly large, which are introduced by automatic
matching

 An accurate photogrammetric survey, by using digital processing
techniques and with integrated manual-automatic vectorising
procedures, can constitute a valid support for decision-making
procedures and the operative stages of restoration
 the generation of digital

 Orthophotos opens the way to new methods for approaching
photogrammetric data, considered an open archive which
can be accessed to directly carry out metric surveys
Problems in Heritage Structures
 HUMAN NEGLIGENCE – Unintentional

 HUMAN VANDALISM – Intentional

 Overloading of roof

 Rising of ground level

 Wrong Choice of stone

 Structural Problems

 Climatic Problems
REPAIR PROBLEMS
 The major repair problems ::
METHODOLOGY
 Physical & Chemical Problems ::




Salt damage of weak pointing material   Damage through salt Crystallization
 Lack of compatibility between repair material and the existing
fabric is often

 Porosity and moisture transport characteristics are often more
important than strength properties

 Compatibility and retreatability important - conceptual as well as
practical notions for the choice of repair materials

 Example : bond between old & new material

 Applied repair material should be such that to protect the adjacent
material from premature decay

 Also be durable taking into considerations physical & chemical
behavior between old & new repair material
 Examples of incompatibility ::




Dense repointing leading to frost damage   Subflorescence caused by water repellents
 Repair Practices ::




   Raking out of joints mechanically                   Repointing




       Periodical chemical preservation of the Vimana (58.96 m tall)
IMAGES OF CHEMICAL PRESERVATION
 Restoration materials ::

 Repointing practices such as raking (manual & machine) expansion
groove, mortar joint section repointing

 Mineral grout, polymer injection, anti staining coating and
techniques

 Portland cement mortars and grouts

 lime cement mortars and grouts

 Pozzolanic mortars and grouts

 Epoxy resin mortars and grouts
 Moisture Protection in Preservation and Restoration ::

 Moisture protection often takes the back seat in most restoration
projects

 They are practically all non-drainable wall systems; every joint and
transition should be perfectly watertight

 Most of the exterior components are very porous; the result is not
only interior water damage but also biological growth and mildew

 The mortar joints are mostly responsible for preventing the water
intrusion; they do not last forever

 Our forefathers had a tendency to marry materials that do not want to
be married; they joined masonry with wood without adequate
transition joints
 Addressing these challenges ::

 The non-drainable wall systems-adopt one or two principles of
moisture protection: barrier – drainage – diversion

 Porous substrates-With the exception of marble and limestone,
it is impossible to reduce the porosity by honing & clear water repellents
such as silanes and siloxanes are a valid solution to this problem

 Mortar joints- Use of different pointing methods and materials
including parging is very much suitable for preventing water intrusion

 Marriage of incompatible materials – Proper flashing and installing a
proper transition joint between the different materials with a suitable
sealant will solve this problem
 Mechanical/Structural problems ::
STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS




(a) crushing of brackets (b) deterioration of Brick (c) moisture stains and
                                                     biological colonization
 STRUCTURAL AND SEISMIC WEAKENING OF THE MONUMENTS ::
 The existence of joints affects the behaviour of the monument when
subjected to seismic force

 The discontinuity - articulations determine the distribution of stresses
such as the size and distribution of seismic force

 The articulated elements of the monument (columns, pilasters, walls)
can oscillate or they can slide, thus either absorbing the force, or
concentrating these stresses at the ends of the blocks so that the edges
break

 The basic principle of planning interventions on the architectural
members is the restoration of the bearing capacity of each member so
that it can withstand the greatest possible load

 In case of overload, the joining elements are planned to absorb the
seismic force without damage to the material
 White cement and titanium reinforcements are used for the
structural restoration of the stones

 The reinforcements are threaded titanium rods which are inserted into
holes in the material like marble mass and secured by an inorganic
plaster made of white cement

 The holes do not penetrate to the outer surfaces of the architectural
members nor do they reach the coarsely worked interior surfaces, so
that they are not visible

 Fragments that do not belong together, that is that do not come from
the same architectural member, are never joined together

 Rusting and expansion of the iron elements causes a material like
marble to break and architectural members to shift
The way of construction of a marble wall
Structural restoration drawing of a marble beam
 The dimensioning of the bending members is done for the total action
they are expected to undergo after their reconstruction

 The actions include structural vertical loading and strong – seismic
vertical and horizontal loads

 Calculated also are the actions during transportation, storage and re-
setting

 In order to check the strength of the join, developed stresses in the
place of the mended crack are compared with the allowable stresses of
the materials, compressive strength of the marble and tensile strength
of the reinforcement

 The amount of reinforcement needed, using this method, is indeed
very small (1-2%) and as a result there is little damage to the ancient
material
Joining of fragments of a beam by means of titanium bars
Preparation for the joining of the beam fragments
Binding of the beam fragments after the joining
 Joining architectural members with titanium clamps and dowels ::

 The elements used for joining (clamps and dowels/rods) are designed
to begin with in accordance with the positions and measurements of the
cuttings and sockets in the ancient members

 In designing the clamps and dowels, the aim is that the weaker
element of the join be the metal clamp or dowel, so that in case of great
stress the join can withstand permanent deformation and, if deemed
necessary, there can be a new intervention, limited to replacing the
metal clamps/dowels

 Double-T clamp is designed so as to have the greatest possible
strength and ductility
Different types of titanium clamps
 Restoration materials ::

 Coated steels with zinc coating, lead coating, resin coating

 Stainless steels or austenetic steels with chromium,nicelium and
molybdenum (Ch-No-Ni type )

 Titanium bars – relatively light metal and exceptionally good
corrosion resistance

 Modern materials such as organic or inorganic fiber composite
cables is a new promising approach

 Retrofitting methods such as Timber, Iron and steel, Fiber reinforced
plastic and Reinforced concrete may be selected

 White cement base used as a glue for joining fragments
TESTS CONDUCTED




foundation pits   boroscopic observations   flat-jack testing   coring
Repair Practices
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA

 The Archaeological Survey of India was founded in 1861 under
  British colonial administration by Sir Alexander Cunningham

 The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of
  Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological
  researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation

 Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and
  remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI

 Major works done – Jantar Mantar,Humayun’s tomb,
  Mahabalipuram, Ajanta & Ellora, Bibi-ka-Maqbara , Chhatrapati
  Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
MAJOR ACTIVITIES

 Conducting archaeological explorations and excavations;
 Maintenance, conservation and preservation of
protected monuments and archaeological sites and remains of
national importance;
 Chemical preservation of monuments and antiquarian remains;
 Architectural survey of monuments;
 Epigraphical and numismatic studies;
 Setting up and re-organization of Site Museums;
 Training in Archaeology;
 Bringing out archaeological publications;
 Archaeological expeditions outside India ;
 Horticulture operation in and around ancient monuments and sites.
 Implementation and regulation of - The Ancient Monuments and
Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958;
 The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, etc
CASE STUDIES
 MANSAGAR LAKE,JAL MAHAL ::
 Jal Mahal is an 18th century pleasure palace located in the middle of
  the Mansagar Lake
 Mansagar Lake is a 300 acre lake surrounded by the Nahargarh hills
 The lake and the project area was an ecological disaster, with the
  dumping of untreated sewage from the city and poor upkeep
 The Mahal is a five story palace with four floors submerged below
  water
 Jain and Associates, a heritage restoration firm will restore the
  architectural beauty of the monument
 A consultancy firm, Belt Collins, will develop the landscaping
 gardens designed by leading American landscape architect Mitch
  Crites
 A city museum will be developed within the Jal Mahal to be designed
  and conceptualized by architect Vibhuti Sachdev and historian Giles
  Tillotson
 IMPLEMENTATION ::
 Arrangement of funds for lake restoration :

 Rejuvenation of the Lake cost about Rs. 50 crore
 Jal Mahal Resorts have taken up this project to run it on a 99 year
lease from the Rajasthan State government against a payment of Rs 2.52
crore per annum

 Implementation of the lake restoration program :
 Issues related to lake pollution ::
 Inflow of waste water
 Sewage Treatment Plant
 Eutrophication
 Siltation
 Water balance of the lake
 Lake water quality
 Migratory birds

 Restoration plan ::
 Realignment drains
 Desilting of lake
 STP & wetland construction
 Insitu bioremediation
 Afforestation of lake
 Nesting island
 Checkdam
 Procurement of Private Sector Developer ::
 Recreation Facilities provided-
(i) Convention Centre and Art Gallery
(ii) Multiplex and Entertainment Centre
(iii) Craft Bazaar
(iv) Arts and Craft Village
(v) Resort Hotels
(vi) Restaurants and Food Court
(vii) Public park and gardens
 Impact Assessment ::

 Tourism Community

 Improvement of ground water

 Migratory birds

 Indirect Beneficiaries
 Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri, Orissa

 Lord Jagannath temple at Puri was constructed in the first quarter of
the 12th century

 The monument is standing on a high platform connected with the
ground level by flight of 22 steps (believed to be part of it’s foundation)

 The height of temple is over 66 metres

 It is only 2 Km away from the sea
 The construction of Lord Jagannath Temple has been done in ashlar
stone masonry with blocks of Khandolite (a local sand stone) laid in
courses
 For the construction, no mortar has been used instead the stones have
been jointed with help of wrought iron U-shaped cramps or dowels and
have been supported one over another resulting fascinating wall and
corbelled roof, in the shape of frustum of pyramid
 The geometrical arrangements of the stones perfectly match with the
proven thesis of arches, where all the elements are primarily subjected
to compressive forces
 The wall thickness of the main temple is about 5.5 metre and the main
temple has three floors, i.e. three corbelled roofs inside, which are
being supported by huge wrought iron beams (about 25 cm. x 25 cm.
solid section), spanning over 9 metre of length
 The wall face externally has been plastered with 45 cm. thick coat of
lime plaster, applied in nine distinct layers, while the inside wall has a
thin coat of plaster up to a height of 3 metre
 The maximum damage to the temple was caused by the rusting of
these clamps

 Apart from this the stone expanded due to seepage, generating
pressure and causing chunks to fall

 The outer faces which was covered with lime plaster (about 45cm) had
failed to control saline induced deterioration and leakage besides
putting extra pressure on the fabric of the temple and hiding the
beautiful carvings

 It was found that the condition of the inner walls and corbels required
attention

 Similarly, on the southern side of the temple major structural
weakness were detected in the form of multiple cracks, missing
architectural pieces etc
 INTERVENTION SCHEMES ::

I.   Replacement of missing corbels as per the original

II. Replacement of rusted wrought iron cramps by stainless steel cramps

III. Sealing of the stone joints by a joint sealant comprising stone dust,
cement, polymer (acrylic type) and non-shrink additives

IV. Grouting the inner core with polymer modified, flexible, non-shrink,
cement grouts

V. Anchoring the loose cantilevers and corbel stones with help of 1.5m
to 2.5m long, threaded stainless steel anchors, grouted with low viscous
epoxy resins

VI. Providing a stainless steel anchors, grouted with
low viscous epoxy resins
VII. Providing a stainless steel space frame, as a secondary defense to
support the ground floor corbelled roof

VIII. Lateral confinement of the entrance corner walls of each floor by
stainless steel flats

IX. Improvement to the existing ventilation system by drilling
appropriate diameter holes through the ceiling of the first and second
floor and provision of suitable ventilation duct in the top floor.

X. Provision of temporary support to the ceiling of the first and second
floor in the form of tubular scaffolding system to monitor corbel
movements and any associated deformation in those floors

XI. Desalination of the external fascia stones by paper pulp technique

XII. Application of suitable chemical preservative to the fascia stones (in
place of methyl metha acrylate) and suitable biocide treatments
 The walls and corbels of the main temple had shown gross
deformations with weakening of interconnections of structural
elements, thereby endangering the very stability of these structures

 This is primarily due to the ingress of rain water through the
weathered joints into the thick dry stone walls thereby leading to the
rusting of iron dowels / cramps

 It has been proved with success that injection of polymeric grout into
the pore structure of the masonry diminish the splitting forces and at
the same time increases the adhesion between the stones

 For structural stability and proper load distribution of the space frame
and to prevent the water ingress into the core of the structure, it was
felt necessary to take adequate conservation measures by sealing the
joints, surface cracks and grouting the walls with a material which
besides meeting the general requirement, would also be compatible
with the structural behaviour of the Ashlar masonry structures
 The materials used for the different grout mix formulations are :

1. Ordinary Portland cement

2. Modified Acrylic Resin Emulsion of Methyl Methacrylate with
copolymer of 2-ethyl hexaacrylate and butyl acrylate & has 40% of solid
resin content

3. A solid component material of expanding and plasticizing nature to
help in low water / cement ratio, positive expansion for non shrink
infilling and jointing

4. Admixtures based on selected lingosulphonates which is adsorbed on
to the cement particles and acts as a dispersing agent and breaks down
agglomerates of cement particles and enables the water in the mix to
perform more efficiently
 To evaluate the effect of polymer loadings in different proportion and
other additives on the setting time and mechanical properties of
Polymer Modified Cement (PMC) mortars, cement sand were added in
the ratio of 1:3 by weight

I.   Cement

II. Cement : Polymer :: 4:0.5

III. Cement : Polymer :: 4:1

IV. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive :
4:1:0.02

V. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive :
Plasticiser Cum Retarder :: 4:1:0.02:0.02
 Seismic Safety Assessment of the Temple ::
 The temple falls in seismic zone III according to the available
quantitative seismicity maps
 Instances of occurrence of earthquakes of magnitude around 5 on
Richter scale have been recorded at about 100 to 150 kms South-east of
Puri
 The analytical study has been carried out by the Civil Engineering
Department of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur to check the
stability of the block structure of the main temple against earth quake
forces
 The results of the analysis indicate that the temple structure will safely
withstand forces developed due to seismic excitation up to a Richter
scale of 5.0
 Loosely joined stone blocks as in case of massive structures built in
ashlar masonry are less vulnerable to earthquake induced vibrations
than the solid structures, the grout materials using injection techniques
will not solidify the structure fully & alter its structural behaviour
completely thus, the use of PMC grouts was considered favourable
Renovation of outer face
 Treatment of The Distress Outer Fascia ::

 Tubular scaffolding were made for treatment of outer faces
 The treatment should be compatible with the basic stone in respect to
chemical bond as also thermal expansion / contraction and moisture
movement
 The sealant or consolidant should not develop a tight and impervious
surface skin preventing access of moisture this tends to develop
pressure behind the treatment causing other kinds of damage caused by
trapped moisture drawn to the surface by temperature gradient,the
sealant should discourage ingress of fluid but encourage transmission
of vapour
 Silicones, urethanes, acrylates were tried for limited sealing of
sandstone surfaces but the efficacy depends on the fluid vehicle, the
emulsifier and the molecular size of the sealant
 Equally important are the characteristics of wettability and response
to UV radiation.
 The treatment should permit trapped salt to escape
Treatment being given at kalash
Temple after renovation
 Period of repair : 1992-1993

 Owner : Sri Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri

 Repaired by : Archeological Survey of India and PWD Govt. of
Orissa

 Expert Committee: ASI, PWD, SERC, CBRI, IITK, RRL Bhubaneshwar
 HUMAYUN’S TOMB ::

 The first privately funded restoration was completed in March 2003
through the joint efforts of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) and
the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the National Culture
Fund

 The objective of the project was to revitalize the gardens, pathways,
fountains and water channels

 The project’s implementation phase began when the Trust began work
on the 12 hectare (30 acre) garden site in 2000

 The tomb stands on a platform 120 metres square and reaches a
height of 47 metres

 Built of rubble masonry, the structure is the
earliest example of the use of red sandstone and white marble
Images of Humayun’s Tomb Repair Work
The US$ 650,000 restoration project has featured:

 Removal of 3,000 truckloads of earth (12,000 cubic metres)
 Planting of 12 hectares (30 acres) of lawn
 Re-setting and alignment of over 3,500 kilometres of path
kerbstones
 Preparation by some 60 stonecutters of 3,000 metres of handdressed
red sandstone slabs (to edge the channels)
 Creation of 128 ground-water recharge pits and the de-silting and
creation of other wells as part of the largest rainwater-harvesting
system scheme in any heritage site in India
 Creation of a site exhibition
 Planning and installation of a new water-circulation system for the
walkway channels
 Planting of 2,500 trees and plants, including mango, lemon, neem,
hibiscus and jasmine cuttings, according to Mughal texts
 Repair of fountains, wells and rainwater-harvesting systems
 Provision of wheelchair access to a significant part of the site
FORTHCOMING PROJECTS
 TAJ MAHAL,AGRA ::

 On June 21, National Culture Fund,Archaeological Survey of India and
  the Taj Group of Hotels signed a Memorandum of Understanding
  (MoU) for preservation and upgradation of Taj Mahal

 The MoU was signed in the presence of Minister of Tourism and
  Culture, Mr. Ananth Kumar and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Mr.
  Rajnath Singh and Mr. N Ratan Tata, Chairman of Tata Sons Ltd

 The group will be responsible for commissioning a professional
  agency to prepare a feasibility report on the conservation,
  beautification, restoration and upgradation of the monument and the
  surrounding areas
 The tasks include ::

 River water treatment
 Development of the garden and ambience
 Development of Mughal Garden
 Restructuring of the existing museum
 Conservation of the damaged stones at the Taj Mahal
 Conservation and preservation of the back wall of the Taj Mahal
 Conservation and preservation of the eastern side wall of the Taj
Mahal
 Restoration of the missing inlay pieces in the Taj Mahal and the
main entrance of the monument
 Conservation of the Mehman Khana and replacement of the
missing fountains and muttakas
 Replacement of the broken pieces of jali and other decorative
items
 PRATAPGAD FORT,MAHARASHTRA

 The fort was built by Chhatrapati Shivaji between 1656 and 1658
 The monument is in need of urgent repair and a few locals had taken
the initiative to renovate it three years back
 A renovation proposal spread over 4 years and costing Rs 13 crore
was accepted by the government and Rs 1.31 crore wasimmediately
released for its first phase
 Rs 1.31 crore has been released for the first phase. Rs 4.37 crore will
be released in the financial year 2011-12, Rs 3.56 crore in 2012-13 and
the final installment of Rs 3.76 crore will be released in 2013-14

 Work done till date :-
 Lime mortar is used instead of cement mortar
 Cleaning & waste disposal of trees,shrubs is being carried out
 Plastic bottles & waste are collected and given for recycling regularly
Restoration of monuments
CONCLUSION
 An "ancient monument" means any structure, erection or monument,
or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture,
inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic
interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years

 Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), State/Central bodies protect
monuments that are of national importance

 There are 3650 ancient monuments and archaeological sites and
remains of national importance, which are protected by ASI

 The various techniques presented in this report to restore a
monument to it’s original state prove to be very beneficial
REFERENCES
THANK YOU !!!

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Restoration of monuments

  • 1. A power point presentation on RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS Submitted by :: Under the guidance of :: PIYUSH.GOVIND.CHANDAK KUMTHEKAR M.B. HEAD OF CIVIL DEPT, M.E.-I CIVIL CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGG.,KARAD. ROLL NO-11602
  • 3. INDEX I. INTRODUCTION II. PRE-RESTORATION WORKS III. PROBLEMS IN HERITAGE STRUCTURES IV. REPAIR PROBLEMS V. METHODOLOGY VI. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA VII. CASE STUDIES VIII. FORTHCOMING PROJECTS IX. CONCLUSION X. REFERENCES
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Need of repair,restoration or rehabilitation of monuments ::  A way to preserve our history and maintain the beauty and value of a place  Preserve our traditions and culture & conserve our cultural heritage  Very important in order to maintain the beauty and grace of the older monuments  Monuments are designed to endure, but time and exposure to the elements takes a toll
  • 5. PRE-RESTORATION WORKS  Legislations :: The main legislations in India that deals with the subject of conservation and protection of our cultural heritage and monuments, within it’s ambit are as follows:  The Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878  The Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904  The Antiquities (Export Control) Act, 1947  The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 ( No 24 of 1958)  The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act 1972
  • 6.  Surveys ::  Photogrammetric survey from the air  Preparation of photogrammetric survey maps  Field survey  Preparation of the final drawings of the site  Comprehensive ground survey  Analytical studies
  • 7.  MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR SURVEYING OF RESTORATION ::  VIRTUAL MODEL TECHNOLOGY :: 1. Acoustical identification and evaluation Objective identification and evaluation (measurements, calculations) Subjective identification and evaluation (psycho-acoustical surveys) 2. Creation of the Virtual Environment Visual simulation (simulation of the spaces, simulation of the humans) Acoustical simulation Combined 3D real time simulation 3. Virtual revival and recovery
  • 8.  DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO AS A TOOL FOR THE RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS ::  Advantages of digital over manual processing lie in the possibility of measuring a very large number of points without fatigue and with a high level of productivity  A digital orthophoto is an orthographic photograph of objects which reproduces the photo-texture, colours or grey tones of the original photographs  It is derived from conventional perspective photographs by simple or differential rectification  Each pixel of the image is transformed by means of an orthogonal projection with scaling onto a horizontal plane which represent an element of or the entire digital surface model of the object; image resampling is carried out using different kinds of transformations
  • 9.  Orthophoto has the advantage of combining image metric quality with the possibility of obtaining information about the type of material, state of conservation and deterioration (for example, the presence of humidity, wall surface erosion, etc.)  DSM generated requires accurate editing in order to correct errors, sometimes particularly large, which are introduced by automatic matching  An accurate photogrammetric survey, by using digital processing techniques and with integrated manual-automatic vectorising procedures, can constitute a valid support for decision-making procedures and the operative stages of restoration the generation of digital  Orthophotos opens the way to new methods for approaching photogrammetric data, considered an open archive which can be accessed to directly carry out metric surveys
  • 10. Problems in Heritage Structures  HUMAN NEGLIGENCE – Unintentional  HUMAN VANDALISM – Intentional  Overloading of roof  Rising of ground level  Wrong Choice of stone  Structural Problems  Climatic Problems
  • 11. REPAIR PROBLEMS  The major repair problems ::
  • 12. METHODOLOGY  Physical & Chemical Problems :: Salt damage of weak pointing material Damage through salt Crystallization
  • 13.  Lack of compatibility between repair material and the existing fabric is often  Porosity and moisture transport characteristics are often more important than strength properties  Compatibility and retreatability important - conceptual as well as practical notions for the choice of repair materials  Example : bond between old & new material  Applied repair material should be such that to protect the adjacent material from premature decay  Also be durable taking into considerations physical & chemical behavior between old & new repair material
  • 14.  Examples of incompatibility :: Dense repointing leading to frost damage Subflorescence caused by water repellents
  • 15.  Repair Practices :: Raking out of joints mechanically Repointing Periodical chemical preservation of the Vimana (58.96 m tall)
  • 16. IMAGES OF CHEMICAL PRESERVATION
  • 17.  Restoration materials ::  Repointing practices such as raking (manual & machine) expansion groove, mortar joint section repointing  Mineral grout, polymer injection, anti staining coating and techniques  Portland cement mortars and grouts  lime cement mortars and grouts  Pozzolanic mortars and grouts  Epoxy resin mortars and grouts
  • 18.  Moisture Protection in Preservation and Restoration ::  Moisture protection often takes the back seat in most restoration projects  They are practically all non-drainable wall systems; every joint and transition should be perfectly watertight  Most of the exterior components are very porous; the result is not only interior water damage but also biological growth and mildew  The mortar joints are mostly responsible for preventing the water intrusion; they do not last forever  Our forefathers had a tendency to marry materials that do not want to be married; they joined masonry with wood without adequate transition joints
  • 19.  Addressing these challenges ::  The non-drainable wall systems-adopt one or two principles of moisture protection: barrier – drainage – diversion  Porous substrates-With the exception of marble and limestone, it is impossible to reduce the porosity by honing & clear water repellents such as silanes and siloxanes are a valid solution to this problem  Mortar joints- Use of different pointing methods and materials including parging is very much suitable for preventing water intrusion  Marriage of incompatible materials – Proper flashing and installing a proper transition joint between the different materials with a suitable sealant will solve this problem
  • 21. STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS (a) crushing of brackets (b) deterioration of Brick (c) moisture stains and biological colonization
  • 22.  STRUCTURAL AND SEISMIC WEAKENING OF THE MONUMENTS ::  The existence of joints affects the behaviour of the monument when subjected to seismic force  The discontinuity - articulations determine the distribution of stresses such as the size and distribution of seismic force  The articulated elements of the monument (columns, pilasters, walls) can oscillate or they can slide, thus either absorbing the force, or concentrating these stresses at the ends of the blocks so that the edges break  The basic principle of planning interventions on the architectural members is the restoration of the bearing capacity of each member so that it can withstand the greatest possible load  In case of overload, the joining elements are planned to absorb the seismic force without damage to the material
  • 23.  White cement and titanium reinforcements are used for the structural restoration of the stones  The reinforcements are threaded titanium rods which are inserted into holes in the material like marble mass and secured by an inorganic plaster made of white cement  The holes do not penetrate to the outer surfaces of the architectural members nor do they reach the coarsely worked interior surfaces, so that they are not visible  Fragments that do not belong together, that is that do not come from the same architectural member, are never joined together  Rusting and expansion of the iron elements causes a material like marble to break and architectural members to shift
  • 24. The way of construction of a marble wall
  • 25. Structural restoration drawing of a marble beam
  • 26.  The dimensioning of the bending members is done for the total action they are expected to undergo after their reconstruction  The actions include structural vertical loading and strong – seismic vertical and horizontal loads  Calculated also are the actions during transportation, storage and re- setting  In order to check the strength of the join, developed stresses in the place of the mended crack are compared with the allowable stresses of the materials, compressive strength of the marble and tensile strength of the reinforcement  The amount of reinforcement needed, using this method, is indeed very small (1-2%) and as a result there is little damage to the ancient material
  • 27. Joining of fragments of a beam by means of titanium bars
  • 28. Preparation for the joining of the beam fragments
  • 29. Binding of the beam fragments after the joining
  • 30.  Joining architectural members with titanium clamps and dowels ::  The elements used for joining (clamps and dowels/rods) are designed to begin with in accordance with the positions and measurements of the cuttings and sockets in the ancient members  In designing the clamps and dowels, the aim is that the weaker element of the join be the metal clamp or dowel, so that in case of great stress the join can withstand permanent deformation and, if deemed necessary, there can be a new intervention, limited to replacing the metal clamps/dowels  Double-T clamp is designed so as to have the greatest possible strength and ductility
  • 31. Different types of titanium clamps
  • 32.  Restoration materials ::  Coated steels with zinc coating, lead coating, resin coating  Stainless steels or austenetic steels with chromium,nicelium and molybdenum (Ch-No-Ni type )  Titanium bars – relatively light metal and exceptionally good corrosion resistance  Modern materials such as organic or inorganic fiber composite cables is a new promising approach  Retrofitting methods such as Timber, Iron and steel, Fiber reinforced plastic and Reinforced concrete may be selected  White cement base used as a glue for joining fragments
  • 33. TESTS CONDUCTED foundation pits boroscopic observations flat-jack testing coring
  • 35. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA  The Archaeological Survey of India was founded in 1861 under British colonial administration by Sir Alexander Cunningham  The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation  Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI  Major works done – Jantar Mantar,Humayun’s tomb, Mahabalipuram, Ajanta & Ellora, Bibi-ka-Maqbara , Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
  • 36. MAJOR ACTIVITIES  Conducting archaeological explorations and excavations;  Maintenance, conservation and preservation of protected monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance;  Chemical preservation of monuments and antiquarian remains;  Architectural survey of monuments;  Epigraphical and numismatic studies;  Setting up and re-organization of Site Museums;  Training in Archaeology;  Bringing out archaeological publications;  Archaeological expeditions outside India ;  Horticulture operation in and around ancient monuments and sites.  Implementation and regulation of - The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958;  The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, etc
  • 37. CASE STUDIES  MANSAGAR LAKE,JAL MAHAL ::  Jal Mahal is an 18th century pleasure palace located in the middle of the Mansagar Lake  Mansagar Lake is a 300 acre lake surrounded by the Nahargarh hills  The lake and the project area was an ecological disaster, with the dumping of untreated sewage from the city and poor upkeep  The Mahal is a five story palace with four floors submerged below water  Jain and Associates, a heritage restoration firm will restore the architectural beauty of the monument  A consultancy firm, Belt Collins, will develop the landscaping  gardens designed by leading American landscape architect Mitch Crites  A city museum will be developed within the Jal Mahal to be designed and conceptualized by architect Vibhuti Sachdev and historian Giles Tillotson
  • 38.  IMPLEMENTATION ::  Arrangement of funds for lake restoration :  Rejuvenation of the Lake cost about Rs. 50 crore  Jal Mahal Resorts have taken up this project to run it on a 99 year lease from the Rajasthan State government against a payment of Rs 2.52 crore per annum  Implementation of the lake restoration program :
  • 39.  Issues related to lake pollution ::  Inflow of waste water  Sewage Treatment Plant  Eutrophication  Siltation  Water balance of the lake  Lake water quality  Migratory birds  Restoration plan ::  Realignment drains  Desilting of lake  STP & wetland construction  Insitu bioremediation  Afforestation of lake  Nesting island  Checkdam
  • 40.  Procurement of Private Sector Developer :: Recreation Facilities provided- (i) Convention Centre and Art Gallery (ii) Multiplex and Entertainment Centre (iii) Craft Bazaar (iv) Arts and Craft Village (v) Resort Hotels (vi) Restaurants and Food Court (vii) Public park and gardens
  • 41.  Impact Assessment ::  Tourism Community  Improvement of ground water  Migratory birds  Indirect Beneficiaries
  • 42.  Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri, Orissa  Lord Jagannath temple at Puri was constructed in the first quarter of the 12th century  The monument is standing on a high platform connected with the ground level by flight of 22 steps (believed to be part of it’s foundation)  The height of temple is over 66 metres  It is only 2 Km away from the sea
  • 43.  The construction of Lord Jagannath Temple has been done in ashlar stone masonry with blocks of Khandolite (a local sand stone) laid in courses  For the construction, no mortar has been used instead the stones have been jointed with help of wrought iron U-shaped cramps or dowels and have been supported one over another resulting fascinating wall and corbelled roof, in the shape of frustum of pyramid  The geometrical arrangements of the stones perfectly match with the proven thesis of arches, where all the elements are primarily subjected to compressive forces  The wall thickness of the main temple is about 5.5 metre and the main temple has three floors, i.e. three corbelled roofs inside, which are being supported by huge wrought iron beams (about 25 cm. x 25 cm. solid section), spanning over 9 metre of length  The wall face externally has been plastered with 45 cm. thick coat of lime plaster, applied in nine distinct layers, while the inside wall has a thin coat of plaster up to a height of 3 metre
  • 44.  The maximum damage to the temple was caused by the rusting of these clamps  Apart from this the stone expanded due to seepage, generating pressure and causing chunks to fall  The outer faces which was covered with lime plaster (about 45cm) had failed to control saline induced deterioration and leakage besides putting extra pressure on the fabric of the temple and hiding the beautiful carvings  It was found that the condition of the inner walls and corbels required attention  Similarly, on the southern side of the temple major structural weakness were detected in the form of multiple cracks, missing architectural pieces etc
  • 45.  INTERVENTION SCHEMES :: I. Replacement of missing corbels as per the original II. Replacement of rusted wrought iron cramps by stainless steel cramps III. Sealing of the stone joints by a joint sealant comprising stone dust, cement, polymer (acrylic type) and non-shrink additives IV. Grouting the inner core with polymer modified, flexible, non-shrink, cement grouts V. Anchoring the loose cantilevers and corbel stones with help of 1.5m to 2.5m long, threaded stainless steel anchors, grouted with low viscous epoxy resins VI. Providing a stainless steel anchors, grouted with low viscous epoxy resins
  • 46. VII. Providing a stainless steel space frame, as a secondary defense to support the ground floor corbelled roof VIII. Lateral confinement of the entrance corner walls of each floor by stainless steel flats IX. Improvement to the existing ventilation system by drilling appropriate diameter holes through the ceiling of the first and second floor and provision of suitable ventilation duct in the top floor. X. Provision of temporary support to the ceiling of the first and second floor in the form of tubular scaffolding system to monitor corbel movements and any associated deformation in those floors XI. Desalination of the external fascia stones by paper pulp technique XII. Application of suitable chemical preservative to the fascia stones (in place of methyl metha acrylate) and suitable biocide treatments
  • 47.  The walls and corbels of the main temple had shown gross deformations with weakening of interconnections of structural elements, thereby endangering the very stability of these structures  This is primarily due to the ingress of rain water through the weathered joints into the thick dry stone walls thereby leading to the rusting of iron dowels / cramps  It has been proved with success that injection of polymeric grout into the pore structure of the masonry diminish the splitting forces and at the same time increases the adhesion between the stones  For structural stability and proper load distribution of the space frame and to prevent the water ingress into the core of the structure, it was felt necessary to take adequate conservation measures by sealing the joints, surface cracks and grouting the walls with a material which besides meeting the general requirement, would also be compatible with the structural behaviour of the Ashlar masonry structures
  • 48.  The materials used for the different grout mix formulations are : 1. Ordinary Portland cement 2. Modified Acrylic Resin Emulsion of Methyl Methacrylate with copolymer of 2-ethyl hexaacrylate and butyl acrylate & has 40% of solid resin content 3. A solid component material of expanding and plasticizing nature to help in low water / cement ratio, positive expansion for non shrink infilling and jointing 4. Admixtures based on selected lingosulphonates which is adsorbed on to the cement particles and acts as a dispersing agent and breaks down agglomerates of cement particles and enables the water in the mix to perform more efficiently
  • 49.  To evaluate the effect of polymer loadings in different proportion and other additives on the setting time and mechanical properties of Polymer Modified Cement (PMC) mortars, cement sand were added in the ratio of 1:3 by weight I. Cement II. Cement : Polymer :: 4:0.5 III. Cement : Polymer :: 4:1 IV. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive : 4:1:0.02 V. Cement : Polymer : Expanding grout additive : Plasticiser Cum Retarder :: 4:1:0.02:0.02
  • 50.  Seismic Safety Assessment of the Temple ::  The temple falls in seismic zone III according to the available quantitative seismicity maps  Instances of occurrence of earthquakes of magnitude around 5 on Richter scale have been recorded at about 100 to 150 kms South-east of Puri  The analytical study has been carried out by the Civil Engineering Department of Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur to check the stability of the block structure of the main temple against earth quake forces  The results of the analysis indicate that the temple structure will safely withstand forces developed due to seismic excitation up to a Richter scale of 5.0  Loosely joined stone blocks as in case of massive structures built in ashlar masonry are less vulnerable to earthquake induced vibrations than the solid structures, the grout materials using injection techniques will not solidify the structure fully & alter its structural behaviour completely thus, the use of PMC grouts was considered favourable
  • 52.  Treatment of The Distress Outer Fascia ::  Tubular scaffolding were made for treatment of outer faces  The treatment should be compatible with the basic stone in respect to chemical bond as also thermal expansion / contraction and moisture movement  The sealant or consolidant should not develop a tight and impervious surface skin preventing access of moisture this tends to develop pressure behind the treatment causing other kinds of damage caused by trapped moisture drawn to the surface by temperature gradient,the sealant should discourage ingress of fluid but encourage transmission of vapour  Silicones, urethanes, acrylates were tried for limited sealing of sandstone surfaces but the efficacy depends on the fluid vehicle, the emulsifier and the molecular size of the sealant  Equally important are the characteristics of wettability and response to UV radiation.  The treatment should permit trapped salt to escape
  • 55.  Period of repair : 1992-1993  Owner : Sri Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri  Repaired by : Archeological Survey of India and PWD Govt. of Orissa  Expert Committee: ASI, PWD, SERC, CBRI, IITK, RRL Bhubaneshwar
  • 56.  HUMAYUN’S TOMB ::  The first privately funded restoration was completed in March 2003 through the joint efforts of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the National Culture Fund  The objective of the project was to revitalize the gardens, pathways, fountains and water channels  The project’s implementation phase began when the Trust began work on the 12 hectare (30 acre) garden site in 2000  The tomb stands on a platform 120 metres square and reaches a height of 47 metres  Built of rubble masonry, the structure is the earliest example of the use of red sandstone and white marble
  • 57. Images of Humayun’s Tomb Repair Work
  • 58. The US$ 650,000 restoration project has featured:  Removal of 3,000 truckloads of earth (12,000 cubic metres)  Planting of 12 hectares (30 acres) of lawn  Re-setting and alignment of over 3,500 kilometres of path kerbstones  Preparation by some 60 stonecutters of 3,000 metres of handdressed red sandstone slabs (to edge the channels)  Creation of 128 ground-water recharge pits and the de-silting and creation of other wells as part of the largest rainwater-harvesting system scheme in any heritage site in India  Creation of a site exhibition  Planning and installation of a new water-circulation system for the walkway channels  Planting of 2,500 trees and plants, including mango, lemon, neem, hibiscus and jasmine cuttings, according to Mughal texts  Repair of fountains, wells and rainwater-harvesting systems  Provision of wheelchair access to a significant part of the site
  • 59. FORTHCOMING PROJECTS  TAJ MAHAL,AGRA ::  On June 21, National Culture Fund,Archaeological Survey of India and the Taj Group of Hotels signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for preservation and upgradation of Taj Mahal  The MoU was signed in the presence of Minister of Tourism and Culture, Mr. Ananth Kumar and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Mr. Rajnath Singh and Mr. N Ratan Tata, Chairman of Tata Sons Ltd  The group will be responsible for commissioning a professional agency to prepare a feasibility report on the conservation, beautification, restoration and upgradation of the monument and the surrounding areas
  • 60.  The tasks include ::  River water treatment  Development of the garden and ambience  Development of Mughal Garden  Restructuring of the existing museum  Conservation of the damaged stones at the Taj Mahal  Conservation and preservation of the back wall of the Taj Mahal  Conservation and preservation of the eastern side wall of the Taj Mahal  Restoration of the missing inlay pieces in the Taj Mahal and the main entrance of the monument  Conservation of the Mehman Khana and replacement of the missing fountains and muttakas  Replacement of the broken pieces of jali and other decorative items
  • 61.  PRATAPGAD FORT,MAHARASHTRA  The fort was built by Chhatrapati Shivaji between 1656 and 1658  The monument is in need of urgent repair and a few locals had taken the initiative to renovate it three years back  A renovation proposal spread over 4 years and costing Rs 13 crore was accepted by the government and Rs 1.31 crore wasimmediately released for its first phase  Rs 1.31 crore has been released for the first phase. Rs 4.37 crore will be released in the financial year 2011-12, Rs 3.56 crore in 2012-13 and the final installment of Rs 3.76 crore will be released in 2013-14  Work done till date :-  Lime mortar is used instead of cement mortar  Cleaning & waste disposal of trees,shrubs is being carried out  Plastic bottles & waste are collected and given for recycling regularly
  • 63. CONCLUSION  An "ancient monument" means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years  Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), State/Central bodies protect monuments that are of national importance  There are 3650 ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance, which are protected by ASI  The various techniques presented in this report to restore a monument to it’s original state prove to be very beneficial

Editor's Notes

  1. Under the guidance of ::Kumthekar M.B.Head of Civil Dept,Govt. College of Engg.,Karad.
  2. MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR SURVEYING OF RESTORATION ::
  3. Chemical Problems ::
  4. IMAGES OF CHEMICAL PRESERVATION
  5. Restoration materials ::
  6. Mechanical/Structural problems ::
  7. STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS
  8. TESTS CONDUCTED
  9. Inflow of waste water
  10. Images of Humayun’s Tomb Repair Work
  11. PRATAPGAD FORT,MAHARASHTRA
  12. THANK YOU !!!